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East India 
(famine) 



Great Britain. India 
Office 



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EAST IN D I A (FAMINE) 



PAPERS REGARDING THE FAMINE 

AND THE 

ELIEF OPERATIONS IN INDIA DURING 1900-1902 



VOL. I— BRITISH DISTRICTS. 

[In continuation of Cd. 205 of 1900.] 
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EAST INDIA (FAMINE). 



RELIEF OPERATIONS IN INDIA DURING 1900-1902 



VOL. I.-BR1T1SH DISTRICTS. 



fjrcscnteb to both Rousts of Parliament bo dommanb of Dis JKajestg. 



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or OLIVER & BOYD, Edinburgh ; 
or E. PONSONBY, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. 



* 4 



PAPERS REGARDING THE FAMINE 



AND THE 



[In continuation of Cd. 205 of 1900.] 




1902. 



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LIST OE PAPERS. 



PAG 



Telegrams to and from India from 7th July, 1900, to 16th J 
March, 1902. 

Reports and correspondence relating to famine and scarcity in the 2< 

Central Provinces. 



Bombay Presidency 14! 

the Punjab ... 27; 

Berar 34; 

Ajmer-Merwara ... 36' 

Madras Presidency 39 

the North- Western 42 
Provinces. 



Bengal 
Assam 



43 
44 



HX Statement made in the Legislative Council of the Governor- 46 
General on 19th October, 1900. 

Extract of Statement made in the Legislative Council of the 48 
Governor-General on 20th March, 1901. v 

TV. Correspondence relating to the labour Supply as affected by 48 
famine relief. 

"V. Instructions of the Government of India regarding advances 49 
for seed, cattle, and subsistence of cultivators. 

"VT Statistics. — Numbers of persons in receipt of relief at the end 49 
of each month from May, 1900, to December, 1901. 



Index 



54 



1O666—876—12/1901 Wt 26689 D & 8— fi 



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TELEGRAMS. 



{Extract.) From Secretary of State to Governor, Bombay, 7th July, 1900. 

I would like to learn causes of high mortality in Ahmedabad, Broach, 
Kaira, Panch Mahals, Surat, Khandesh, Nasik during March and April. 



From Governor, Bombay, "Kth July, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 30th June : — Famine- stricken dis- 
tricts : 10,320 cases of cholera, of which 6,502 fatal. Native States : cases of 
cholera, 9,700 ; deaths from cholera, 5,931. Total number of deaths among 
numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief, British Districts, 5,324, or 
three-fourths per mille. Rain moderate to slight in Bombay Deccan and 
Khandesh has resulted in a decrease in number on relief works. No rain 
worth mentioning has fallen in any of the districts of North Gujarat, where dis- 
tress is severe. Number on relief works increasing rapidly in consequence of 
drought : numbers on gratuitous relief increasing throughout affected distriots. 



From Viceroy, 9th July, 1900. 



Famine. Rainfall has been fairly general during past week in Bombay 
Deccan, Khandesh, Berar and -Central Provinces, Gangetic Plain and Punjab, 
but rainfall much below average in these tracts, excepting Southern Deccan. 
Little or no rain has fallen in Rajputana and Gujarat and Central India. 
Agricultural operations seriously impeded everywhere except Burma, Bengal,. 
Mysore, Madras. Distress and famine expenditure prolonged beyond expecta- 
tion. Outlook gloomy in Rajputana and Gujarat and Central India, where 
cattle, bought in anticipation of rains, are dying, and people much disheartened. 
Cholera mortality continues high in Bombay. May mortality there appalling. 
Calcutta Committee have -distributed 107 lakhs relief fund, virtually exhausting 
it. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 1,401,000; Punjab, 
164,000; Central Provinces, 1,913,000 ; Berar, 495,000; Ajmer-Merwara, 
151,000 ; Rajputana States, 523,000 ; Central India States, 165,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 469,000; Baroda, 92,000; North- Western Provinces, 3,000; 
Punjab Native States, 36,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 60,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 514,000 ; Madras, 15,000 ; Bengal, 12,000. Total, 6,013,000. 



From Viceroy, 12th July, 1900. 



Famine. Excellent rain has fallen in North- West Provinces and parts of 
Central India. Useful showers also in Rajputana and Deccan. 



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From Viceroy, llth July, 1900. 

Famine. Heavier and more general rain during week in Berar, Central 
Provinces, and Hyderabad. Rainlall good and sufficient for present needs in 
Rajputana. Central India, moderate ' general rain, and sowings commenced 
in parts. Fair rain has fallen in Bombay, Deccan and Khandesh. Monsoon 
heavy, Surat. Good falls reported in Kathiawar, Broach, Thana. Sufficient 
rain has not yet fallen in Punjab for dry land sowing. Notwithstanding 
that prospects have improved, no early diminution of relief possible. On 
the contrary, figures this week highest yet reported. Village relief and 
advances are replacing relief works.-- Condition surviving cattle deplorable 
in Western India. Cholera continues prevalent Bombay. Health returns for 
Central Provinces satisfactory. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — 
Bombay, 1,462,000; Punjab, 219,000 ; Central Provinces* 1,999,000<; Berar, 
516,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 151,000 ; Rajputana States, 527,000 ; Central India 
States. 155,000 ; Bombay Native States, 474,000 ; Barocla, report not received ; 
North-Western Provinces, 3,000 ; Punjab Native States, 40,000 ; Central 
Provinces Feudatory States, 60,000 ; Hyderabad, 509,000 ; Madras, 17,000 ; 
Bengal, 16,000. TotaI,-6-, 1 48 ,000 .- 



{Extract.) From Governor, Bombay, July 15 th t 1900. 

v Your telegram of 7th July. Condition of Gujarat most difficult 
i .circumstance of whole famine to account for. Measures taken for the relief of 
I the suffering l population in September last, as soon as distress manifested. 
; Owing to ample supply .of establishment then, relief organization exceptionally 
■ good. Average cost per unit relieved higher than for the rest of Bombay 
.Presidency,, 1 anna 8£ pies against 1 anna 6£ pies elsewhere, mainly on account 
of full; wages on relief . .works ordinarily earned. Deductions for wilful short 
work have only been 4£ per cent, in March last, 3£ per cent, in April last. 
There were then, on an avera g e, 84 works open for 10,185 square miles in 
Gujarat, against 125 works for 34,239 square miles in Bombay Deccan and 
Khandesh. In the former, there was one work, large or small, on an 
average within 6 J miles of every distressed village. Fortnightly medical 
. reports declare health and strength of continuous workers satisfactory. Thirty- 
five additional medical and other British officers employed, against 26 for the 
rest of Bombay Presidency. One additional Inspecting officer has been 
appointed to every 76 square miles Gujarat, against 131 in Bombay Deccan and 
Khandesh. Gratuitous rel ief is being given to aged and infirm persons freely 
' from first according to Famine Code. When cholera has stricken and dispersed 
large gangs of relief labourers, orders have been issued for dole to every person 
without the means of subsistence, till induced to return to work.. One ' poor- 
house to every 339 square miles in Gujarat against 1,389' square miles in 
Bombay Deccan and Khandesh. Kitchens on works open to incapables living 
within reach. Famine Commission recommendations regarding Hill Tribes 
ordered to be made applicable to Panch Mahals in August last. We have 
' approved every suggestion for extension of relief by Commissioner, who has the 
. , whole of 31 years' service in Gujarat. Necessary action, has been taken by him 
. generally in anticipation of sanction, lii some cases' even more liberal gratuitous 
relief has been directed by Governor of Bombay in, Council. Every request. for 
additional officers' promptly met. Only one-fourth land revenue collected. 
Failure of crops more or less co mplete in the g reater part of province, and 
deficient water-supply compelled Gujaratis to eat unaccustomed food and drink 
exceptionally impure brackish water, which probably produced bowel complaints 
and rendered people susceptible to cholera. Fever is prevalent, causing deaths 
of attendants on inmates of poor-houses, aggravated by heat very great .during 
1 three- months ending May. Abnormal increase in death-rate - also in large 
towns, where, excluding immigrants, proportion famme'-stricken- population not 
large. People excep tionally soft, generally d eficient in stamina, are quite 
unaccustomed to famine, unacquainted with famine methods. This led many to 
wander or get living such as they could, in preference to resorting tq Famine 



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Relief Works. Especially many Bhils and Kolis and other like .tribes could not 
be induced without difficulty to, resort to Famine Relief Works, or even poor-',' 
houses or kitchens, Where fed without demand for labour. When sent to poor- j 
houses or works they, being impatient of any discipline, persistently left works 
and kitchens and wandering nnti] reduced to hopeless condition. 

Gujarat so interlaced with Native States that large immigration from Native 
States into British territory is inevitable. Many immigrants from Native States 
were, on arrival at works, not expected to recover. Their deaths raise dispro- 
portionately rate 1 calculated on resident population,, 1891 Census, In Khapdesh 
and Nasik increase in mortality is due mainly to cholera epidemic. Deaths from , 
cholera many more than attributed to it by village officials. But large numbers 
of famished Bhils entered Western Khandesh, mainly from Native States to the . 
north of Satpudas and petty Dang and Mewas States. Notwithstanding liberal , 
treatment, deaths among them numerous. Specially reduced tasks prescribed,, 
for those able to work ; they, were exempted from penal wage, those too reduced ., 
for work being fed in kitchens. In Ahmednagar also immigration from Nizam's . 
dominions of persons far reduced contributed with cholera to high total death-.., 
rate' in April last. Prompt return to work of large numbers who had fled ,on.| 
outbreak of cholera, and enormous increase of demand for employment on, . 
works since panic has subsided disapprove allegations regarding harsh treat- 
ment, for which no foundation exists. In Panch Mahals, cholera killed many 
Native officers on relief works, besides workers, and with workers fled many 
surviving Native officers leaving conduct of relief operations, including collection 
and disposal of dead, for handful of English and Native officers to carry on. 



{Extract.) From Viceroy, 20th July, 1900. 

Famine. In Bombay, crops reported to be above average in Konkan, 
Carnatic, Eastern Deccan, and promising elsewhere south of Nerbudda. Noith 
of Nerbudda, in Gujarat, Kathiawar, Baroda, rainfall to date insufficient for ' 
sowings, excepting in few places. Food crops sowing is not possible after 1st 
August, cotton sowing is not possible after loth August. In Central Provinces 
there has been excellent rain lately ; sowings being actively prosecuted — if 
monsoon continues favourable in cultivated area, wjll fall short only in Nagpur 
and Chhattisgarh. Prospects encouraging, crops are promising in Berar. 
Sufficient rain has fallen in Hyderabad, but want of cattle felt. In Rajputana' 
rainfall has been generally sufficient for agricultural purposes, save in Jaisalmer, 
South-west Marwar, Sirohi, Bikaner ; Rajputana cropping will fall short owing 
to heavy mortality among cattle. In Central India present agricultural 
prospects generally satisfactory. Tn Punjab sufficient rain has fallen for. 
sowings, but -more rain is needed everywhere. In Mysore, some anxiety in 
places, but no distress is yet- re port e d . -la- M a dr as -sowings normal. Bengal 
and Burma prospects good. North- Western Provinces and Oudh have now 
received rain sufficient for sowings and no anxiety is felt at present. 



From Viceroy, 21st July, 1900. 

Famine. - Monsoon continued favourable in week, except in Gujarat, 
Kathiawar, Baroda, and Rajputana (West), where cultivation at a standstill 
for want of rain, and fodder almost unprocurable. Elsewhere autumn sowings 
being actively prosecuted and germinating well. Number on relief works and 
gratuitous relief rising in Gujarat, where relief of all kinds has been greatly 
expanded and establishment strengthened in view of the prolonged drought 
and low condition of the people ; cholera still prevails badly there and famine 
campaign indefinitely protracted. Kitchen relief general in Central Provinces 
to carry poorest classes on till crops ripen. Number of persons in receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 1,559,000 ; Punjab, 184,000 ; Central Provinces, 2,029,000 ; 
Berar, 537,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 141,000 ; Rajputana States, 47G,000 ; Central 
India States, 135,000 ; Bombay Native States, 480,000 ; Baroda, 101,000 ; 

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North- Western Provinces, 4,000 ; Punjab Native States, 42,000 ; Central 
Provinces Feudatory States, 61,000 ; Hyderabad, 500,000 ; Madras, 15,000 ; 
Bengal, 17,000. Total, 6,281,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 22nd July, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 14th July. Famine-stricken 
districts, 9,876 cases of cholera, of which there were fatal 6,322. Native 
States : — Cases of cholera, 9,740 ; deaths from cholera, 6,617. Total number 
of deaths among number on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 
6,435 or 4^ per mille. Rainfall, as yet quite inconsiderable, and causes 
serious anxiety in North Gujarat, where the numbers demanding relief have 
continued to increase. Cattle mortality increasing, and unless rain falls within 
a short time and in sufficient quantities to admit of the ordinary cultivation 
being carried on, the consequences cannot fail to be very serious. Rainfall has 
been generally sufficient for agricultural purposes in the remainder of the 
affected tracts. 



(Extract.) From Governor, Bombay, 25/A July, 1900. 

Rainfall has been generally sufficient for agricultural purposes in Surat and 
Southern Gujarat States. Some rain has fallen in parts of Broach, where cotton 
sowings being actively prosecuted, but more rain is urgently required in Kaira, 
Ahmedabad, Panch Mahals. Rain not sufficient for agricultural purposes, 
excepting in a few places. Two and a half inches of rain have fallen since 
vesterday, Godra, Panch Mahals ; one in several parts of Ahmedabad ; over 
half-inch in parts Kaira ; rain sufficient in parts Baroda adjoining Surat ; no 
rain anywhere in Okhamandal Division, Baroda ; rainfall to date insufficient in 
the remainder of Baroda, where extensive failure of crops inevitable unless good 
rain falls in a few days. No rain worth mentioning has fallen in any of the 
districts of Kathiawar, excepting small area south-east, where also more rain is 
urgently wanted. Cultivation at a standstill for want of rain in almost the 
whole province. No signs of rain. Season is far advanced for sowing jowar, 
staple cereal, but bajri can be still mostly substituted for jowar : still time for 
cotton. Cattle dying from starvation ; scarcity of water increasing day by day. 
Good falls of rain during the past week where most needed in affected area, 
Bombay Deccan and Khandesh. In those tracts agricultural prospects have 
greatly improved. Statistics of mortality in June show death-rate has decreased 
in Gujarat nearly one-half, as compared with May. 



From Viceroy 2Sth July, 1900. 



Famine Considerable anxiety is felt owing- to weakness of monsoon. 
Situation is serious and critical in Gujarat, Baroda, Rajputana (West), which 
are unsown, and no fodder of any description available. In south-western 
Punjab sown crops are in imminent danger because rains continue to hold off, 
fodder is very scarce, and cattle dying. In Central Provinces, Berar, Hyderabad, 
good crops will be secured if monsoon improves, but not otherwise. Latest 
reports show death-rate in Central Provinces not much in excess of the normal 
death-rate. In Gujarat conditions continue very unfavourable to health, though 
one-fourth of the inhabitants are on State relief. Number of persons in receipt 
of relief : -Bombay, 1,540,000 ; Punjab, 177,000; Central Provinces, 2,155,000 ; 
Berar, 523,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 1 1 5,000 ; Rajputana States, 422,000 ; Central 
India States, 120.000; Bombay Native States, 477,000; Baroda, 104,000; 
North- Western Provinces, 3,000; Punjab Native States, 44,000; Central 
Provinces Feudatory States, 58,000 ; Hyderabad, 500,000 ; Madras, 12,000 ; 
Bengal. 16,000. Total. (>,26ti,000. Bombay figures incomplete. 



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Fran. Governor, Bombay, 29$ July, 1 900. 

Following are figures for week ending 2lst July. Famine-sticken districts, 
8,607 cases of cholera, of which there were fatal 5,703. Native States, cases of 
cholera 8,246 ; deaths from cholera 5,710. Total number of deaths among 
number on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 6,753 or 4$ per 
mille. Good falls of rain during past week throughout North Gujarat, Kathiawar, 
favourable so far for agricultural operations. Rainfall good and prospects 
encouraging in the remainder of the affected tracts. Numbers on relief works 
decreasing. Numbers on gratuitous relief increasing. 



From Viceroy, 7 th August, 1900. 

Famine. Very decided improvement in last 10 days through sudden 
opportune renewed advance of the monsoon. The rain which has fallen is 
ample for present agricultural requirements in Gujarat, also in the .greater part 
of Rajputana and Central India. Sowings being actively prosecuted so for as 
scarcity of plough bullocks permits. If present favourable conditions continue, 
considerable autumn crops will be secured and tension will relax. Number of 
persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 1,626,000 ; Punjab, 179,000; Central 
Provinces, 2,234,000 ; Berar, 517,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 106,000 ; Rajputana 
States, 384,000 ; Central India States, 122,000 ; Bombay Native States, 
470,000 ; Baroda, 112,000 ; North-Western Provinces, 1,000 ; Punjab Native 
States, 46,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 52,000 ; Hyderabad, 
476,000 ; Madras, 12,000 ; Bengal, 19,000. Total, 6,356,000. Bombay 
returns of number on relief works incomplete. 



From Governor, Bombay, 12th August, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 4th August. Famine-stricken 
districts : — 6,545 cases of cholera, of which 4,'264 were fatal. Native States : 
cases of cholera, 5,414 ; deaths from cholera, 3,290. Total number of deaths 
among numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 7,041, 
or 4£ per mille. Cultivation active and sowings going forward generally in 
North Gujerat and Kathiawar, where plentiful rain has fallen. Crop prospects 
continue favourable in the remainder of the affected tracts. Numbers on relief 
works decreasing, numbers on gratuitous relief increasing. 



From Viceroy, 14$ August, 1900. 

Famine. The favourable conditions reported last week continue, and rain 
is now falling generally throughout the country. Total number supported in 
all famine-stricken provinces still large owing to backwardness of crops, restric- 
ted demand for labour in the fields, and high prices. Number of persons in 
receipt of relief : — Bombay, 1,586,000 ; Punjab, 169,000; Central Provinces, 
2,270,000 ; Berar, 472,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 95,000 ; Rajputana States, 
324,000 ; Central India States, 105,000 ; Bombay Native States, 421.000 ; 
Baroda, 122,000 ; North- Western Provinces, 2,000 ; Punjab Native States, 
42,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 51,000 ; Hyderabad, 460,000 ; 
Madras, 8,000 ; Bengal, 22,000. Total, 6,149.000. Bombay and Bengal 
returns of number on relief works incomplete. 



From Viceroy, 20th Augtist, 1900. 

Famine. Rainfall heavy and general has continued in most affected tracts. 
Crops promise well in Central Provinces and Berar, and sowings being actively 



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frosecuted elsewhere, and general situation improved greatly. In Central 
'rovinces increase in number on gratuitous relief due to free kitchens, necessity 
for, which will shortly disappear. Prices very high everywhere still, indicating 
depleted . stocks or lingering apprehensions. Cholera prevalent throughout 
Hyderabad and in Bombay. Numbers on relief: — Bombay, 1,476,000; 
Funjab, 150,000 ; Central Provinces, 2,309,000 ; Berar, 324,000 ; Ajmer- 
Merwara, 90,000 ; Rajputana States. 244,000 ; Central India States, 90,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 362,000 ; Baroda, 88,000 ; North-Western Provinces, 
1,000 ; Punjab Native States, 33,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 
48,000 ; Hyderabad, 439,000 ; Madras, 7,000 ; Bengal, 27,000. Total, 
5,688,000. Bombay returns incomplete. 



From Governor, Bombay, 2$ih August, 1900. 

.' Following are figures for week ending 18th August :-r-Famine-stricken 
districts, 4,206 cases of cholera, of which 3,025 were fatal. Native States, cases 
of cholera, 5,800 ; deaths from cholera 3,873. Total number of deaths among 
number, on relief works and gratuitous relief. British districts, 4,964, or 3$ per 
mille. Rainfall good and prospects encouraging in affected area. Numbers, 
relieved are diminishing. 



From Viceroy, 28th August, 1900. 

Famine. Good rain continues. Heavy rain in Behar, and North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh, which has materially benefited crops. In west coast 
districts and central tracts, where break now desired, fell has been comparatively 
light. So far crop prospects excellent in nearly all affected tracts, though 
acreage will be below normal, and harvest late. Cholera still prevails in many 
districts, and season unhealthy. Free kitchen relief in Central Provinces will 
now rapidly contract, as agricultural labour is in demand. Elsewhere relief 
operations steadily decreasing. Number on relief : — Bombay, 1,365,000 ; 
Punjab, 124,000; Central Provinces, 2,241,000; Berar, 309,000; Ajmer- 
Merwara, 75,000 ; Rajputana States, 226,000 ; Central India States, 90,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 256,000 ; Baroda, 77,000 ; North- Western Provinces, 
* 1,000 ; Punjab Native States, 31,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, . 
44,000 ; Hyderabad, 429,000 ; Madras, 6,000 ; Bengal, 20,000. Total 
5,294,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 2nd September, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ended 25th August, famine-stricken 
districts : 3,024 cases of cholera, of which 2,337 were fatal. Native States, cases 
of cholera 4,431, deaths from cholera 2,985. Total number of deaths among 
numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief in British districts 4,984, or 
3£ per mille. Rain moderate to slight ; agricultural prospects continue favour- 
able, except in Bijapur, where crops are suffering for want of rain. Numbers 
on relief works steadily decreasing, numbers on gratuitous relief increasing. 



From Viceroy, 4th September, 1900. 



Famine. The rainfall has been comparatively^ light during the week, and 
more rain is wanted in p*arts of Hyderabad and Bombay, and Madras 
(Central), also in Behar and , North- Western Provinces (Last). General 

Jrospects continue to be on /the whole fevourable, especially in Central 
Winces, Rajputana, and JGujaratBo Mortality much reduced in Bombay 
Presidency (including Sinp). Nf i Jers in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 



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1,280,000 ; Pttnjab, 100,000 ; Central. Provinces, 2,16*5,000 v ; Berar, 231,000 ; 

Ajmer-Merwara, 68,000 ; Rajputana States, 186,000 ; Central India States, 
'■88,000 ; l Bombay Native States, 206,000 ; 'Baroda,' 69,000 ; -North- Western 

-Provinces, 1,000; Punjab Native States, 25,000 j Central Provinces FeudatoW 
-States, 43,000 ; Hyderabad, 400,000 ; Madras, 4,000 ; Bengal, 25,000.' Total 

4,891,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, $th September, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ended 1st September. Famine-stricken 
districts, 2,000 cases of cholera of which 1,434 were fetal. Native States, cases 
of cholera 2,970, deaths from cholera 1,930. Total number of deaths among 
• numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 4,021 or 3$ per 
mille. Rainfall has been light in most places. : More rain 'is now wanted in 
> parts of Bombay Deccan, and Khandesh. Number of famine relief recipients 
: shows decrease. ... 



From Viceroy, 11th September, 1900. 

Famine. Rain beneficial to crops has continued throughout past week in 
affected tracts, and prospects of autumn crops continue good. In Madras, 
Grangetic Plain, and Central Bengal, good rain has relieved all present anxiety 
as regards autumn crops, and promises well for winter sowings. Steady fall in 
relief numbers may be expected. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — 
Bombay, 1,182,000 ; Punjab, 58,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,958,000 ; Berar, 
178,000; Ajmer-Merwara, 62,000; Rajputana States, 144,000; Central India 
States, 77,000 ; Bombay Native States, 163,000 ; Baroda, 64,000 ; North- 
Western Provinces, 2,000 ; Punjab Native States, 22,000 ; Central Provinces 
Feudatory States, 38,000 ; Hyderabad, 357,000 ; Madras, 5,000 ; Bengal, 
24,000. Total, 4,334,000. 



From Viceroy, 17th September, 1900. 

Famine. Reports show good general rainfall during week, especially in 
Grangetic Plain and Punjab, Madras, Central India, Rajputana. General 
prospects continue good. Numbers relieved are diminishing, and food-grain 

? rices easier. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 1,132,000; 
'unjab, 36,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,756,000 ; Berar, 189,000 ; Ajmer- 
Merwara, 54,000 ; Rajputana States, 111,000 ; Central India States, 60,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 142,000 ; Baroda, 53,000 ; North- Western Provinces, 
1,000 ; Punjab Native States, 20,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 
34,000; Hyderabad, 279,000; Madras, 4,000; Bengal, 13,000. Total, 
3,884,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, ISth September, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 8th September : — Famine-stricken 
districts: 1,401 cases of cholera, of which 991 were fetal. Native States: 
eases of cholera, 2,306 ; deaths from cholera, 1,473. Total number of deaths 
among number on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 3,902, or 
3^ per mille. Rain moderate to slight. Crops are thriving except in parts of 
Deccan and Kamatak, where good fell of rain urgently wanted. Numbers on 
works have decreased. Numbers on gratuitous relief increasing. A 



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From Governor, Bombay, 2'6rd September, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 15th September : — Famine-stricken 
districts, 702 cases ot cholera, of which 497 were fatal. Native States : — Cases 
of cholera, 1,427 ; deaths from cholera, 1,028. Total number of deaths among 
numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief, British districts, 3,589, or <5 

Gir mille. Rain has continued to fall in light showers over affected area, 
ore rain urgently wanted throughout Bombay, Deccan, and Ehandesh. 



From Viceroy, 21th September, 1900. 



Famine. Good general rainfall continues. Rainfall insufficient in few 
limited areas only in Bombay. Elsewhere fine weather generally wanted for 
ripening autumn and sowing winter crops. A further reduction in number 
on relief works. Prices falling slowly everywhere. On relief : Bombay, 
1,074,000; Punjab, 32,000; Central Provinces, 1,597,000; Berar, 195,000; 
Ajmer-Merwara, 39,000 ; Rajputana States, 83,000 ; Central India States, 
53,000; Bombay Native Stater,- 122,000 ; Baroda, 49,000; North- Western 
Provinces, 1,000 ; Punjab Native States, 18,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory 
States, 31.000 ; Hyderabad, 231,000 ; Madras, 4,000 ; Bengal, 8,000. Total, 
3,537,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 30th September, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ended 22nd September : — Famine-stricken 
districts : 423 cases of cholera, of which 305 were fatal. Native States : cases 
of cholera, 651 ; deaths from cholera, 433. Total number of deaths among 
numbers on relief works or gratuitous relief, British districts,. 3,292, or Sfo per 
mille. Rain has been absent, or light and scattered, over the greater part of 
affected area. Crops are now in urgent need of rain in parts. Numbers 
relieved are diminishing. 



From Viceroy, '3rd October, 1900. 



• Famine. Rainfall exceptionally heavy during^ the week in Central Bengal 
and Behar. General rain also in Northern India, Central Provinces, Rajputana. 
Rain has been very beneficial on the whole, as securing satisfactory winter 
sowings. Prospects good, except in limited areas, Bombay Deccan. Number 
of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 980,000 ; Punjab, 29,000 ; Central 
Provinces, 1,446,000 ; Berar, 192,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 28,000 ; Rajputana 
States, 72,000 ; Central India States, 48,000 ; Bombay Native States, 106,000 ; 
Baroda, 50,000 ; North-Western Provinces, relief discontinued ; Punjab Native 
States, 12,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 28,000 ; Hyderabad, 
169,000 ; Madras, 3,000 ; Bengal, relief discontinued. Total, 3,163,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 7th October, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 29th September : — Famine-stricken 
districts : 337 cases of cholera, of which there were fatal 215. . Native States : 
cases of cholera, 294 ; deaths from cholera, 223. Total number of deaths 
among number on relief works and gratuitous relief in British districts, 2,411, 
or per mille. Rain, moderate to slight. Good fall of rain ungently wanted 
in parts of affected area. Crops withered in parts of Karnatak, Sholapur, 
Ahmednagar. Number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease. , 



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From Viceroy, Sth October, 1900. 

Famine. Condition of autumn crops is excellent, except in part of 
Bombay Deccan, where more rain is needed for ploughing, and sowings being 
actively prosecuted for winter crops and famine conditions are disappearing. 
Prices still high, but falling. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — 
Bombay, 883,000 ; Punjab, 24,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,252,000 ; Berar, 
176,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 20,000 ; Rajputana States, 55,000 ; Central India 
States, 31,000 ; Bombay Native States, 92,000 ; Baroda, 44,000 ; Punjab 
Native States, 10,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 25,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 132,000 ; Madras, 2,000. Total, 2,746,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, lSth October, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 6th October. Famine-stricken 
districts : — 252 cases of cholera, of which there were fatal, 158. Native 
States: — cases of cholera, 110; deaths from cholera, 65. Nowhere cholera in 
epidemic form. Total number of deaths among number on relief works and 
gratuitous relief, British districts, 1 ,857 or 2$ per mille. Rain has been absent 
or light and scattered over the greater part of the affected area. Crops on 
unirrigated lands are suffering for want of rain, which is urgently needed in 
parts of Deccan and Karnatak, where winter crops cultivation at a standstill 
for want of rain. 



From Viceroy, 16th October, 1900. 

Famine. Disquieting reports received from Bombay. Situation described 
as serious in Eastern Deccan, Bijapur, and parts Belgaum and Dharwar. If 
rain does not come with north-east monsoon, area of winter crops there will be 
small, and there will be considerable distress in parts. Elsewhere in India 
harvest prospect excellent, and famine conditions are disappearing. Number of 
persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 769,000; Punjab, 6,000; Central 
Provinces, 1,026,000 ; Berar, 168,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 3,000 ; Rajputana 
States, 44,000 ; Central India States, 29,000 ; Bombay Native States, 75,000 ; 
Baroda, 43,000 ; Punjab Native States, 4,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory 
States, 21,000 ; Hyderabad, 103,000 ; Madras, 1,000. Total, 2,292,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 21st October, 1900. 

Following are figures for week ending 13th October : — Famine-stricken 
districts : 183 cases of cholera, of which 108 were fatal. Only a few scattered 
cases of cholera in Native States. Total number of deaths among numbers on 
relief works and gratuitous relief, British Districts, 1,599, or 2£ per mille. Na 
rain except light showers in parts of Karnatak. Rain i» much needed in all 
districts. Numbers on relief diminishing. 



From Viceroy, 23rd October, 1900. 

Famine. Rain is still wanted urgently in part of Bombay Deccan and 
Hyderabad for standing crops and spring cultivation. More rain would be 
beneficial also in Gujarat and Baroda. Elsewhere prospects generally good. 
Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 625,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 800,000 ; Berar, 159,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, 2,000 ; 
Rajputana States, 24,000 ; Central India States, 23,000 ; Bombay Native 

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States, 65,000 ; Baroda, 38,000 ; Punjab Native States, 4,000 ; Central 
Provinces Feudatory States, 15,000 ; Hyderabad, 73,000 ; Madras, relief 
discontinued. Total, 1,831,000. 



Following are figures for week ending 20th October : — Famine-stricken 
districts : 107 cases of cholera, of which 76 were fatal. Total number of deaths 
among number on relief works and gratuitous relief, 1,312, or 2f per mille. 
Moderate rain doing appreciable good has fallen in Karnatak ; elsewhere good 
fall of rain urgently wanted. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 499,000 ; 
Punjab, relief discontinued ; Central Provinces, 625,000 ; Berar, 123,000 ; 
Ajmer-Merwara, 1,000 ; Rajputana States, 11,000 ; Central India States, 17,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 50,000 ; Baroda, 31,000 ; Punjab Native States, 2,000 ; 
Central Provinces Feudatory States, 15,000 ; Hyderabad, 50,000. Total 
1,422,000. 



Following are figures for week ended 27th October : — Famine-stricken 
districts : 106 cases of cholera, of which 60 were fatal. Total number of deaths 
among numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief, 909, or 2\ per mille. No 
rain except light showers in four districts. Rain is much needed in all 
districts. Numbers relieved are diminishing. 



Famine. Rain is much wanted in parts of Bombay Presidency, Baroda, 
and Nizam's Dominions, winter crops' sowings being impeded. Otherwise 
prospects generally good. Prices falling slowly and famine conditions dis- 
appearing. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 407,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 441,000 ; Berar, 111,000 ; Ajmer-Merwara, relief dis- 
continued ; Rajputana Native States, 8,000 ; Central India Native States, 
12,000 ; Bombay Native States, 33,000 ; Baroda, 26,000 ; Punjab Native 
States, 3,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 11,000 ; Hyderabad, 25,000. 
Total, 1,077,000. 



Famine. Numbers declining rapidly in Central Provinces, where relief 
operations will be brought to an end shortly ; less rapidly in Bombay, where 
relief must last to December and later, should no rain fall. Number of 
persons in receipti of relief : — Bombay, 337,000 ; Central Provinces, 269,000 ; 
Berar, 82,000 ; Rajputana Native States, 7,000 ; Central India Native States, 
9,000; Bombay Native States, 26,000; Baroda, 24,000; Punjab Native 
States, relief discontinued ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 9,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 14,000. Total, 777,000. 



From Governor, Bombay, 28$ October, 1900. 



From Viceroy, 29th October, 1900. 



From Governor, Bombay, 4th November, 1900. 



From Viceroy, 6th November, 1900. 



From Viceroy, 12th November, 1900. 



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From Viceroy, 19th November, 1900. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 287,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 146,000 ; Berar, 53,000 ; Rajputana Native States, 5,000 ; 
Central India Native States, 6,000 ; Bombay Native States, 25,000 ; Baroda, 
19,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 5,000 ; Hyderabad, 9,000. 
Total, 555,000. 



From Viceroy, 25th November, 1900. 



Famine. Rain is still wanted in Bombay, Karnatak, Deccan, and Gujarat. 
Otherwise prospects are satisfactory. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — 
Bombay, 257,000 ; Central Pr6vinces, 76,000 ; Berar, 28,000 ; Rajputana 
Native States, 5,000 ; Central India Native States, 3,000 ; Bombay Native 
States, 27,000 ; Baroda, 16,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, 2,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 6,000. Total 420,000. 



From Viceroy, 3rd Dechnber, 1900. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 239,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 50,000 ; Berar, 12,000 ; Rajputana Native States, 5,000 ; 
Central India Native States, 2,000 ; Bombay Native States, 12,000 ; Baroda, 
14,000 ; Central Provinces Feudatory States, relief discontinued ; Hyderabad, 
€,000. Total, 340,000. 



From Viceroy, 18th December, 1900. 



Famine. Bombay, 203,000 ; Central Provinces, 9,000 ; Berar relief dis- 
continued ; Rajputana, 1,000 ; Bombay Native States, 16,000; Baroda, 11,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 4,000. Total, 244,000. 



From Viceroy, 26th December, 1900. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 190,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 5,000 ; Rajputana, 1,000 ; Bombay! Native States, 16,000 ; 
Baroda, 11,000 ; Hyderabad, 4,000. Total, 227,000. 



From Viceroy, 10th December, 1900. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 216,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 25,000 ; Berar, 4,000 ; Rajputana Native States. 5.000 ; 
Central India Native States, relief discontinued ; Bombay Native States. ] 7.000 : 
Baroda, 11,000 ; Hyderabad, 4,000. Total, 282,000. 



From Viceroy, 2nd January, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 1 o 7,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 5,000 ; Rajputana, 1,000 ; Bombay Native States, 16,000 ; 
Baroda, 13,000 ; Hyderabad, 3,000. Total, 225,000. 



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From Viceroy, 8th January, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 187,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 4,000 ; Rajputana, 1,000 ; Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; 
Baroda, 13,000 ; Hyderabad, 3,000. Total, 225,000. 



From Viceroy, \hth January, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 195,000 ; 
Central Provinces, relief discontinued" ; Rajputana, relief discontinued ; 
Bombay Native States, 18,000 ; Baroda, 14,000 ; Hyderabad, 3,000 ; Madras, 
1,000. Total, 231,000. ,'' 



From Viceroy, 24th January, 1901. 



Famine. Winter rainfall unusually good in Upper India, Rajputana, Central 
Provinces, Central India, and agricultural prospects very favourable. But in 
Gujerat, Deccan, and Karnatak districts of Bombay, through early cessation of 
monsoon in September and absence of rain, crop- -prospects bad, and serious 
distress expected between now and August. Relief measures will be required, 
and expenditure estimated at one crore during next financial year, besides large 
loss o£ revenue. Number on relief works not increasing rapidly at present, but 
will when harvest completed. Affected area also includes Baroda, and part of 
Hyderabad. Prices continue high in the affected tracts, but should drop when 
Upper India harvest is secured. • Number of persons in receipt of relief : — 
Bombay, 196,000 ; Bombay Native States, 19,000 ; Baroda, 13,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 3,000 ; Madras, 2,000. Total, 233,000. 



From Viceroy, 31s I January, .1901. 



Famine. Slight rain has fallen in parts of Bombay Presidency, including 
Sind, benefiting late spring crops, but prospects not materially improved. 
Scarcity deepening into famine anticipated in considerable portion of 
Hyderabad. Crop prospects continue favourable in Punjab, Upper and 
Central India. Good wheat harvest expected. Number of persons in receipt 
of relief :— Bombay, 183,000 ; Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 13,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 3,000 ; Madras, 3,000. Total, 219,000. 



From Viceroy, 5th February, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 175,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 15,000 ; Baroda, 13,000 ; Hyderabad, nil ; Madras, 3,000. 
Total, 206,000. 



From Viceroy, 14th February, 1901. 



Famine. Number on relief works and gratuitous relief show little increase, 
but greater pressure is expected in affected area after reaping of scanty harvests 
there. In Upper and Central India some damage by storm and damp has been 
done to crops which promised to be very good. This has checked the decline 
in prices. . Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 176,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 15,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 3,000 ; 
Central India States, 1,000. Total, 214,000. 



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From Viceroy, \%th February, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 171,000; 
Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 16,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
4,000 ; Central India States, 1,000. Total, 211,000. 



From Viceroy, 2Qth February, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 181,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 16,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
3,000 ; Central India States, 1,000. .Total, 220,000. 



From Viceroy, 6th March, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 177,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 17,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
3,000 ; Central India States, 2,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,000. Total, 219,000. 



From Viceroy, 12th March, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 178,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 18,000 ; Baroda, 1 7,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
4,000 ; Central India States, 3,000 ; Central Provinces, relief discontinued. 
Total, 222,000. 



From Viceroy, ISth Mar^h, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 177,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 17,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
4,000 ; Central India States, 2,000. Total, 219,000. 



From Viceroy, 25th March, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 180,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 16,000 ; Baroda, 10,000 ; Hyderabad, 2,000 ; Madras, 
4,000 ; Central India States, 3,000. Total, 215,000. 



From Viceroy, 2nd April, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 184,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 17,000 ; Baroda, 14,000 ; Hyderabad, no report ; 
Madras, 4,000 ; Central India States, 3,000. Total, 222,000. 



From Viceroy, dth April, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 207,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 27,000 ; Baroda, 15,000 ; Hyderabad, report not 
received ; Madras, 5,000 ; Central India States, 4,000. Total, 258,000. 



From Viceroy, With April, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 222,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 30,000 ; Baroda, 16,000 ; Hyderabad, 14,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 4,000. Total, 291,000. 



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From Viceroy, 22nd April, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 254,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 27,000 ; Baroda, 18,000 ; Hyderabad, 17,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 4,000. Total, 325,000. 



From Viceroy, 29th April, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 278,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 26,000 ; Baroda, 19.000 ; Hyderabad, 19,000"; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 4,000. Total, 351,000. 



From Viceroy, 6th May, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 293,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 29,000 ; Baroda, 20,000 ; Hyderabad, 25,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 5,000. Total, 377,000. 



From Viceroy, 20th May, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 344,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 29,000; Baroda, 21,000 ; Hyderabad, 14,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 4,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,000. Total, 
418,000. 



From Viceroy, 28th May, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 353,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 41,000 ; Baroda, 26,000 ; Hyderabad, 14,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 6,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,000. Total, 
446,000. 



from Viceroy, 3rd June, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 366,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 33,000 ; Baroda, 26,000 ; Hyderabad, 23,000 ; Madras, 
5,000 ; Central India States, 5,000 ; Central Provinces, 2,000. Total, 
460,000. 



From Viceroy, \2th June, 1901. 

Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 384,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 43,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, 19,000 ; Madras, 
5,000; Central India States, 4,000; Central Provinces, 2,000.' Total, 484,000. 

Distress in Bombay has been much less than was apprehended. Prices 
fell during the spring, and though now prices show a tendency to rise they are 
50 per cent, below those of May, 1900. In Gujarat grain everywhere obtain- 
able at 16 seers per rupee, and in the Deccan and southern districts at 12 or 13 
seers. In Deccan percentage of population on relief is : — Ahmednagar, 13 per 
cent. ; Sholapur, 10 ; Bijapur, Poona, 6 ; elsewhere small. In Gujarat : — 
Kaira, Panch Mahals, 6 ; Abxaedabad, 4 + .elsewhere . small. Total number on 



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relief works and gratuitous relief only 40 per cent, of that anticipated, and 
estimate of famine expenditure this year reduced by Bombay from over one 
crore to Rs. 34,50,000. We have been in correspondence with Bombay to 
ensure that care is taken to restrict relief to the really necessitous. With 
present range of prices, number on relief works may be expected to decline 
rapidly if monsoon normal and meteorological forecast is justified. 



From Viceroy, 20th June, 1901. 



Famine. North-west monsoon has not burst, but heavy rain has fallen at 
Bijapur and Sholapur, and preparations for monsoon crops progressing generally 
in Bombay. No material change in prices. Number of persons in receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 400,000 ; Bombay Native States, 46,000 ; Baroda, 29,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 19,000 ; Central India States, 4,000 ; Madras, 5,000 ; Central 
Provinces, 3,000. Total, 506,000. 



From Viceroy, 28th June, 1901. 



Famine. The numbers demanding relief have continued to increase in 
Bombay, and may be expected to rise till heavy and good general rainfall 
enables the people to commence cultivation and sowing. Except on the coast, 
rainfall light and scattered, and generally insufficient for the purpose of 
agriculture. Prices risen in the Deccan districts, but are not yet so high as in 
the famine of 1899-1900. Of headquarters of districts grain is dearest at 
Ahmednagar, where price is 11 seers per rupee. Highest price anywhere is 
10 seers per rupee. Tbe health and condition of the people are fairly good and 
exhibit no marked deterioration. Number of persons in receipt of relief on 
22nd June :— Bombay, 430,000 ; Bombay Native States, 46,000 ; Baroda, 
30,000 ; Hyderabad, 18,000 ; Madras, 5,000 ; Central India States, 1,000 ; 
Central Provinces, 1,000. Total, 531,000. 



From Viceroy, 6th July, 1901. 



Famine. Rainfall fairly heavy and general and unsteady on both coasts ; 
but in Bombay Deccan, Central Provinces, Eastern Bengal, Burma, Assam, 
rainfall has been generally sufficient for agricultural purposes. In Gujarat 
rainfall up to date less than one inch, and more rain is urgently needed. Fall 
light and irregular in Western Bengal, Orissa, and Chota Nagpur. In North- 
West Provinces light scattered showers only. Punjab practically rainless. 
Prices do not indicate much present anxiety. Prices stationary in Punjab, 
North- West Provinces, Central Provinces ; fluctuating in both directions in 
Bengal ; rising in Madras, where, however, on the whole, prospects are fair. 
In Bombay they are still 100 per cent, below last year pitch in Gujarat and 
Khandesh, and are now here less than 25 per cent, below. Highest prices 
are Poona 10, Ahmednagar 11 seers per rupee. Bombay death-rate below 
normal, being less than two per thousand in six districts, and rising to four per 
thousand in Dharwar only. Physical condition of the people reported to be 

fenerally satisfactory in distressed area, except two taluks, Ahmednagar. 
lumber on relief works and gratuitous relief in Bombay has risen considerably. 
Number of persons in receipt of relief for the week ending 29th June last : — 
Bombay, 472,000 ; Bombay Native States, 53,000 ; Baroda, 31,000 ; Hydera- 
bad, 16,000 ; Madras, 4,000 ; Central India States, 7,000 ; Central Provinces, 
2,000. Total, 585,000. 



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From Viceroy, \Zth July, 1901. 

Famine. Prospects much improved. Sufficient rain has fallen generally 
for sowings except in the case of Punjab and Gujarat. In part of Gujarat 
only a few light showers have been received as yet, and rain urgently wanted 
there and in part of Deccan, where uncertainty regarding prospects still 
unfavourable for reduction of famine relief. No material change in prices- 
Numbers in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 486,000 ; Bombay Native States,. 
50,000 ; Baroda, 31,000 ; Hyderabad, 13,000 ; Madras, 3,000 ; Central India 
States, 1,000 ; Central Provinces, 4000. Total, 588,000. 



From Viceroy, 20th July, 1901. 



Famine. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 492,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 43,000 ; Baroda, 30,000 ; Hyderabad, 11,000 ; Madras, 
3,000 ; Central India States, 4,000 ; Central Provinces, 1,000. Total, 
584.000. 



From Viceroy, 21th July, 1901. 



Famine. Prospects have improved by light and uncertain but general rain,, 
much below the average, but it is sufficient for the present except in the case of 
Deccan, Gujarat, West Punjab, and in part of Central India and Rajputana, 
where sowing operations have been retarded. No general injury as yet. 
Prices do not indicate apprehension. In Bombay numbers on works have 
decreased by 39,000 and number on gratuitous relief increased 6,000. June 
death-rate per mille affected districts below 2, except in the case of Ahmednagar r 
where it is 2*31. Physical condition of the people reported to 'be generally 
satisfactory except in part of Ahmednagar and Sholapur where some de- 
terioration still apparent. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay r 
461,000 ; Bombay Native States, 42,000 ; Baroda, 30,000 ; Hyderabad, 10,000 ; 
Madras, 3,000 ; Central India States, 6,000 ; Central Provinces, 4,000. Total, 
556,000. 



From Viceroy, Zrd August, 1901. 



Famine. Rain has continued and though total to date in inland districts 
only about half normal, prospects generally good. Prices have fallen in 
eight Bombay Districts last week. Reduction of relief confined to Kaira, and 
figures this week show no change of any importance, but a considerable 
reduction shortly expected. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — 
Bombay, 455,000 ; Bombay Native States, 42,000 ; Baroda, 32,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 9,000 ; Madras, H,000 ; Central India States, 5,000 ; Central 
Provinces ; 4,000 ; Mysore, 3,000. Total, 553,000. 



From Viceroy, XOth August, 1901. 



Famine prospects much improved by heavy rain, and prospects now 
favourable generally. Total rainfall below average of the period over a 
large part of country, and in Gujarat has only been third of local average ^ 
but falls have been timely, and deficiency has caused no material change in the 
prospects of the crops. Prices falling, but still high. In Central Provinces, 
North Deccan, and in part of Madras and Assam, prices have risen slightly, 
and on the fall in Gujarat. Number on gratuitous relief and on relief work 
in Bombay remain larger than expected, Kaira alone showing substantial. 



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decrease from 52,000 to 11,000 since middle July. Decrease not extended" 
Ahmedabad. In Sholapur, Ahmednagar, Poona, numbers stationary ; and 
have increased in Satara and Belgaum. Expediency of reducing extent 
relief under consideration with Government of Bombay. Reports from 
affected districts indicate no cause for anxiety in physical condition of the- 
people. High prices reported to be causing hardship to poorest classes in 
limited areas, Madras and Assam ; but minor measures of relief already 
taken will be sufficient for their assistance till prices fall with autumn 
harvest. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 448,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 42,000 ; Baroda, 31,000 ; Hyderabad, 8,000 ; Madras, 3,000 ; 
Central India States, 1,000 ; Central Provinces, 4,000 ; Mysore, nil. Total,. 
537,000. 



From Viceroy, 17 th August, 1901. 

Famine. Good and general rain has continued ; and though total amount 
is only three-quarters of normal in Upper and Central India and half 
normal in Gujarat, prospects fair in Bengal, Bombay, Madras, good else- 
where. Early rice harvest has relieved local distress Assam. In part of 
Central . Provinces a break is wanted, but more rain is much wanted in 
Bengal for rice transplanting, also in part of Gujarat, Madras, and Bombay 
Deccan, Madura, and Mysore. Prices falling Madras, Central Provinces - r 
stationary elsewhere. July death-rate per mitte for Bombay affected area 
below two in all districts except Surat, Satara, Sholapur, Bijapur, where 
between two and 2'50. In southern districts rate higher, reaching five in 
Belgaum, apparently consequent on plague. Number on relief works and 
gratuitous relief fallen Bombay by 13.000, Baroda 5,000. Reduction of 
relief large in Kaira, where during past month numbers fallen from 50,000' 
to 6,000. In Ahmedabad improved conditions have influenced numbers 
very little, and elsewhere decrease small or increase has occurred. All relief 
operations have been closed in Madras. Number of persons in receipt of 
relief:— Bombay, 438,000 ; Bombay Native States, 44,000; Baroda, 26,000; 
Hyderabad, 8,000 ; Relief discontinued in Madras ; Central India States,. 
5,000 ;. Central Provinces, 4,000 ; Mysore, 4,000. Total 529,000. 



From Viceroy, 24tk August, 1901. 

Famine. Week's rainfall has been very deficient in parts of Madras (South), 
West Punjab, inland Burma ; fair rain has fallen elsewhere, but irregularly 
distributed, and does not make up the deficiency in total to date. Generally 
agricultural prospects fairly favourable, but more rain is urgently needed in part of 
Gujarat, Bombay and Madras Deccan, Madras (South) and generally in rice 
districts throughout the country. Excessive rain has caused damage in North 
Central Provinces. Prices tending downwards generally and have fallen 
substantially in Gujarat and in part of Bombay Deccan. The decline in the 
number of persons demanding relief mainly confined to Gujarat, not yet 
extended to Deccan districts. Number of persons in receipt of relief: — 
Bombay, 423,000 ; Bombay Native States, 41,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ? 
Hyderabad, 8,000 ; Central India States, 2,000 ; Central Provinces, 4,000 - r 
Mysore, 2,000. Total, 507,000. 



From Viceroy, 3L<tf August, 1901. 

Famine. Rainfall slight except in Central Provinces, Eastern Bengal, 
Burma ; and total to date generally largely below the average. Prospects 
continue favourable except in Kathiawar, in part of which rainfall has been less 
than four inches up to date, where there is apprehension of failure of crops 
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jshould no rain fall., More rain is. wanted generally in Punjab, Gujarat, Deccaa, 
Madura,. Tipper Burma ' r bat Central Provinces inquire break. Prices stationary 
jn Bengal,- Madras ; falling North- Western Provinces, Central Provinces.; rising 
Punjab, and showing no change of importance in Bombay. Cheapest grain fallen 
to 20 sirs per rupee in part- of Gujarat, and after a small, rise is still 18 sirs 
Ahmedabad. Number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease of 22,000 
in Bombay. Decrease largest in Gujarat. Number of persons in- receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 403,000 ; Bombay Native States, 3!},000 ; Baroda, 26,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 8,000 ; Central India States, 3,000 ;. Central Provinces, 4,000 ; 
Mysore, figures not reported. Total, 483,000. 



From Viceroy •, $lh September, 1901. 



Famine. Rainfall has been concentrated in Burma, Bengal, Central 
Provinces, and North-Western Provinces. Elsewhere rainfall light and 
scattered. Very little rain in Southern Punjab, Gujarat, Deccan, and 
Madras (South), where' it was most required. Crops are withering in Hissar, 
Kathiawar, and Baroda ; and prospects now not so good in MadraB, where 
poorer classes are hard pressed and good early harvest much needed. 
Complaints have been received from Bombay Deccan, where, however, 
cotton promises well. Excessive rain has caused damage in part of Central 
Provinces. Elsewhere prospects are favourable, and there is a marked 
improvement in Upper Burma. Slight rise of prices in Madras (South), 
Madras and Bombay Deccan ; falling Gujarat and Khandesh ; elsewhere 
there is no change. Number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease of 
31,000 in Bombay (half by reduction of number receiving charitable relief). 
Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 374,000 ; Bombay Native 
States, 37,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, 6,000 ; Central India States, 
5,000 ; Central Provinces, 4,000 ; Mysore, report not received. Total, 
453,000. 



From Viceroy, 14<A September, 1901. 



Prospects have improved by good rain, Bengal, North- West Provinces, 
parts Madras, and by break in Central Provinces. The Punjab has been 
practically rainless, and crops suffering seriously in South-West Division, though 
elsewhere still reported fair. More rain is needed for grain crops in Gujarat 
and Deccan, where only a few light showers have been received, but where 
<iotton still promises well. August death-rates in Bombay affected districts 
show a rise, particularly in Gujarat, but are below 3 per 1 ,000, except in the 
case of Sholapur, Dharwar, Belgaum. Kate of Sholapur, 3*72. Rates of two 
latter much higher owing to plague. Number of famine relief recipients shows 
a decrease of 25,000 in Bombay, mostly among number on gratuitous relief ; 
but gradual tightening of conditions of work relief as harvest approaches will 
result shortly in Bombay. Grant of gratuitous relief has been found necessary 
in part of Madras, Assam. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 
350,000 ; Bombay Native States, 37,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, 6,000 ; 
Madras, numbers not reported ; Central India States, 1,000 ; Central Provinces, 
relief discontinued ; Mysore, 1,000. Total, 422,000. 



From Viceroy, 21st September, 1901. 



Famine. Rainfall has been generally confined to Southern India and 
Burma; elsewhere only scattered showers. Apparent cessation ' of monsoon 
causes some anxiety. Prospects have improved in Madras, and now reported 
fair ; the same Bengal, where, however, there has been extensive damage by 
floods in places in consequence of heavy rain last week. Crop prospects good 



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in North- West' 'Provinces generally, but more rain is needed in Central ©oabi 
and parts Ondh. In •South Punjab, Rajputana, unfavourable I -cqndifcipna duringl 
past week have intensified, and crops are. withering over large area. Grain! > 
crops in Gujarat, Deccan,_also in urgent need ofjnore rain, though cotton still 
promises well. Rain is wanted generally everywhere, but a cyclone now 
crossing Orissa coast may improve situation. Prices are rising gradually,, 
though no change of any importance in Bombay yet. Owing to unfavourable 
outlook number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease of 13,000 only. 
Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 341 ,000 ; Bombay Najave, 
States, 35,000 ; Baroda, 25,000 ; Hyderabad, 6j000 ; Madras, not yet reported:; 
Central India States, 1,000 ; Mysore, 1,000. Total, 409,000. 



Front Viceroy, 2&th September, 1901. > . . f. : 

Famine. Rain has improved prospects greatly in Bengal, Central Provinces^ 
parts eastern and central North* Western Provinces, and Bombay Deccan,. 
securing standing crops and rabi sowings. General rain has fallen also Madras,, 
but none in parts of country where need greatest, namely, Kathiawar, Rajputana,. 
Southern Punjab. Complaints' have been received also from Malwa, Indore, 
and North -Western Provinces (West). In Punjab general prospects are favour- 
able still, but rain is wanted. Prices are rising in Punjab,, Rajputana, Bombay 
Deccan. Number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease of 18,000 Bombay, 
mainly in number receiving charitable relief. Number of persons in receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 323,000; Bombay Native States, 35,000 ; Baroda, 28,000 ; 
Hyderabad, 5,000 ; Madras, numbers not reported ; Central India States, 
1,000 .; Mysore, 2,000. Total, 394,000. 



From Viceroy. 7 th October, 1901. 

Little or no rain has fallen except in Burma, Bengal, Madras, Bumbay 
Deccan ; and situation gives cause for anxiety in Punjab, North- Western 
Provinces (West), Rajputana, Indore, Kathiawar, where rain is wanted in 
order to avert widespread failure unirrigated autumn crops, as well as enable 
spring sowings. For latter purpose one month remains within which a fall 
would be of immense benefit. Prices are rising in tracts above-mentioned, but 
not to alarming extent ; falling, Deccan. Prospects good in Madras, Bengal, 
Bombay Deccan ; fan* to good Central Provinces and the greater portion of 
North- Western Provinces. Number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease, 
of 31,000 in Bombay, mainly, it is believed, in consequence of enforcement of 
stricter terms on works. Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 293,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 31,000 ; Baroda, 29,000 ; Hyderabad, 4,000 ; Madras, 
numbers not reported ; Central India States, 1,000 ; Mysore, 3,000. Total, 
361,000. 



From Viceroy, 12th October, 1901. 

Famine. Rainfall still confined to Assam, Bengal, Burma, Madras, South 
Deccan, where prospects good. Favourable report also from the greater portion 
of North- Western Provinces, but in Central Provinces and North Deccan more 
rain is needed in order to secure fair crops and enable full rabi sowings. 
Punjab, North- Western Provinces, Rajputana, Indore, Kathiawar, fallen off in 
condition, and, over large tracts, kharif crops have totally failed, and rabi will 
be nnsown should no rain fall. Prices as yet do not indicate public anxiety. 
Dearest rate in Bombay, eleven seers per rupee at Ahmednagar. In Bombay 
number of famine relief recipients shows a decrease of 46,000. Death rate per 
mille September below 2'6 in affected-diefaricts of-Deeean. Number of persons 

10666 c 2 



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in receipt of relief :— Bombay, 247,000; Bombay Native States, 27,000 ; 
Baroda, 26,000 ; Haidarabad, 2,000 ; Madras and Central India States, relief 
■discontinued ; Mysore, 3,000. Total, 305,000. 



From Viceroy, 2\st October, 1901. 



Famine. As a consequence of cyclonic storm there has been good rain in 
Bengal, Orissa, Central Provinces (East), Hyderabad ; beneficial showers Berar, 
North Deccan, Gujarat. Prospects have improved in Rajputana by substantial 
but scattered falls, but outturn of autumn crops will be bad throughout Gujarat, 
Malwa, Bhopawar, and Rajputana. In Ajmer and Punjab they have mostly 
failed on unirrigated land, and rftbi sowings will be very short should no rain 
fall within next fortnight. In north Central Provinces rice has failed, 
and here also rabi area will be much below the average. Elsewhere prospects 
fair to good. No marked fluctuation in prices generally, but fallen substantially 
Ahmednagar. Reduction continues in number on relief works in Bombay. 
Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 202,000 ; Bombay, Native States, 
52,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, 1,000 ; Mysore, 2,000. Total, 254,000. 



From Viceroy, 26/* October, 1901. 

Famine. Scattered showers have been of benefit in Rajputana, Central 
India, and the Bombay Presidency, and outlook in the Deccan has some- 
what improved. There is no change in prospects generally. The outturn 
of autumn crops will be very short in the Punjab, Rajputana, in part of 
Central India, and Gujarat. Ihere will also be deficiency in the outturn of 
rice crops of Behar, the Benares division, and some tracts of limited area in 
the Central Provinces. Number on relief works decreasing rapidly. Numbers 
in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 162,000 ; Bombay Native States, 19,000 ; 
Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, figures not received ; Mysore, 3,000. Total, 
210,000 [sic]. 



From Viceroy, 2nd November, 1901. 

Famine. Rain confined to Burma and Madras, and prospects unaltered 
generally. North-east monsoon has set in on east coast (south), but with 
current below the average strength. Outlook gloomy in South Punjab, ports 
Central India, Rajputana, and in latter area distribution of relief has been 
commenced. Prices, however, remain low or moderate. They have fallen 
substantially in Bombay Deccan, and even in Gujarat, where khorif outturn 
very short, and rabi sowing operations have been retarded owing to want of 
rain. Elsewhere on the whole conditions are favourable, except in the case 
of limited areas of North- Western Provinces and Central Provinces. 
Numbers in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 131,000; Bombay Native States, 
21,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Hyderabad, relief discontinued ; Mysore, 3,000. 
Total, 182,000. 



From Viceroy, 12th November, 1901. 



Famine. Autumn 'crops have deteriorated, and sowings spring crops 
retarded for wont of rain in part of Bombay, Central Provinces, North- West 
Provinces, and to more serious extent in Baroda State, in part of Rajputana, 
Assam and South Punjab. Test works likely to be opened at Hissar in the 
Punjab. Prospects of winter rice crops are indifferent in Bengal, especially in 
Behar. Elsewhere generally prospects are favourable. Number of persons in 
receipt of relief :— Bombay, 108,000 ; Bombay Native States, 18,000 ; Baroda, 
29,000 ; Mysore, 3,000. Total, 158,000. 



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From Viceroy, 16th November, 1901. 

Famine. Prospects continue gloomv in South Punjab and Rajputana, - 
owing to bad autumn harvest and want of rain delaying spring sowings. Test 
works contemplated Punjab, but not yet opened. In^Dentral India, Baroda and 
the part of Bombay Presidency adjoining, and in part of Central Provinces 
and North- Western Provinces, rain is wanted for spring cultivation. There is 
no present cause for anxiety. Elsewhere generally prospects are favourable. 
There has been good rain recently throughout Madras Presidency, and showers 
have fallen in parts of Bengal. Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 
72,000 ; Bombay Natives States, 11,000; Baroda, 27,000; Mysore, 2,000.. 
Total, 112,000. 



From Viceroy, 23rd November, 1901. 

Famine. Position remains much as before. Prospects bad in South 
Punjab, where, however, test works have not been started yet ; and in 
Rajputana. In part of Bombay, Baroda, Central Provinces, and Central India 
spring crops' prospects are poor, owing to deficient rainfall, but autumn crops 
are expected to be not much below the average, except in the case of Gujarat, 
where they are poor. Rain has fallen during the week over Madras Presidency, 
Central Provinces (East), deltaic Bengal, Cachar, and Burma. Numbers in 
receipt of relief : — Bombav. .53,000 : Bombav Native States, 15,000 ; Baroda, 
27,000 ; Mysore, 2,000. Total, 97,000. 



From Viceroy, 30/A November, 1901. 

Famine. Sowings for spring crops on unirrigated areas in Punjab and 
Rajputana still delayed for want of rain, and probability of relief works in 
these areas increases. Elsewhere sowings now in progress, but deficient 
rainfall makes prospects indifferent, especially in Gujarat and Baroda. On 
the whole prospects are fair in Madras, Bengal, Burma, Assam, and North- 
Western Provinces. Severe cyclonic storm travelled from 24th to 27th instant 
along eastern half Bengal, and filled up in Eastern Bengal, detailed report not 
received yet, but it is believed that no grave damage done. Number of 
persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 48,000 ; Bombay Native States, 16,000 ; 
Bajoda, 26,000 ; Mysore, 2,000. Total, 92,000. 



From Viceroy, 7 th December, 1901. 

Famine. Good rain has fallen in Madras. Elsewhere prospects unaltered. 
Test works being opened in South Punjab districts, where, however, wandering 
in search of work is reported to be decreasing. There has been a considerable 
fall of prices in Bombay Deccan, where they are from 14 to 1 7 seers per rupee ; 
they are still lower in Gujarat. Numbers in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 
42,000 ; Bombay Native States, 20,000 ; Baroda, 27,000 ; Mysore, 2,000. 
Total, 91,000. 



From Viceroy, 14th December, T901. 

Famine. There has been good rain again in Madras. Elsewhere there is 
no change in prospects. Test relief works opened in Hissar, and gratuitous 
relief started on a small scale in some states of Rajputana and Central India ; 
but prices are not generally high in this area, and are below 12 seers per rupee 
•one State only. The number of people on relief works has increased slowly in 



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Kathiawar and Guzarat. :In Decoan relief lias been practically closed except in 
Bijapur. Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 46,000 ; Bombay Native 
States, 19*000 ; Karoda, 29,000 ; Mysore, 2.000. Total, 96,000. 



From Viceroy, 21st December, 1901. 



Famine. Prospects unaltered, cold weather rains not having commenced, 
Distress is not rapidly developing. Prices moderate in affected districts ; 
highest in Rajputana. The numbers demanding relief have continued to increase 
slowly in Gujarat, where, however, dearest price is reported to be 17 seers per 
rupee. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 53,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 21,000 ; Baroda, 30,000 ; Mysore, 2,000 ; Rajputana States, 
1,000. Total, 107,000. 



From Viceroy, 30*A December, 1901. 



Famine.. No rain. There is no change in prospects. Relief operations 
extending slowly Gujarat, chiefly in Panch Mahals, and Ahmedabad districts, 
where, however, prices moderate. Prices higher Punjab and Rajputana, but 
in Hissar test relief works opened are not resorted to in large numbers, and 
relief on trifling scale as yet suflices for Rajputana. Numbers in receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 61,000; Bombay Native States, 23,000; Baroda, 30,000; 
Mysore, 1,000 ; Rajputana, 1,000 ; Punjab, 1,000. Total, 117,000. 



From Viceroy, 6th January, 1902. 



Famine. Light and scattered showers have fallen in parts of North- 
western Provinces and Punjab, but cold weather rains continue to hold off. 
Prospects unaltered generally. Out-turn has proved better than was 
anticipated in Bombay. Course of prices continues reassuring : prices have 
fallen in Bombay and in affected districts, Punjab, and are high only in 
Rajputana. Test relief works opened in Punjab are not drawing, and relief 
there is inconsiderable and mainly gratuitous ; also small in Rajputana, but 
has been extended in Gujarat, where numbers increased by 18,000, mainly on 
relief works. Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 81,000 ; Bombay Native 
States, 22,000 ; Baroda, 31,000; Mysore, 1,000; Rajputana, 2,000; Punjab, 
3,000. Total 140,000. 



From Viceroy, 13th January, 1902. 



Famine. Light scattered showers have fallen in parts of Bihar, Central 
Provinces, Rajputana, and Gujarat, sufficient in places to benefit crops. Prices 
are rising in Gujarat, but cheapest grain still procurable at 16 seers per rupee ; 
they are practically stationary elsewhere. Relief continues unimportant in 
Punjab and Rajputana. Numbers have increased by 14,000 in Gujarat, mainly 
in Panch Mahals. Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 95,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 22,000 ; Baroda, 33,000 ; Mysore, 1,000 ; .Rajputana, 2,000 ; 
Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 1,000. Total, 157,000. 



From Viceroy, 20th January, 1902. 



Famine. No rain ; but prospects have improved by last week's showers, 
specially in North-Western Provinces. Prices are generally stationary. 
Outlook in Punjab and Rajputana less serious than anticipated ; distress 



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developing very slowly, and in latter tract likely to be acute only in case of 
aboriginal tribes. In Gujarat relief, extending rapidly, numbers- having 
increased by 12,000, mainly on works in Panch Mahals; : December, death- 
rates in Gujarat are : Ahmedabad, 5 07 ; Kaira, 5*83; Panch Mahals, 2*21. 
Numbers in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 107,000 ; Bombay iNatire States, 
24,000 ;' Baroda, 34,000 ; Mysore, 1,000 ; Rajputana, 9,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; 
Ajmer Merwara, 3,000. Total, 181,000. ; * , 



From Viceroy, 2bih January, 1902. 

Absence of rain and drought are affecting spring crops in Bengal and 
North -Western Provinces, as well as in Punjab. Autumn crops reported fair, 
Sind and Bombay Deccan. Prices show no tendency to rise in Bombay, and 
are much lower than in Rajputana, where, however, "they are not higher than 
12 seers per rupee. Numbers on relief works continue to increase rapidly 
Gujarat, slowly Rajputana, but rernain stationary Punjab. Relief works started 
in parts of Central India, but numbers attending are not considerable. 
Numbers in receipt of relief :— Bombay, 121,000 ; Bombay Native States, 
26,000 ; Baroda, 35,000 ; Mysore, 1,000 ; Rajputana, 12,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; 
Ajmer Merwara. 4,000 ; Central India, 6,000. Total, 208,000. 



From Viceroy, 3rd February, 1902. 

Famine. No rain having fallen situation unaltered generally. Prices 
show no tendency to rise. They continue highest Rajputana, •where they 
reach 11 seers per rupee ; but distress apparently not spreading, and relief still 
on a small scale. Circumstances similar Punjab. In Gujarat, where grain is 
16 seers per rupee, numbers relieved continue to rise rapidly, and 15,000 added 
during week. Numbers in receipt of relief: — Bombay, 136,000 ; Bombay 
Native States, 29,000 ; Baroda, 33,000 ; Mysore, discontinued '; Rajputana, 
12,000; Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmir Merwara, 4,000; Central . I India, 6,000. 
Total, 223,000. 



From Viceroy, 8th February, 1902. 

Famine. No rain has fallen. Prospects in affected districts deteriorating 
owing to damage caused by rats, of which there is a plague in Gujarat, 
Rajputana and Central India. No change in prices. Relief continues expand 
rapidly Gujarat, and develops Rajputana, Central India. In Punjab it is 
inconsiderable still. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 
167,000 ; Bombay Native States, 33,000 ; Baroda, 35,000 ; Rajputana,, 17,000 ; 
Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 4,000 ; Central India, 21,000. Total, 
280,000. 



From Viceroy, 15th February, 1902. 

Famine. No rain. Prospects unaltered. Distress is not increasing in 
Punjab, where prices continue low. In Native States, Rajputana, Central 
India, relief is being gradually extended, chiefly in hilly tracts near Bombay 
border. Number on relief works and gratuitous relief in Bombay rising 
rapidly ; distress mainly localised to Gujarat, but relief operations in 
Ahmednagar and Khandesh expanding. Number of persons in receipt of 
relief :— Bombay, 183,000; Bombay Native States, 34,000; Baroda, 34,000; 
Rajputana, 21,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 5,000 ; Central India, 
27,000. Total, 307,000. 



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From Viceroy, 2Srd February, 1902. 

Famine. In Northern and Central India scattered showers have fallen, 
but not sufficient to do any material good. Practically no change in prices. 
Test relief works closed Hissar, where situation is met by gratuitous relief on a 
small scale. Number on relief works and gratuitous relief risen Native States, 
but not considerably. Returns show no rise in Bombay districts, but they may 
not be complete. Number of persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 183,000 ; 
Bombay Native States, 39,000 ; Baroda, 34,000 ; Rajputana, 22,000 ; Punjab, 
3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 6,000 ; Central India, 25,000. Total, 312,000. 



From Viceroy, 1st March, 1902. 



Famine. Rainfall light and scattered, of no use to affected tracts. No 
material change in prices. Numbers on relief works continue to increase 
gradually in Rajputana and Central India. Bombay returns show large 
increase probably due in part to under statement last week. Number of 
persons in receipt of relief : — Bombay, 219,000 ; Bombay Native States, 
39,000 ; Baroda, 36,000 ; Rajputana, 24,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 
7,000 ; Central India, 31,000. Total, 359,000. 



From Viceroy, %th March, 1902. 



Famine. No rain, no change in prices generally. Extension of relief 
operations continues Gujarat and neighbouring States, Rajputana, to which 
acute distress is confined still. Numbers relieved are diminishing Central 
India, and there is no material increase Deccan. Number of persons in receipt 
of relief :— Bombay, 228,000 ; Bombay Native States, 38,000 ; Baroda, 37,000 ; 
Rajputana, 26,000 ; Punjab, 3,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 9,000 ; Central India, 
28,000. Total, 369,000. 



From Viceroy, 16/* March, 1902. 



Famine. Good rain has fallen in Assam, Bengal. None elsewhere. 
Prices are generally stationary. Numbers on relief works and gratuitous relief 
increased by 28,000, half of which contributed by Gujarat Districts. Number 
on relief works increasing rapidly in Rajputana, Central India ; but relief 
operations not yet required on a large scale. Number of persons in receipt 
of relief :— Bombay, 247,000 ; Bombay Native States, 41,000 ; Baroda, 36,000 ; 
Rajputana, 33,000 ; Punjab, 2,000 ; Ajmer Merwara, 9,000 ; Central India, 
35,000. 



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25 



II. 



REPORTS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



CENTRAL PROVINCES 



• • • ••• • # • 



Page- 
26 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 



• • • • • • 



141 



PUNJAB 



• • * ••• * • • 



> • • ••• • • • 



275 



BERAR ... 



*•• • • • • • « 



343 



AJMER-MERWARA ... 



» • • * • * 



• # • • t 



366 



MADRAS PRESIDENCY 



395 



NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDH 



429 



BENGAL 



435 



ASSAM .. 



• • • • « 



*•• ••• • • • ••• 



449 



10666 



D 

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26 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



REPORTS AND CORRESPONDENCE. 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



MONTHLY REPORTS. 

(N.B. — The detailed Famine Statements are not printed but general statistics of 
the numbers on relief at the end of each month will be found at pp. 499-541.) 



No. 1. 

Letter from R. H, Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. F. 1403, dated 
Pachmarhi, the 23rd May, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the monthly famine statements for the four 
weeks ending the 28th April, 1900, with a map illustrating the distribution and 
intensity of distress. 

2. As was anticipated in the last report, distress has begun to deepen. 
The partial and temporary relief which harvest operations and mahua-picking 
gave has passed away, except in small areas in the northern districts, in which 
the rabi crops returned a moderate yield. Even in these areas there are 
indications of slight distress, and it is now correct to say that the whole province 
is distressed, a sprinkling of kitchens with cash doles to pauper incapables being 
necessary even in the most favoured tracts. 

3. The following table shows the numbers on the different forms of relief 
on the 31st March and the 28th April respectively : — 



Division. 


Relief 
Works. 


Depen- 
dants 

on 
Works. 


Poor- 
houses 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 
Relief. 


Total 
Gratui- 
tous. 


Grand 
TotaL 

• 


Jubbulpore • 


31st March, 1900 


66,529 


5,272 


22,896 


7,137 


35,305 


91,834 


28th April, 1900 


59,958 


5,301 


36,436 


13,118 


54,855 


114,813 


Nerbudda ... 


31st March, 1900 
28th April, 1900 


184,109 
186,841 


28,837 
26,648 


39,326 
50,869 


23,712 
22,510 


91,875 
100,027 


275,984 
286,868 


Nagpnr 


31st March, 1900 


256,871 


32,282 


55,818 


44,393 


132,493 


389,364 


28th April, 1900 


316,979 


36,144 


74,693 


45,574 


156,411 


473,390 


Chhaftisgarh 


31st March, 1900 
. 28th April, .1900 


574,294 
614,683 


54,944 
55,005 


158,231 
195,930 


27,566 
28,502 


240,741 
279,437 


815,035 
894,120 


Total 


31st March, 1900 
28th April, 1900 


1,071,803 
1,178,461 


121,335 
123,098 


276,271 
357,928 


102,808 
109,704 


500,414 
590,730 


1,572,217 
1,769,191 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



27 



The various kinds of - employment on which those entered in column 2 of 
the above table as workers are engaged is shown below : — 



Division. 


Department 
Relief Works. 


Village Works. 


Fodder and 
Forest Works. 


-Weaver Relief. 


Jnbbulpore ... ... 


36,298 


23,660 






Nerbudda ... ... ... ... 


131,421 


41,192 


7,909 


6,319 


Nagpur ... ... ... 


246,141 


45,202 


5,563 


20,073 


Chhattisgarh 


264,063 


349,245 


978 


397 


Total 


677,923 


459,299 


14,450 


26,789 



4. The total on all forms of relief has risen during the month by very 
nearly 200,000 people, of whom over seven-eighths belong to the south of the 
Province. The greatest increase is returned from Chanda : — 72,000 at the end 
of March, and 141,000 at the end of April. It is reported from that district 
(which has been for the first time severely distressed) that large numbers of 
people held back until the mahua harvest in the hope that this would prevent 
them coming on relief at all. The partial failure of this source of food has now 
driven them on, and a still further increase is expected. 

In the two northern divisions the increase in the number of workers has 
been small, but gratuitous relief has been considerably expanded. Sick persons 
leaving works and disappointed mahua-pickers rendered this necessary, especially 
in the Saugor district, where the number of paupers is exceptionally large and 
there is greater reluctance than elsewhere on the part of adults to accept cooked 
food at kitchens. 

For the most distressed districts the numbers on all forms of relief at the 
end of March and April are shown below : — 







Total on all forms of belief. 


District. 


Population. 


At end of 
March. 


At end of 
April. 


113UU** •* ••• •*• ••• •■• 


286,000 


53,398 


57,269 


^$6t>Tl 1 • ■ • • • • ■■■ ••• ••• • • • •*■ 


323,000 


93^03 


93,997 


^flf &rcUxsi ■•• *•• •■* ••• 


400,000 


59,253 


65,567 


C'li&udSi • • • ■•• ••• ••• ••• * * * 


697,000 


71,989 


141,273 


Bhandara ... ... ... 


742,000 


119,860 


114,694 


B&l&ghat ... ... ... ... ... ... 


383,000 


94,989 


97,824 


Raipur ... ... ... 


1,584,000 


547,976 


593,489 


Bilaspur ... ... ... . .« ... ... 


1,164,000 


244,687 


265,368 



In order to keep pace with the increasing distress it has been necessary to 
increase the Public Works Department camps from 164 to 180, to open a large 
number of additional Village Works, to extend kitchen relief, and to expand the 
•village cash dole lists. 

5. To turn now to the various forms of relief, it will be observed that the 
increase in the numbers employed on Public Works Department relief-works has 
been very small. Cholera caused an exodus on certain works in Wardha, and 
an attempt to draft workers from a Bhandara camp to Nagpur gave rise to a 
panic and temporary desertion ; while the opening of more Village Works as 
the hot weather advances, with a view of getting people back to their villages, 

105M E 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



has also caused some decrease on Public Works Department works, which has 
nearly counterbalanced the general increase. Of the 200,000 persons added to the 
numbers on relief during the month, just half represent the increase on Viltage 
Works. There is little difference in the numbers shown on forest works and 
weaver relief. 

6. As stated in paragraph 8 of last month's report, it was found necessary 
to relax somewhat the severity of the tests imposed in districts in which 
mortality showed a tendency to increase, or the condition of the people to 
deteriorate, and this policy has been carried out in such tracts, with due caution, 
by Commissioners. Some expansion of gratuitous relief was also necessary, 
and there were 2.226 kitchens open at the end of April as compared with 
1,866 at the beginning. The kitchen attendance has risen from 276,000 
to 358,000, a rise of 82,000 as compared with 70,000 reported in March. 
Of the total fed at kitchens over 71,000, or a fifth, are adults. The village 
relief lists show but a small increase at present, but an expansion of these 
will be necessary before long. The total receiving gratuitous relief of all kinds 
is just about a third of the total on relief, but the proportion is likely to increase 
as the rains approach. 

7. The general condition of the people cannot be described as bad, though 
emaciation among very young infants continues to be observed. The tendency 
of people to save at relief-works at the expense of their condition has been 
observed in some places, and stray cases of persons in reduced condition are 
occasionally to be met with, but on the whole the people display no visible signs 
of famine in their features. The difficulties of the situation are aggravated in 
the western districts by the failure of the water-supply. Although complete 
arrangements have been made to secure pure water at all relief-camps, and a very 
large number of temporary wells have been dug by famine labour, and by the 
people themselves, there remain in many places in the beds of rivers and streams 
stagnant pools of polluted water. Strenuous efforts are made to prevent relief 
workers at camps from taking water from these vitiated sources ; but while it is 
difficult to enforce this even at the, camps, it is quite impossible to do so over 
the country generally. This has occasioned a rise in mortality in the western 
districts. Another cause which contributes to increased mortality is the strong 
dislike, in some districts, of relief workers who fall sick to attend the camp 
hospitals. Stringent orders have been issued to officers-in-charge of works and 
the hospital assistants to pass along the gangs and treat cases of illness among 
the workers. Oases in which this duty is neglected have come to light at 
inspections, but even where it is regularly performed the unreasoning dread of 
a hospital with which the ignorant classes are so deeply imbued tends to 
concealment of sickness, and the sick man struggles back to his village and not 
infrequently dies, when proper treatment and nourishing food might have 
saved him. Added to these causes, which operate generally to increase 
mortality, cholera has been severe in Chhattisgarh and Nimar, and small-pox 
has also carried off. a number of victims in Chhattisgarh, Nimar, Chanda, 
Nagpur and Hoshangabad. 

No less than 11 per cent, of the deaths recorded in the month have been 
due to these epidemic diseases. 

The highest mortality returns for March are as follows : — 



• Dfctrict. 



Total: 




Chanda 
Wardha 
Kaipur 



Hoshangabad 

Nagpur 

Chhindwara 



Betnl 



Nimar 



Sambalpur 



7-28 
5-05 
4-98 
411 

;wi 

3-35 
3-28 
322 
303 



6-45 
4-91 
3-56 
363 
3-70 
3-02 
2-97 

2- 88 

3- 03 



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29 



On the other hand, the death-rates continue to be very low in the districts 
of the Jubbulpore Division, in Narsinghpur and in Balaghat ; while in Bilaspur 
the death-rate is only 2*74 including, and 2*51 excluding, deaths from epidemic 
diseases. 

8. The death-rate in Nimar is still the only one which is really high 
considering the times through which we are passing. The country has been 
covered with kitchens, and nearly 23 per cent, of the population are on relief. 
Village-to-village inquiries disclose no signs of severe privation among the 
regular inhabitants, while it is found that the deaths have occurred quite as much 
among the well-to-do as among the poor. Bad water is believed to be one of 
the chief causes. It is, however, necessary to state that considerable forest areas 
have been colonised in Nimar -since the last census, and that the present 
population includes a number of temporary famine immigrants from the 
neighbouring districts and Native States. The birth-rate of March was just 
under 5 per mille on the supposed population, and the death-rate in the corre- 
sponding month of 1899, when the district was perfectly prosperous and prices 
low, was 4*65 per mille. The decennial mean of the month is 3*76 per mille, 
so that although the death-rate must from any view be regarded as serious, it is 
not so excessive as might at first sight appear. 

10. The provincial rate (exclusive of the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris) was 
3 - 11 per mille, or, deaths from epidemic diseases being deducted, 2*84. In the 
Chhattisgarh Zamindaris the death-rate was 4*58, but it was in these areas that 
cholera was most virulent, and the rate, exclusive of epidemics, drops to 3 "02 per 
mille. During April there have been further outbreaks of cholera in Wardha 
and Raipur, and the disease has appeared in many districts. The mortality of 
April will be reported next month as complete returns have not yet been 
received. 

11. There is little to remark regarding prices and imports. The latter 
continue brisk, though it is said that their volume is somewhat less than a 
month or two back. Prices are much as before, but there has been some rise in 
Betul, Nimar and Chhindwara ; elsewhere there are very small fluctuations. 

12. Orders were issued early in the month laying down the procedure to 
be followed in the distribution of the takavi advances for which the Govern- 
ment of India have recently made such a liberal allotment to the Central 
Provinces: It has also been arranged that the distribution of grants for the 
Indian Famine Charitable Relief Fund shall be carried on pari passu with the 
takavi advances. 

13. A conference of all the Commissioners was held at Pachmarhi on the 
20th and 21st of April to consider the measures necessary for relief arrange- 
ments in the rains. The result of these deliberations has been embodied in 
Famine Circular No. 49 of the 7th May, copy of which must have reached the 
Government of India in the ordinary course. 

The general principles adopted are : — 

(i.) That large Public Works Department relief-works cannot be 
profitably maintained as the backbone of relief during the rains, 
but that a limited number will be kept open, suitable shelter being 
provided, to give employment to those who refuse to return to 
their villages. 

(ii ) That it will be the business of Government not to supply employ- 
ment and wages to the labouring population in the rains, but to 
supplement such deficiency as may occur in wages. 

(iii ) That this can best be done by supporting the dependants of all 
labourers, principally by means of kitchens, but partly by village 
doles. 

(h . That a limited number of able-bodied labourers will be given doles 
for a month where agricultural employment is slack. This will 
be given only in return for work to be exacted by the village 
headmen, and only in the most distressed districts. 

10666 E 2 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES, 



14. In conclusion, I am to attach, for communication to the Foreign 
Department, a report by Mr. Sly, Political Agent of the Chhattisgarh Feudatories, 
relating to the famine arrangements carried on in those States. Distress is 
increasing in these States, as in the British districts, and the scourge of cholera 
has been very severe, but the arrangements to cope with the growing distress, 
which are clearly described by Mr. Sly, appear to the Officiating Chief Commis- 
sioner to be adequate. 



No. 2. 

Letter from B. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. F. 1602, dated Pachmarhi, 
the 16/A June, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the usual famine statements and map for the 
period ending the 26th May, 1900. 

2. The month just closed represents the period at the close of the hot 
weather when the conditions are most trying and employment most scanty. 
The water-supply has been low, the heat excessive, and cholera epidemic. 
Preparation of land for the approaching kharif sowings has been in progress 
where showers had softened the surface, but this does not create an appreciable 
demand for labour. A certain number of cultivators have returned to their 
villages towards the close of the month, but numbers on works have generally 
risen or remained constant, while there has been a further expansion o£ 
gratuitous relief. Distress has already spread over the Province ; it has 
increased in intensity during the month. 

3. The following table shows the numbers on different forms of relief on 
the 28th April and 26th May respectively : — 



Division. 


Belief 
Works. 


Depen- 
dant* 

on 
Work*. 


Poor- 
houses 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 
Belief. 


Total 
Gratui- 
tous. 


Grand 
Total. 


Jubbulpore... • 


28th April, 1900 
26th May 


59,958 
73,125 


• 5,301 
5,047 


36,436 
61,750 


13,118 
18,061 


54,855 
84,858 


114,813 
157,983 


Nerbudda ... 


28th April 
26th May 


>i 
»» 


186,811 
187,791 


26,648 
26,923 


50,869 
85,874 


22,510 
18,786 


100,027 
131,583 


286,868 
319,374 


Nagpnr 


28th April 
26th May 


n 
»> 


316,979 
333,066 


36,144 
38,093 


74,693 
112,719 


45,574 
43,887 


156,411 
194,699 


473,390 
527,765 


Ohhattisgarh 


28th April 
26th May 


>» 
» 


614,683 
626,720 


55,005 
60,994 


195,930 
232,875 


28,502 
30,932 


279,437 
324,801 


894,120 
951,521 


Total 


28th April 
26th May 


>» 
>i 


1,178,461 
1,220,702 


123,098 
131,057 


357,928 
493,218 


109,704 
111,666 


590,730 
735,941 


1,769,191 
1,956,643 



The total on all forms of relief has thus increased during the month by no 
less than 187,000, a very large increase, but not greater than was expected to 
■occur during the hot- weather period in the forecast submitted in January last. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



31 



4. The various kinds of employment, on which those entered in column 2 
-of the table given above as workers are engaged is shown below : — 



Division. 


Public Works 

T\.TL» i ■ 1 1 j III 1 AW* 4~ 

Works. 


Village worKB. 


Fodder 

niia x oresi 

Works. 


Waavor T> a1 j A f 
YY tJUVtJr MJUOI. 


Jnbbnlpore ... ... ... 


36,597 


36,528 






Nerbudda 


126,676 


42,624 


11,834 


6,657 


Nagpnr 


246,174 


57,608 


8,889 


20,395 


Chhattisgarh 


262,293 


363,852 


465 


110 


Total ... 


671,740 


500,612 


21,188 


27,162 


Compare for April ... 


677,923 


459,299 


14,450 


26,789 



The number of Public Works Department camps has been increased from 
180 to 191, but the total attendance on these major works shows some decrease. 

• The average numbers in any one camp is now not under 4,000 people, and with 
cholera rampant or at any time likely to break out, it is necessary to keep the 
numbers within manageable limits. Some of the reduction is due to the drafting 
of weakly workers to village relief in accordance with the programme prescribed 

• for the rains, and there has also been a tendency in some places for cultivators 
to return to their villages. The numbers employed on Village Works have risen 
still further. The increase has been common to all Divisions, but is less in the 
Nerbudda Division than elsewhere. Those employed on Village Works should 
readily return to their ordinary work as soon as the rains are established, when it 
will be impossible to keep those works open ; and every effort has been made to 
complete the tanks and leave as little unfinished work as possible. There has 
been some increase in the number of those employed on forest works, but 
weaver relief has been practically stationary. 

5. It is, however, in the domain of gratuitous relief that the largest 
expansion has taken place. At the end of March there were 500,000 people 
on gratuitous belief, at the end of April 590,000, and by the end of May the 
numbers had risen to 736,000. Thus the numbers on gratuitous 'relief now con- 
siderably exceed the maximum numbers on all forms of relief at any time in the 
last famine. , This large distribution of gratuitous relief is explained by the 
intensity of distress in the rice districts, and in Nimar and Betul. and has been 
largely necessitated by the failure of the mahua crop, on which the labouring 
classes depend so greatly for their sustenance in May. The principal form 
which gratuitous relief has taken has been the issue of cooked food at kitchens. 
The extent to which kitchens have been increased is shown by the following 
figures : — , 





Nnjnber of Kitchens. 


Number of Persons 1 
Fed. 


A I the end of March 


■ 1,866 


! 

276,271 


„ April 


2,226 


357,928 


„ May 


2,576 


493,218 



This forim of relief may be expected: to expand yet more in the rains. 

6. Side by side with; kitchens a list of persons on village relief to whom 
cash doles are given has to be maintained. Some persons, however distressed, 
cannot bring themselves to accept cooked food, others have no kitchen near their 
-homes, and there are infirm people unable to walk even a short distance to be 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



provided for. The village relief lists of cash-dole recipients at the end of 
.N ovember last bore the names of over 200,000 recipients ; by the end of March 
the numbers had fallen to half that figure. As the rains approached it was 
necessary to expand that list somewhat, and the numbers of the past three 
months compare as follows : — 





Month. 


Numbers on 
Village Relief. 






H&rch •■• ••• • • • * • • 

A. pnl ••• ■ • • ••• *•• ••• 

Mfty ■•• • • • ••• ••• 


102,808 
109,704 
111,666 





The latest returns show that of those fed in kitchens 75 per cent, are 
children, while of those on the village relief lists 85 per cent, are adults. Thia 
is as it should be. 

7. The difficulty of provisioning kitchens in the remoter tracts during the 
rains is a serious one, and it has been found necessary in several instances to 
give advances to dealers who accept contracts to keep them supplied with rice. 
In some few instances where no dealers are forthcoming the necessary grain has 
had to be purchased and stored beforehand as the only means to prevent the 
possibility of a break-down in the rains. 

8. As the last week in May is generally regarded as the penultimate and 
most acute stage of a famine, the present is a convenient time at which to state 
the numbers and percentage of population on relief in each district. 

These are as follows : — 



District. 


Population in 
Thousands. 


Numbers on 
Relief at end of 
May. 


Percentage of 

Population on 
Relief. 


Sangor 


592 


41,230 


6-96 


Damoh 


325 


15,771 


4-85 


Jubbulpore 


748 


48,574 


6-52 


Mandla ... 


339 


17,974 


5-30 


Seoni ... ... ... ... ... ... 


371 


34,434 


9-28 


Narsinghpur 


367 


3,109 


•84 


Hoshangabad 


499 


79,690 


15-96 


Nimar. . ... ... ... 


286 


65,134 


22-77 


Betul ... ... ... ... 


323 


106,058 


32-83 


Chhindwara 


407 


65,383 


16-06 


Wardha 


400 


79,589 


19-89 


Nagpur 


758 


59,746 


7-88 


Chanda ... ... 


697 


183,751 


26-36 


Bhandara ... ... ... ... 


742 


104,491 


14-08 


Balaghat 


383 


100,188 


2615 


Baipur ... 


1,584 


654,390 


41-31 


Bilaspur 


1,164 


257,423 


22-11 


Snmbalpur 


796 


39,708 


4-98 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



33 



9. Prices have shown a tendency to rise during the month, and the rates 
for the principal staples are almost everywhere from half a seer to a seer dearer 
than in April. It has heen found necessary to lower the wage basis in propor- 
tion, as it is most important that the people should enter upon the unhealthy 
period of the rains in as good condition as possible. The rate adopted as the 
basis of wages averages about 10£ seers over the whole of the Province ; it is 
somewhat higher in the northern districts, and a little lower in some parts off 
the railway. 

10. The general condition of the people is still good. The Commissioner 
of the Chhattisgarh Division reports a distinct improvement in the appearance 
of relief- workers in Kaipur, where there had been some deterioration during 
March. In spite, however, of these satisfactory outward appearances, and in 
spite of the continuous expansion of relief measures mortality has risen. This 
is mainly due to cholera ; but excessive heat, bad water in the villages in the 
districts where the drought was most severe, a long course of unaccustomed food 
in districts where rice is not the common diet, and the general hardship inseparable 
from a year of famine, cannot but have an effect on the vital statistics. A good 
many deaths are also reported to have occurred owing to the rash consumption 
by individuals of large quantities of mangoes and melons. 

11. Cholera accounted for 8,194 deaths in April out of a total of 42,555 
deaths in the whole Province during that month. It was very severe in Wardha 
and Chhattisgarh, and carried off a good many victims in Jubbulpore, Nimar, 
and Bhandara. Small-pox accounted for over 1,000 deaths over the Province 
generally. The highest death-rates for April were as follows : — 



District. 


All Causes. 


Exclusive of 
Epidemics. 


Wardha 


7-80 


5-12 


Nimar ... ... ... 


7 30 


6-86 


Raipur (Khalsa) 


6-48 


3-88 


Bilaspur (Khalsa) 


5-40 


3-95 


Sambalpur (Zamindaris) 


7-67 


4-50 


Betul 


4-87 


4-68 


Sambalpur ... 


4-39 


302 


Chanda 


413 


3-65 



There is no other district in which the death-rate is markedly high, and 
mortality in the Jubbulpore Division, Narsinghpur and Balaghat is decidedly 
low. For the whole Province, exclusive of the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris, the 
death-rate for April is 4*04 inclusive of epidemics and 3*25 exclusive of them. 
In the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris the death-rate is 4*74, or, excluding epidemic 
diseases, S'94. It may thus be said that, apart from cholera and small-pox, 
mortality is seriously high only in Nimar, Wardha, Betul, and the Sambalpur 
Zamindaris. In the last-mentioned areas distress is not serious, and the high 
mortality is the accompaniment of cholera. In Wardha, Nimar, and Betul the 
scanty water-supply is at the bottom of the trouble. The Nimar mortality 
baffles explanation, but, as was mentioned last month, it is believed that the 
population is larger than the returns show. 

12. The death-rates for May have not yet been completely received, but 
the conditions of that month have been very hard both for those on relief works 
and for the officers and subordinate officials engaged in the administration of 
relief. Cholera has spread to nearly every district, and has been specially 
severe in Chanda, and some officers-in -charge and subordinate officials have 
been among the victims. The charge officers have been largely engaged in the 



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34 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



arduous task of distributing takavi and charitable loans, a work which, in some 
places, has been much hindered by cholera dispersing the crowds collected. All 
are now looking anxiously for the rains. A storm from the Bay of Bengal 
has given heavy rain to the Chhattisgarh districts, but the Arabian Sea current 
is greatly delayed, and the greater part of the Province has only received 
local showers. At present the delay is not serious, provided that the rainfall 
hereafter is ample ; but the water-supply difficulty in the western districts is 
becoming intensified, and cholera is not likely to subside until the monsoon is 
really established. 

18. During the month the Officiating Chief Commissioner made a tour 
through the plateau districts of Chhindwara and Seoni, which he had not before 
visited. Relief arrangements were quite adequate, and the condition of the 
people very good. Mr. Fraser also paid a short visit to the' Tapti valley, in 
Nimar, where work is in progress on the Khandwa-Akola Railway, and jungle 
is being cleared as a relief work with a view to the more speedy colonization of 
the once fertile and populous Manjrod tract. A thousand foreigners off the 
Hoshangabad works had been successfully drafted to Manjrod for this purpose, 
and it is hoped that some families will settle on the newly cleared land. 

14. The Report of the Political Agent of the Chhattisgarh Feudatories, 
which is attached for the information of the Foreign Department, shows that 
matters are going on in a satisfactory way in those States. In the south-eastern 
States, where the distress is less severe, sowings of early rice had actually 
commenced. The crops in most of them did not fail so completely as in the 
khalsa, and the earlier rain which they have now received should much relieve 
the pressure and enable agricultural operations to be resumed. Relief 
arrangements appear to be well abreast of the distress. But there has been an 
increase, not a general decrease, as stated by the Political Agent. The 
numbers are : — 





Month. 


Works. 


Gratuitous. 


TotaL 






April ... ... 

M sy ... ... ... 


44,037 
43,276 


20,259 j 
26,274 


64,2% 
69,550 





The Political Agent reports that the States intend to rely chiefly on 
kitchens during the rains. The Commissioner of Chhattisgarh considers this 
decision to be a prudent one, and the Officiating Chief Commissioner believes 
that this will prove sufficient. 



No. 3. 

Letter from R. H. Craddpck, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, Simla, No. F. 1876, dated 
Nagpur, the 17$ July, i900. 

I am directed to submit the monthly famine statements and map for the- 
five weeks ending cn the 30th June last. 

2. Up to the end of the period under consideration, and indeed for some 
days after, the state of the weather was causing the gravest anxiety. Only in 
Raipur and Sambalpur bad the rainfall been really satisfactory. The heat was 
excessive, sowings were retarded, and the early sown seedlings were in danger 
of withering. The deficiency of the rainfall was most marked in the west and 
north of the Province, and in several districts only very light and scattered 
showers were received. The crop and weather return for the week ending the 
3rd July showed a rainfall varying from 60 to 80 per cent, below the normal. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



35 



The anxiety of this period has since been removed by the copious and general 
rain of the last ten days, and sowings are now resumed with vigour all over the 
Province ; but, while it lasted, it exercised a most serious effect on the people, 
and added to the difficulties of relief administration. The deficiency of the 
water and fodder supply were enhanced and protracted ; cholera continued its 
ravages ; agricultural employment was greatly diminished ; and the arrange- 
ments for moving the people from the large works to their homes were delayed 
and impeded. At the same time petty crime largely increased ; and prices 
began to rise. The unsettling effects of all these adverse circumstances are 
clearly illustrated in the famine-relief returns of the month. 

3. The following table shows the numbers on different forms of relief on 
the 26th May and 30th June respectively : — 



Division. 


Relief 
Works. 


Depend- 
ants 
on 
Works. 


Poor- 
honsee 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 
Relief. 


Total 
Gratuitous. 


Grand 
Total 


Jnbbulpore . . ■ 


26th May, 1900 
30th June, „ 


73,125 
57,123 


5,047 
4,257 


61,750 
149,614 


18,061 
24,971 


84,858 

178,842 


157,983 

235,965 


Nerbudda ... 


26th May, 
k 30th June. 


»> 
» 


187,791 
126,607 


26,923 
15,361 


85,874 
175,571 


18,786 
19,930 


131,583 
210,862 


319,374 
337,469 


Nagpur 


26th May, 


n 


333,066 


38,093 


1L2,719 


43,887 


194,699 


527,764 


30th June, 


n 


254,908 


28,072 


240,060 


59,719 


327,851 


582,759* 


Chhattisgarh. • 


26th May, 
30th June, 


»» 
i» 


626,720 
299,415 


60,994 
34,683 


232,875 
395,981 


30,932 
42,357 


324,801 
473,021 


951,521 
772,436: 


Total ... < 


26th May, 
30th June, 


» 
» 


1,220,702 
738,053 


131,057 
82,373 


493,218 
961,226 


111,666 
146,977 


735,941 
1,190,576 


1,956,643- 
1,928,629 



The various kinds of employment, on which those entered in column 2 of 
the table given above as workers were engaged, is shown below : — 



Division. 


PublioWorks 
Department 
Works. 


Village 
Works. 


Forest 
Works. 


i 

Weaver 

Relief. 


B. List 


Jubbulpore ... 


26th May, 1900... 
30th June, „ ... 


36,597 
34,215 


36,528 
21,550 






1,358 


Nerbudda 


26th May, 
30th June, 


,, ... 
,, ... 


126,676 
75,229 


42,624 
34,163 


11,834 

8,523 


6,657 
7,125 


l,56r 


Nagpnr 


26th May, 


,, ... 


246,174 


57,608 


8,889 


20,395 




30th June 


,, ... 


191,041 


36,249 


,6,676 


20,721 


221 


Chhattisgarh ... 


26th May, 
30th June, 


,, ... 
» ••• 


262,293 
194,200 


363,852 
104,923 


465 
219 


110 

73 




Total 


26th May, 
30th June, 


„ ... 
„ ... 


671,740 
494,685 


500,612 
196,885 


21,188 
15,418 


27,162 
27,919 


3,146 



1066* 



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36 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



4. The net result of the character of the weather and the change in tie 
system of relief which began to come into force has been a reduction in the total 
numbers on relief by 28,000 only. There had previously been a fall of 150,000, 
but these numbers were made up again on the Province as a whole, though the 
distribution both as to districts and as to forms of relief has very materially 
altered. It is noteworthy that each of the three Divisions of Jubbulpore, 
Nerbudda, and Nagpur show a substantial rise in the numbers relieved, while m 
Chhattisgarh, where alone the rainfall has been satisfactory, there has been a 
large fall of 180,000, or nearly 20 per cent. ■ • ■ 

5. While, however, the altered distribution of numbers on relief between 
the various districts has been important, the shifting of the relieved from works 
to gratuitous relief has been most remarkable. There has been a decrease of . 
482,649 persons on works, and an addition of 454.635 to the gratuitous 
list ; but if Chhattisgarh be excluded, the decrease of workers has been only 
155,000, while the increase of those on gratuitous relief has been 317,555. 
It is thus clear that in the three Divisions in question there has been a 
large though temporary increase in distress. This phase would certainly 
cause great alarm were it not for the fact that it is sufficiently explained 
bv the unfavourable character of the season, which has since so materially 
ciranged for the better. 

6. The second table in paragraph 3 is also of much interest. The 
progress anticipated in transferring the people from large Public Works 
Department camps to their homes has not been fully realized. The delay in 
the rains has been the principal cause of this ; but the number of these camps 
has in spite of this delay been reduced from 191 to 1 65, and the numbers have 
fallen from 671,740 to 494,685, or by 26 per cent. This has resulted partly 
from the exodus of cultivators who have left to till their fields, and partly from 
the despatch to their homes of all weakly gangs and their dependants in 
accordance with the policy adopted at the Pachmarhi Gonference. The district 
reports show that the movement, now that the rains appear to be established, is 
likely to continue. The reduction in the numbers on Village Works, is still 
greater — 500,000 at the end of May to 197,000 at the end of June, a fall of 
60 per cent. The great majority of these works were closed either on 
completion or because rain rendered their continuance impossible ; but in the 
north and west especially ft was found necessary to keep them open for a- 
longer period than bad been intended ; and in many cases it was also , 
desirable to keep open such tank works as could be completed. A certain 
number may be expected to remain open for some weeks to come in those 
few localities, mainly in Chhattisgarh, where work can be carried on without 
much inconvenience in the rains. The numbers employed on forest works 
consisting of tanks and roads are now small, and have fallen considerably since 
the end of May. 

• Weaver relief, which outside the Nagpur District and the town of 
Burhanpur is insignificant, shows no marked change. 

For the first time an entry appearB against the B. list, — i.e., those on cash 
relief in their villages in return for work, — but the number is at present 
insignificant. It is anticipated that cash doles will be needed for a large 
number of labourers during July, after which weeding, followed by early 
harvesting, should permit of this form of relief being almost entirely dispensed 
with. Of those shown under this heading the majority are returned from 
Mandla, where no large relief works can advantageously be opened during the 
rains ; Nimar, Hoshangabad and Balaghat contribute the balance. The persons 
thus relieved were all residents of poor and remote tracts. 

7. In accordance with the policy decided at the Pachmarhi Conference, 
and enunciated in Famine Circular No. F-49, kitchens will be the mainstay in 
the rains, and the present returns show how much that form of relief is 
appreciated. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 3? 

The spread of kitchen relief can best be shown by the following 
comparison : — 



Month. 


Number of 
Kitchens. 


Attendance. 


March ... ... 


1,866 


276,271 


April 


2,226 


357,928 


May 


2,576 


493,218 


J UU6 ... ... ... ... 


3,334 


960,398 



The rush on kitchens has been so great as to cause temporary disorganiza-l 
tion in some places, and fears were entertained that the arrangements for 
supplying them with the grain would break down. In most districts it has 
been necessary to give advances to grain contractors, and in two remote tracts 
of Raipur and part of Betul, supplies have been forwarded by famine labour 
taken from the works. So far as can be judged from the latest reports the 
difficulties have been met and overcome ; and the manner in which this has 
been done reflects much credit on local officers. One-third of the numbers now, 
receiving food at kitchens is made up of adults, amongst whom women largely 
predominate. The districts in which the adult population at kitchens is largest 
are Raipur (91,000), Chanda (36,000), Nimar (23,000). 

The large increase of adults on kitchen in parts of Saugor, Betul, Nimar 
and Raipur has raised doubts as to the advisability of maintaining the rule of 
free admissions. The Officiating Chief Commissioner fully discussed this 
question recently on the spot in the Chhattisgarh districts. He is convinced ot 
the necessity of the measure. When large numbers are returning to their 
villages from works, the kitchens afford a most economical and successful form 
of relief. Work is not at once available to all, and a safeguard of this kind is 
essential. Were admission limited to emaciated adults, then for a few now 
gratuitously fed who are not in need there . would be hundreds excluded who 
would bs in want of food. Later on when the people are once more settling 
down to their home life and ordinary avocations, and field employment 
increases, some weeding out of .the kitchen-fed will be feasible. But, at present, 
it is of prime importance that the health and strength of the people should be 
maintained so that they may resist the- unhealthy period to come. Mr. Fraser 
believes that the rush of able-bodied to kitchens, which after all is not so great 
as might at first sight appear, is largely due to the lateness of the rains. He 
does not believe that a daily meal of rice and dal consumed in this public 
fashion can be so attractive as to induce any large number of people who could 
easily earn subsistence in other ways to overcome their dislike to taking their 
place among a long line of paupers. He may be wrong in this view, but until 
sufficient time has elapsed to prove this, he is unwilling to modify existing 
orders. 

8. The increase of those on the gratuitous village list of cash doles has 
not been very great, from 111,666 to 146,977. On this list will be borne only 
the permanent incapables, the old and weakly who cannot walk to a kitchen in 
the rainy season, and poor village watchmen whose duties prevent them earning 
daily wages and whose ordinary dues have failed them. The number of these 
at present on this form of gratuitous relief only amounts to 1*5 per cent, on the 
total population of the Province. 

9. Prices have risen very considerably during the month, the rise being 
most marked in the districts with no railway communication. The lowest price 
at which any of the main staples is now quoted is 10 J seers in Bilaspur. In 
Betul the cheapest rate is 8 seers, in €hhindwara-7£. The chief cause of the 
general rise has been the anxiety lest the rains should fail, and the recent rain 
s hould yodmre a general fall; but in the more remote tracts cholera- and'' 
difficulties of transport have been contributing causes. The first of these 

10566 F s 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



should now rapidly disappear, but the second will continue throughout the 
rains. The rise in prices has been accompanied, as already stated, by an 
increase of petty crime, and the jail population is increasing, but the condition 
of new admissions is not bad ; and with the enormous spread of relief 
arrangements it is quite certain that nobody need be driven to steal by sheer 
hunger. 

10. So far as outward and physical evidence goes, the condition of the 
people continues to be satisfactory, but cholera has continued to play havoc in 
many districts. The disease has almost everywhere been successfully stamped 
out on the works themselves,' but with the bad water-supply it was impossible 
to eradicate it from the villages. It is reported that village enquiries have often 
shown that epidemic disease has been reported as fever in order to avoid the 
troublesome measures which the report of a cholera outbreak occasions. 

The death-rates for April and May (the June returns are not yet fully to 
hand) contrast as follows : — 





April. 


May. 


AH (Vina 
nit v4»LUK^< 


Excluding 
Epidemiol. 


JUBBULPORH DIVI8I0N:— 










Saugor ... 


• • •* • 


2-29 


2*89 


2*83 


Damoh ... ... ... ... . 


• • •*• 


2-02 


2*54 


2*52 


Jubbulpore 





246 


3-07 


2*34 


Mandla ... ... ... ... 




1-38 


1-25 


1*25 


^3©oni ... ... ... ... . 




1-36 


1-59 


1*58 


Nbrbtjdda Division : — 










Narsinghpor 




225 


214 


213 


Hoshangabad 




3-49 


3-81 


3*31 


Nimar ... ... ... ... . 


• ••• 


7-30 


8-20 


6-78 


Betul ... ... ... 




4-87 


6-04 


5*06 


Chhindwara .. 




2-90 


5-22 


3*59 


Nagpur Division •-— 










Wardha ... 




7-80 


8-35 


5*53 


Nagpur ... ... ... 




3-58 


4-45 


3*69 


Ohanda 




413 


8-85 


5*05 


Bhandara ... ... ... 




3-45 


3-97 


3*44 


Balaghat... ■•■ ... ... . 




2-26 


2-41 


2*33 


Chhattisgarh Division :— 










Raipur ... ... ... ••• 




6-48 


5-56 


3*34 


Bilaspur 




5-40 


6-51 


3*57 


Sambalpur .., 




4-39 


6-05 


3-26 



The Provincial rate has risen from 4*04 to 4*80 per mille. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



39 



Non-epidemic Mortality. 



Districts. 


April. 


May. 


Nimar 


6-86 


6-78 


Beta] 


4-68 


5-06 


Wardha 


512 


553 


Chanda 


3-65 


505 


Raipur 


3-88 


3-34 


Bilaspar 


395 


3-57 



11. The total number of deaths which occurred during the month of May 
was 50,043, of which 14,989 were due to cholera, and 973 to small-pox. 
Cholera was most virulent in Chhattisgarh, Chanda, Wardha, Nimar, . 
Jubbulpore and Chhindwara. If epidemics be excluded the districts* in which 

the mortality of May exceeded 4 per mille are 
Nimar, Betul, Wardha and Chanda, the districts 
in which the water-supply has been most deficient. 
The bad quality and deficiency of the water- 
supply were of course intensified in May, and 
there was a consequent rise in non -epidemic 
mortality, except in Nimar, where the rate has 
been practically stationary. In Raipur and 
Bilaspur, on the other hand, there was a satis- 
factory decline in non-epidemic mortality. For 
the whole Province (exclusive of the Chhattisgarh 
Zamindaris) non-epidemic mortality shows a rate 
of 3*42 in May as compared with 3'25 in April, 
while in the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris the rates are 2*21 and 2*94 respectivelv. 
To judge from the returns of a few districts for June, it is feared that the 
unfavourable climatic conditions of that month have again raised the death-rate 
in some parts of the Province, but discussion of these must be deferred till the 
complete returns are available. 

12. At the close of the month under review, the Officiating Chief Com- 
missioner started on a visit to the three districts of Chhattisgarh, where he 
discussed the situation on the spot with the local officers. The decisions there 
arrived at are embodied in a letter to the Commissioner of the Chhattisgarh 
Division (No. 1805-F., dated the 11th July), of which I am to forward a 
copy for the information of the Government of India. The effect of the 
improved prospects, both on the famine situation and on the system of relief 
adopted for the rainy period, will be carefully watched. Mr. Fraser is just 
about to start on a tour of the districts of the Nagpur Division. 

13. I am, as usual, to forward for the information of the Foreign Depart- 
ment a copy of the report of the Political Agent of the Chhattisgarh 
Feudatories for the month of June, on the famine administration of that 
State. The two points which seem to call for most notice, the overcrowding 
of the Raigarh poor-house, anc} the necessity for increasing kitchens in 
Khairagarh, are both receiving Mr. Sly's attention. In all other respects, the 
administration of relief appears to be satisfactory. In the course of his tour, 
Mr. Fraser had opportunities for discussing with the Superintendent of the 
Nandgaon State and the Diwan of Khairagarh, as well as with Mr. Sly, the 
measures adopted in these States. 



No. 4. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the Chief Com- 
missioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, Simla, No. .F-2048, dated 
Nagpur, the 17 th August, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the usual statements and map showing the progress 
of famine-relief administration during the four weeks ending the 28th July. 

2. The rainfall of the month of July was most satisfactory, although the 
holding off of rain in Sambalpur during the latter part of the month caused 
some temporary anxiety which has since been dispelled. In the report for 
June a description was given of the disquieting effects, which the delay in 
the monsoon had had upon the minds of the people, and how it had driven many 
to seek relief who might otherwise have managed to do without it. The results 
of this delay have continued to be felt throughout July. Persons returning 
home from their villages from the large Public Works Department camps, those 
whom the contraction of Village Works left without employment, and many 
who had hitherto abstained from seeking Government relief, were all driven 
to resort to the kitchens. Weeding operations, which even in ordinary years are 



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PROVINCES 



not extensive until well on in July, were further postponed by* fortnight owing 
to the lateness of the sowings. Many who had been, in the' first instance* very 
reluctant to submit to the tests of public meals in a kitchen, once having taken 
the step, became equally reluctant to leave the certainty of a full meal 
daily for the chance of intermittent employment. 

3. Such has been the condition of things in July. Since the close of the 
month there has been further heavy rain ; confidence has been restored ; and 
weeding operations should offer extensive employment. At the same time, the 
employment will even now be considerably less than usual, especially in the rice 
districts ; and in the most distressed tracts the situation will not be very 
materially relieved until the earliest crops are ready to be reaped. 

4. The changes during the month in the total numbers on relief, and in 
receipt of the various kinds of relief offered, are shown in the two statements 
which follow : — 



Division. 


Belief 
Works. 


Depend- 
ants on 
Works. 


Poor-houses 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 
Relief. 


Total 
Gratuitous. 


Grand ■ 
Total. . 

ii 


Jubbulpore 


30th June, 1900 
28th July „ 


57,123 
35,265 


4,257 
1,665 


149,614 
184,834 


24,971 
36,153 


178,842 
222,652 


235,965 
357,917 


Nerbudda ... 


30th June 
28th July 


>» 
»» 


126,607 
86,934 


15,361 
8,551 


175,571 
295,390 


19,930 
19,855 


210,862 
323,796 


337,469 
410,730 


Nagpur 


30th June 
28th July 


» 


254,908 
189,128 


28,072 
17,824 


240,060 
387,879 


59,719 
77,958 


327^51 
483,661 


582,759, 
672.789 


Chhattiegarh ■ 


30th June 
28th July 


» 


299,415 
149,246 


34,683 
22,460 


395,981 
730,838 


42,357 
46,883 


473,021 
800,181 


772,436 
949,427 


Total ... • 


30th June 
28th July 


»» 


738,053 
460,573 


82,373 
50,500 


961,226 
1,598,941 


146,977 
180,849 


1,190,576 
1,830,290 


r 

1,928,629 
2,290,863 



The various kind of employment on which those entered in column 2 of 
the table given above as workers were engaged are shown below : — • 

■ 



Division. 


Public 
Works 
Department 
Works. 


Village 
Works. 


Forest 
Works. 


Weaver 
Relief. 


B. List. 


Jubbulpore ... 


30th June, 1900 
28th July „ 


34,215 
20,056 


21,350 
3,648 






1,358 
11,561 


Nerbudda ... 


30th June 
28th July 


»> 

» 


75,229 
51,558 


34,163 
19,609 


8,523 

246 


7,125 
7,244 


1,567 
8,277 


Nagpur 


30th June 




191,041 


36,249 


6,676 


20,721 


221 


28th July 


>» 


121,492 


11,432 


5,419 


20,974 


29,811 


Chhattisgarh ... 


30th June 
28th July 


»» 

V 


194,200 
110,052 


104,923 
39,127 


219 


73 
67 


, T 

I 


Total 


' 30th June 
' 28th July 


» 
»» 


494,685 
303,158 


196,885 
73,816 


15,418 
5,665 


27,919 
28,285 


3,146 

48,649 

. .i 



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CBKTBAL PROVINCES. 



41 



The two facts which stand out most in the above figures are— first- that the 
total numbers on relief have risen by over 360,000 during the month of July,! 
and secondly, that the numbers returned as on gratuitous relief have increased; 
by no less than 640,000 souls. 

5. The number of Public -Works Department camps open has been, 
reduced from 165 to 128, or by 22 per cent., while workers at these camps have 
decreased from 494,685 to 303,158, or by 38 per cent. The dependants on 
these works have fallen from 82,373 to 50,500, or by a similar percentage. 
The closing of these large camps which are unsuitable for this season of the 
year is proceeding apace, and the end of this month should phow a very large 
further reduction. 

The number on Village Works is returned at 74,000 as compared with 
197,000 at the end of June. These works will now die a natural- -death.' On 
the other hand, the numbers on the B list of village relief from whom work is 
exacted in return for their doles, have risen from 3,146 to 49,649. The latter 
figure includes persons employed on works of petty village improvement in 
Mandla who were erroneously shown by the Deputy Commissioner as village 
workers instead of on the B list ; and over 18,000 persons engaged' at depots in 
the Betul district might suitably be added to the number on B list relief. 
These depots are confined to the wilder tracts of Betul where the population is 
entirely aboriginal. They receive dry-grain rations in return- for miscellaneous 
work, improvement of forest roads, carriage of grain, and weeding of fields. 
Practically, therefore, the B list has really risen to about 68,000. 'No resort to 
this system has yet beeu made in Chhattisgarh. It will he . necessary now to 
add to the list a number of the smallest tenants for whom subsistence is 
required till their crops ripen ; but the list is everywhere being carefully 
restricted. _ , 

The remaining forms of work relief call for no special mention this month. 

6. To turn next to " Gratuitous relief," the list of those on cash doles 
has increased, as might be expected at this season of the year ; but .the increase' 
has not been very large, the proportion of the total population on this form of 
relief being still less than 2 per cent, of the total population of the Province. 
In the Nerbudda Division alone the numbers are practically stationary, while the 
increase has been considerable in the Nagpur Division. Absolute uniformity of 
procedure in a system which has to be carried out by a host of- Charge and 
Circle Officers is unattainable. Moreover, much depends both on the number of 
kitchens and the attitude of the better castes in regard to them. The Ofliciating 
Chief Commissioner is satisfied that the principles of which this relief should be 
given are sufficiently understood. 

7. Poor-houses have been opened at Sambalpur and Bilaspur, making 
eight for the whole Province. The inmates are constantly drafted to their 
homes. The total population of these institutions at the close of the month was 
only about 1,200. 

8. Kitchen relief continues to play an increasingly important part in the 
relief system of the Province. At the end of May the kitchen-relieved formed 
25 per cent, of the total on relief ; at the end of June the proportion had risen 
to 49 per cent. ; at the end of July it stood at 70 per cent. The table 
given in paragraph 7 of last month s report brought up to date stands as 
follows : — 



Month. 


No. of Kitchens. 


Nos. on Kitchen 
Belief. 


March 


1,866 


276,271 


April... 


2,226 


357,928 


May 


2,576 


493,218 


Jane.- 


3,334 


960,398 


J lily ... ... ... ... ... 


5,011 


1,597,603 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



So extraordinary has been the development of kitchen relief during the 
last two months that it is desirable to furnish district details regarding the 
attendance at these institutions. These are shown in the following state- 
ment : — 



District. 


Si 0. 01 

Kitchens. 


Attendance in Kitchens. 


Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 


— 

Bangor 


166 


24,426 


32,712 


57,138 


Damoh ... 


129 


17,367 


20,692 


38,059 


Jubbulpore .. 


128 


5,514 


30,241 


35,755 


Mandla 


127 


6,109 


23,772 


29,881 


Seoni ... 


110 


4,615 


19,034 


23,649 


Nareinghpur 


64 


1,985 


4,095 


6,080 


Hoshangabad 


216 


47,835 


44,039 


91,874 


Nimar... ... 


98 


36,820 


34,670 


71,490 


Botnl ... ... ... ... 


187 


35,869 


50,943 


86,812 


Chhindwara 


183 


13,638 


25,128 


38.766 


Wardha 


143 


28,017 


28,514 


P6,531 


Nagpur 


174 


24,240 


23,578 


47,818 


Chan da ... ... ... 


216 


68,814 


72,286 


141,100 


Bhandara ... ... ... 


251 


20,391 


46,417 


66,808 


Balaghat ... 


248 


26,834 


48,788 


75,622 


Raipur 


1,893 


265,807 


273,115 


538,922 


Bilaspur 


515 


28,530 


101,413 


129,943 


Sambalpnr 


163 


23,161 


38,294 ' 


61,455 


Total 


5,011 


679,972 


917,731 


1,597,703 



The most prominent features in this statement are the enormous numbers 
returned from Raipur (which with a population of 15 per cent, of the Provinces 
returns a third of the total numbers on kitchen relief), and the large proportion 
of adults attending the kitchens in the districts of Hoshangabad, Nimar, 
Wardha, Nagpur, Chanda, and Raipur. 

9. The ever-increasing numbers on gratuitous relief (now practically 
synonymous with kitchen relief) has from the first engaged the anxious 
attention of the Officiating Chief Commissioner. At the time of his tour at the 
end of June and beginning of July in Chhattisgarh, agricultural employment 
was so scanty that it would have been quite unsafe to close kitchens to free 
admission. During Mr. Fraser's tour from the 18th to the 30th July in the 
districts of the Nagpur Division, as more employment became available, it 
became evident that exclusion from the kitchens of able-bodied persons for 
whom field labour and wages were available had become necessary. Orders, 
framed after full discussion with local officers, to bring this about were issued 
in my letter No. F-1965, dated thej 3rd August, to the address of the 
Commissioner, Nagpur Division, of which I am to forward a copy for the 
information of the Government of India. The conclusions which the Officiating- 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



43- 



Chief Commissioner formed during that tour are summarized in paragraphs 11 
and 12 of that letter. 

10. A week later, at a Conference held at Hoshangabad, it was decided that 
the time had come for a further step in the direction of excluding the able-bodied 
from kitchens, and that a proportion varying with the circumstances of each 
agricultural tract might be safely struck off the kitchen registers without the 
necessity of a definite guarantee of employment for them. Orders giving effect 
to this decision are contained in Famine Circular No. 53 of the 14th August. 
Able-bodied persons at the kitchens had already been excluded in parts of tbe 
Jubbulpore Division, where the famine had been less serious. The difficulty 
lay with the other Divisions. The investigation of the state of affairs in the 
Nerbudda Division, supplemented by further inquiry and reports in regard to 
the progress of events in Chhattisgarh and Nagpur, showed that the situation 
had materially developed. There was a strong consensus of opinion that, with 
the increased scope for employment, expulsion of the able-bodied might be 
undertaken throughout the Province, the process being gradual or rapid 
according to the circumstances of particular tracts. 

11. In some districts even before the issue of orders there was a voluntary 
diminution in numbers as weeding offered employment ; but there began to 
manifest itself a tendency for labourers to take their food at a kitchen, and do 
a half-day's work in the field for a half wage. This, which was an exceptional 
experience in most districts, rapidly became the practice in Raipur. The local 
officers in this district took up the position that so long as the kitchen-fed were 
really engaged' on agricultural work there was no objection, in view of the 
intensity of the distress, to their receiving a daily meal. This view, though not 
open to serious objection at a time when employment was very scanty, is no 
longer tenable when the season has further advanced ; and it has been clearly 
pointed out to the Commissioner that kitchen relief in his Division must be 

brought into line with that of the rest of the 
Province. The present system in Raipur if 
unchecked would soon degenerate into a large sub- 
sidy to all private employers and lower the rate of 
wages to a point at which no labourer who refused 
kitchen relief could subsist. The rush of people to 
kitchens in this district has been so extraordinarily 
rapid,* and the dissemination of orders over its 
large area takes so long, that immediate results 
from them cannot be expected ; but the Commis- 
sioner had already enjoined the elimination of persons able to support themselves 
and their dependants, and the orders now issued to him, No. F-2035, of the 
14th August (copy attached), should soon bear fruit. 

12. The continued increase of the numbers on relief has excited adverse 
comments in the public press, to which the Government of India may expect 
the Officiating Chief Commissioner briefly to allude. I am to say that if the 
occasion should again arise the Officiating Chief Commissioner would not vary 
the orders passed in May respecting the free admission to kitchens. ' It was this 
measure alone which tided the people over the crisis of June. It succeeded in 
bringing them back from the works to their homes, and in rendering agricultural 
operations possible without that forcible expulsion from works which i9 so 
dangerous at that season of the year. The interval between the close of the 
hot weather, and the period when general field labour is available, is always :i 
trying time for labourers. In normal years they eke out deficiencies with their 
store of edible forest produce collected in April, or by means of advances made 
them in anticipation of earnings by weeding. This year there were no such 
advances to be had, and no such store collected, while the. period of waiting 
was protracted to twice its normal duration. Now that confidence has been 
restored, and agricultural employment is once more available, the time has come 
for restrictions. The enormous growth of the kitchen population was not 
anticipated ; because the delay in the rains which was mainly responsible for it 
could not be foreseen. 

10566 G 



Month. 


Nos. at kitchens. 


June 30th 


265.624 


July 7th 


354,192 


July 14th ... 


400,129 


July 21st 


480,952 


July 28th ... 


538,922 



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44 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



13. Prices have fluctuated slightly ; they have become easier in some 
districts, and where they have risen the rise has been slight. At the same time 
there has been a large decline in imports of foreign rice, and some of the stocks 
•of this rice accumulated in some districts has begun to be re-exported to others. 
Prices cannot, however, be expected to fall materially until the critical month of 
September has successfully passed. Great difficulties have been experienced in 
the interior of Chanda and Betul in providing supplies owing to the heavy cost 
of transport, and the state of communications, and at some of the remoter works 
in Betul the price of grain rose to 6 or 6^ seers. Taking head-quarter markets, 
prices range between 9 and 10 seers in districts on the railway, and 7 to 8 seers 
in those not opened up by railway communication. 

14. The condition of the people, so far as suffering from want is concerned 
is everywhere reported as satisfactory. In the districts bordering Indortf, 
Bhopal and Central India some of the immigrants, who are attracted in large 
numbers by the kitchens, show signs of privation ; but except for these, 
emaciation is rarely seen. 

15. The mortality returns which accompany this report as usual relate to 
the preceding month, in this case, June. This was the most trying time of any 
yet experienced. Cholera raged ; and in the western districts the evils of a 
.short and polluted water supply were much intensified. The total number of 
deaths during the month were 70,728, of which 22,788 were due to cholera, and 
1,006 to small-pox. The corresponding figures for May were 50,043, 14,989 
and 973, respectively. The following are the death-rates per mille, district by 
district, as compared with those of May : — 





Death Rates in Hay. 


Death rates in June. 


District. 


All causes. 


Exclusive of 
epidemics. 


All causes. 


Exclusive of 
epidemics. 


Saugor 


2-89 


2-83 


4-67 


4-27 


Damoh 


254 


2-52 


2-88 


2-86 


Jubbulpore 


3-07 


2-34 


3-82 


2-87 


• 

Mandla 


1-25 


1-25 


1-70 


1-70 


Seoni ... 


1-59 


1-58 


3-54 


2-79 


Narsinghpur 


214 


213 


1-97 


1-95 


Hoshangabad 


3-81 


3-31 


6-41 


4-27 


Nimar 


8-20 


6-78 


14-02 


9*83 


Betul 


6-04 


5-06 


11-97 


7-38 


Chhindwara 


522 


3-59 


13-38 


6-34 


Wardha 


8-35 


5-53 


7-33 


5-10 


Nagpur 


4-45 


3-69 


5-38 


3-97 


Chanda 


8-85 


5-05 


16-63 


7-78 


Bhandara 


3-97 


3-44 


6-74 


5-52 


Balaghat 


2-41 


2-33 


4-04 


3-56 


Raipur 


5-56 


3-34 


5-10 


4-19 


Bilaspur 


6-51 


3-57 


6-69 


415 


Sambalpur 


6-05 


3-26 


10-26 


5-37 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



Over the Khnlsa area of the Province the death rate has risen from 4*80 
per mille in May to 6*81 in June ; but excluding epidemic disease the rates are 
3'42 and 4*58 respectively. In the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris the rates for June 
are 6"91 including, and 4 - 01 excluding epidemic disease, as compared with rates 
of 5-19 and 2*21 in May. 

16 The highest rates of those shown in the preceding paragraphs occur 
in Nimar, Chanda, Betul, Chhindwara, Sambalpur and Wardha. It is noticeable 
that wherever mortality from cholera has risen, the mortality from other causes 
has risen to an even greater degree. In Wardha, where cholera has diminished 
the non-epidemic mortality has similarly Mien. There is no reason to appre- 
hend that deaths have occurred from starvation or even from direct privation, 
but the strain and exposure inevitable in life on relief works in the hot weather, 
without doubt, weakened the power of the people to resist the disease? connected 
with the bad state of the water supply and the abnormal weather conditions. 

The persistently high mortality reported from Nimar for several months past 
led the Chief Commissioner to ask the Administrative Medical Officer to make 
special enquiries into this subject, and I am to attach to this letter a copy of an 
excellent report (No. 4445 — 84, dated the 9th August) by that officer on the 
subject. Mr. Fraser thinks that Colonel Scott- Reid has succeded in establishing 
both that the true population of that district must have considerably increased, 
and that, owing to an influx of foreigners who contribute very largely to the 
death-rate, the deaths among the indigenous population are not nearly as numerous 
as the returns show. It is therefore probable that the true death-rate upon the 
present permanent population is not higher than the rates in corresponding 
districts. 

Cholera has continued throughout July and it now shows signs of abating ; 
but the months of August; and September, in ordinary times the most unhealthy 
of the j ear, have still to be passed through ; and it is too much to hope that 
the death-rates will fall to their normal level. 

17. In conclusion, 1 am to forward as usual for the information of the 
Foreign Department, a copy of the report of the Political Agent of the 
Chhattisgarh Feudatories on the Famine administration of those States. 

The Officiating Chief Commissioner concurs with the Commissioner of the 
Chhattisgarh Division in thinking that, except for certain shortcomings in the 
Patna State, which are now being rectified, the record of the month is 
satisfactory. 



No. 5. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, Simla, No. jP-2183, dated, 
Nagpur, the \hth September, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the monthly report of famine relief administration 
for the four weeks ending the 25th August. The usual map and statements 
accompany the report. 

.2. The rainfall of August was everywhere sufficient ; indeed, heavy falls, 
resulting in flooded rivers, have done a certain amount of local damage. The 
agricultural operations usual at this season of the year have generally been 
carried on briskly ; but heavy rain has retarded them in places. In the 
northern districts, in particular, a spell of fine weather is needed. The current 
month is a very critical period for agriculture. Up to the present the weather 
has been favourable. The final realisation of the high hopes now entertained o f 
a good kharif harvest depends upon timely showers towards the close of the 
month ; but so far as these crops are concerned the risk of very serious failure 



10566 



G 2 



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46 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



is now small. But for the distressful history of the past few years little anxiety 
would be felt. Maize and the early millets are now ripening, and the earliest 
rice is ready to be cut in Sambalpur ; but these crops are later than usual, and 
their effect could not be felt in the month to which this report relates. By the 
time that the next report comes to be written the situation will have cleared, 
and the character of the kharif harvest should be known with certainty. 

3. The changes during the month in the total numbers on relief and in 
receipt of the various kind of relief available are shown in the two statements 
below : — 



Division. 


Relief 

TY Or KB. 


Depend- 
ants on 
Works. 


Poor-houses 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 

Tialinf 


Total 

vrrabuiuuuu. 


Grand 

lOHU. 


Jubbulpore 


' 28th July, 
25th Aug. 


1900 

>» 


32,265 
32,640 


1,665 
870 


184,834 
146,811 


36,153 
35,018 


222,652 
182,699 


257,917 
215,339 


Nerbudda ... 


28th July 
25th Aug. 


»» 

» 


86,934 
83,486 


8,551 
5,430 


295,390 
216,978 


19,855 
20,903 


323,796 
243,311 


410,730 
326,797 


Nagpur ... 


28th July 
25th Aug. 


>» 
»» 


189,128 
131,051 


17,824 
7,759 


387,879 
423,658 


77,958 
80,201 


483,661 
511,618 


672,789 
642,669 


•Chhattisgarh 


28th July 
25th Aug. 


»» 

» 


149,246 
45,191 


22,460 
8,519 


730,838 
775,953 


46,883 
39,618 


800,181 
824,090 


949,427 
869,281 


Total ... 


28th July 
25th Aug. 




460,573 
292,368 


50,500 
22,578 


1,598,941 
1,563,400 


180,849 
175,740 


1,830,290 |2,290,863 

1,761,718 {2,054,086 

! 



The various kinds of employment on which the workers shown in column 
2 of the above table were engaged are shown below . — 



Division. 


Public 
Works 
Department 
Works. 


Village 
Works. 


Forest 
Works. 


Weaver 
Relief. 


B List. 


Jubbulpore 


f 28th July, 1900 
I 25th Aug. ,. 


20,056 
12,173 


3,648 
408 






11,561 
20,059 


Nerbudda 


| 28th July 
1 25th Aug. 


»» 
»» 


51,558 
30,457 


19,609 
17,498 


246 
46 


7,244 

7,190 


8,277 
28,295 


Nagpur 


f 28th July 
( 25th Aug. 


M 
» 


121,492 
36,273 


11,432 
2,292 


5,419 
6,068 


20,974 
21,164 


29,811 
65,254 


Chhattisgarh 


j 28th July 
( 25th Aug. 


»> 
« 


110,052 
30,097 


39,127 
15,000 




67 
94 




Total 


| 28th July 




303,158 


73,816 


5,665 

* 


28,285 


48,649 


( 25th Aug 


» 


109,000 


35,198 


6,114 


28,448 


113,608 



4. There has been, it will be observed, a decline in the numbers on all 
forms of relief of neary 237,000, or over 10 per cent. But the nature of the 



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OENTEAL PKOVINCE8. 



47 



decrease can best be appreciated with reference to the intermediate rise in the 
middle of the month. The figures week by week were as follows : — 





Week ending 


Numbers. 






July 28th 


2,290,863 






August 4th 


2,269,585 






• ) 1 Xth • • * • a ■ a 


2,308,949 






„ 18th 


2,241,557 






„ 25th 


2,054,086 





The decline now reported has been larger in the case of work-relief than 
under the gratuitous heads, but these also show a decrease of 68,500, the 
precursor of the further reduction reported in the telegraphic returns of the 
last two weeks. 

5. Under the major head of work-relief, the principal fall has occurred on 
Public Works Depirtment works. The number of charges has dropped from 
128 to 76, 52 camps having been closed during the month. The average 
number of workers at each camp has fallen from 2,368 to 1,434 ; and the 
number of dependants has declined in an even greater proportion. Few, if any, 
Public Works Department works are likely to continue open after the close of 
the current month. In very few localities has the exclusion of the able-bodied 
from kitchens resulted in any return of labourers to relief-works. 

6. Kumbers on village works have declined by over a half ; and if the 
persons relieved at the Betul dep6ts are removed to the head of B list relief, to 
which they properly belong, the numbers on those works outside Chhattisgarh 
become quite insignificant. Of those returned from the Chhattisgarh Division 
the majority belong to a portion of the Bilaspur District where distress is 
greatest and the character of* the soil renders Village Works practicable in the 
rains. Forest roads in Chanda account for almost the whole of the numbers 
shown on forest works. Weaver relief continues unchanged. 

7. Relief under the B list system has everywhere expanded, save in 
Chhattisgarh, where the great extension of kitchens and the free resort of the 
people to them rendered this form of relief unnecessary. If the 17,000 people 
of the Betul depots are added to the B list numbers, the total is 130,000 against 
68,000 similarly computed at the end of July. This system has been found 
specially useful to meet the case of the poorest cultivators, as was anticipated in 
paragraph 5 of my report for July ; and it has also enabled a good deal of 
weeding to be done in the fields of those who could not afford to pay for 
weeding. As the early crops ripen, this form of relief will be discontinued. 

8. Under the heads of gratuitous relief, poor-houses call for little notice. 
Needy vagrants have a tendency to crowd into head -quarters during the rains ; 
but constant drafting has kept the numbers down, and the population of the 
eight poor-houses was only 1,620 at the close of the month, as compared with 
1,200 at the end of July. 

9. As in July, kitchen relief has been the main feature of relief measures. 
■Comparison of the figures of the two months gives the following result : — 





Number of 
Kitchens. 


Number Fed. 


Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 


On 28th July 

On 25th August 

Increase or Decrease 


No. 
5,011 

6,301 


No. 
679,972 

641,654 


No. 

917,731 
920,126 


No. 
1,597,703 

1,561.780 


+ 1,290 


- 38,318 


+ 2395 


- 35,923 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



The increase in the number of kitchens represents the effort of the 
numerous Charge Officers to cope with the disorganization which the 
overcrowding of kitchens in the early part of the month entailed. Subsidiary 
kitchens were multiplied in order to relieve the pressure on the main kitchens. 
As was reported last month, the expediency of reducing kitchen relief as 
agricultural operations began to offer increased emplovment occupied the 
constant and anxious attention of the Officiating Chief Commissioner. But, 
owing to the necessity, in view of the backwardness of the crops and a 
high death-rate, of proceeding with great caution, and after careful con- 
sultation with local officers, the orders directing the gradual exclusion of 
the able-bodied could not issue before the middle of the month. The 
dissemination and explanation of these orders among all the various villages 
and circles was a work of time ; and the results of this action are only now 
becoming apparent. 



The policy of exclusion was accompanied in the case of districts less 
distressed by the voluntary departure both of adults and children as field 
employment increased ; but up to the 25th August only a beginning had 
been made. During the last two weeks the numbers at kitchens have 
diminished by no less than 350,000. The branch kitchens of Chhattisgarh, 
which have now served their purpose, are being closed, and in every district a 
reduction in the number of kitchens is being gradually effected. To turn 
to particular districts, adult attendance at kitchens has fallen most satisfactorily 
in the following : — 





District. 


Adult Attendance. 

i 




On 28th July. 


On 25th August. 




Saugor 


No. 
24,426 


No. 
12,305 






Hoshangabad 


47,835 


17,272 






Nimar 


36,820 


22,698 






Wardha ... 


28,017 


15,374 






Betal 


35,869 


25,245 





On the other hand there was an increase of adult attendance in Nagpur, 
Chanda, Balaghat, Raipur and Sambalpur. In the first and two last " district* 
there has been a large subsequent decrease. In Balaghat, cultivators have been 
more impoverished than elsewhere ; while in Chanda it is feared that the area 
sown is shorter proportionately than elsewhere. The area transplanted is very 
short, and constant rain impeded field work, while the large extent of the 
district, and the difficulties of communications have retarded the promulgation of 
the orders, contained in Famine Circular No. 53. A statement giving full 
details of kitchen-relief by districts is appended. 

10. Village relief properly so called, or distribution of cash doles to people 
in their homes, shows a small decline from 180,849 to 175,740. There is 
nothing new to remark about this list. It will shortly, as early crops ripen, be 
considerably cut down ; but on the other hand, the curtailment of kitchen relief 
will necessitate the temporary enrolment on the cash list of those debarred by 
infirmity from walking to a more distant kitchen. 

11. Although there has been no general fall of prices common to every part 
of the Province, there is a distinct tendency in that direction. In part ot 
Jubbulpore Division and in Sambalpur the fall had been marked. As these are 
the localities where the stocks are largest, prospects have acted on prices sooner 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



49 



than elsewhere. The following is a comparative statement of prices in the 
districts mentioned : — 





Seers per Rupee. 


District. 


Rice. 


Oram. 


Wheat. 




July 28th. 


August 25th. 


July 28th. 


August 25th. 


July 28th. 


August 25th. 


Saugor 




10 


10* 


10$ 


9* 


9| 


Damoh 




m 


m 


12+1 


n 


941 


Jnbbnlpore 


10* 


ii 


m 


12* 


10 


11 


Sambalpur 


9* 


u* 


n 


10* 


9 


10* 



Rice and wheat have also fallen 2 seers (from 7 to 9 seers per rupee) in 
Betul, where temporary difficulties of transport had previously enhanced prices 
very greatly. 

Imports continue, but on a much reduced scale ; and the latest accounts 
show that old stocks are being produced in places where their existence had 
been stoutly denied. Such stocks must necessarily have been small ; and their 
production now indicates a general confidence in the coming harvest. 

12. The condition of the people, so far as all appearances testify, 
continues to be good. In the north and west of the Saugor District, where a 
number of foreigners have been attracted by the kitchens, there are persons to 
be seen in bad physical condition ; and similarly in Nimar and Hoshangabad 
there are wanderers from neighbouring States who have plainly suffered from 
want. But these are no new features. Among the local population emaciation 
is rarely seen. But the general health has been far from good. Fevers and 
bowel-complaints have been rife among all classes of society ; and cholera has 
not died out. The mortality of June was high ; and there has been no fall in 
July. There is ground for hoping that August may show some improvement ; 
but there was none in July. The unfavourable conditions of June continued 
into the first week or ten days of July ; and it was some time before the water- 
supply improved. 

13. The total number of deaths in these three trying months of May, 
June and July compare as follows : — 



Month. 


Cholera. 


Small-pox. 


All causes. 


2f ay ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 


14,989 


973 


50,043 


JxiU6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 


22,788 


1,006 


70,728 


Jnly ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 


13,753 


703 


71,055 



The Provincial rate per mille per mensem, excluding the Chhattisgarh 
Zamindaris, was 6*82, and in the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris 7 - 26. If epidemics 
be excluded these rates fall to 5*35 and 6*26. The corresponding rates in 
June were 4*58 and 4'01 respectively. Non-epidemic mortality thus increased 
very largely. The sudden change in climatic conditions was responsible for this. 
•With kitchens extended as they have been, it is impossible that want of food has 
caused mortality. There cannot be deaths from starvation without some signs 
«f starvation among the living. 



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50 



CENTBAL PBOVINCES. 



14. The district details of total non-epidemic mortality compare as follows 
for June and July : — 



District. 


Death-rates in June. 


Death-rates in July. 


All cause*. 


Exclusive of 
epidemics. 


All causes. 


Exclusive of 
epidemics 


Saugor 


4-67 


4-27 


7-46 


5-02 


Damoh 


2-88 


2-86 


242 


2-25 


Jubbulpore 


3-82 


2-87 


4-00 


317 


Mandla 


1-70 


1-70 


1-90 


1-80 


Seoni 


354 


2-79 


5-61 


3 72 


Narsinghpur 


1-97 


1-95 


2-01 


1-97 


Hoshangabad 


6-41 


4-27 


6-67 


5-23 


Nimar 


14-02 


9-83 


1434 


1018 


Betul 


11-97 


7-38 


13-65 


9-90 


Chhindwara 


13-38 


6-34 


15-78 


9-86 


Wardha 


7-33 


510 


10-68 


7-47 


Nagpur 


5-38 


3-97 


6-37 


4-72 


Chanda 


16-63 


7-78 


8-68 


7-47 


Bhandara 


6-74 


5-52 


8-25 


7-49 


Balaghat 


4-04 


3-56 


7-07 


5-97 


Raipur 


5-10 


4-19 


4-42 


419 


Bilaspur 


6-69 


415 


3-86 


3-47 


Sambalpur 


10-26 


5-37 


9-09 


7-25 



The most unhealthy zone is the country comprised in Nimar, Betul, 
Chhindwara and Mandla. Not only were these the districts in which the 
drought of 1899 was most intense, but it was also in these that the current 
monsoon was latest established. Satisfactory features of the returns are the 

freat decrease of total mortality in Chanda and Bilaspur and the continued low 
eath-rate in the northern districts. In the four districts where death-rates are 
highest the poorer classes, whether on relief or not, have now been subsisting 
for many months on a rice diet to which they are wholly unaccustomed. In 
Chhindwara, which for the first time heads the list, cholera was largely 
responsible for the heavy death-roll. 

15. The task which now lies before the Administration is the closure of 
relief institutions. The people must return to their normal life and their 
normal responsibilities. Complete cessation of relief is not possible until 
harvesting actually begins and prices fall ; but during the remainder of this 
month and the first half of October, there will be great scope for the substantial 
curtailment of relief, especially in those tracts in which distress has from the 
first been less severe or where the harvest is earliest. To this end 
Commissioners have been addressed, and orders dealing in detail with the 
procedure to be followed are under preparation and will issue very shortly. 

16. I am also to forward for the information of the Foreign Department, 
the monthly report on the famine arrangements in the Feudatories by the Acting 
Political Agent. Prospects in these States are everywhere excellent. The 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



51 



early millets, which are more extensive and are harvested earlier than in the 
neighbouring Ehalsa, are causing prices to foil, and distress should now past 
away very soon. 



No. 6. 

Letter from R. ff. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. F. 2325, dated Nagpur, 
the IStk October, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the usual monthly statements and map to describe 
the famine relief operations during the five weeks ending on the 29th September 
last. 

2. The rainfall of the month was excellent over the whole Province. In 
the northern districts in fact it was somewhat too heavy and continuous ; but the 
slight injury which may have been done to til and juar on low-lying land has 
been more than compensated for by the great benefit done to the rice crop, and 
by the assurance that the soil will be in the best possible condition for the rabi 
sowings. It may be said generally that all the crops of the kharif season are in 
excellent condition and prospects are more favourable than they have been for 
many years. Statistics of the area sown are being collected, but the result will 
not be known for some little time. In some of the rice districts the area sown 
with rice is believed to be in somewhat serious defect, but in all other parts of 
the Province the kharif crops will, it is expected, prove to have covered at least 
a normal area. 

3. For many months the burden of these reports has been the progress of 
relief measures to meet the growing distress. At the close of August the tide 
had began to turn, and the report for September has to deal with the gradual 
curtailment of relief. 

The difference in the numbers on the several forms of relief, at the close of 
August and September respectively are shown in the following statements : — 



Division. 


Relief 
Works. 


Dependant 
on Works. 


Poor- 
houses 
and 
Kitchens. 


Village 
ReUef. 


Total 
Gratuitous. 


Grand 
Total. 


Jubbulpore 


25th Aug., 1900 
29th Sept. „ 


32,640 
14,594 


870 
425 


146,811 
64,415 


35,018 
17,200 


182,699 
82,040 


215,339' 
96,634 


Nerbudda ... 


25th Aug. 
29th Sept. 


« 


83,486 
25,740 


5^30 
677 


216,978 
68,936 


20,903 
19,968 


243,311 
89,581 


326,797 
115,321 


Nagpur 


25th Aug. 




131,051 


7,759 


423,658 


80,201 


511,618 


642,66* 


29th Sept. 


n 


141,297 


5,346 


227,891 


67,566 


300,803 


442,100- 


Chhattisgarh 


25th Aug. 
29th Sept. 


»* 


45,191 
8,187 


8,519 
1,698 


775,953 
440,764 


39,618 
30,907 


824,090 
473,369 


869,281 
481.55& 


Total ... 


25th Aug. 
29th Sept. 


» 


292,368 
189,818 


22,578 
8,146 


1,563,400 
802,006 


175,740 
135,641 


' 1,761,718 
945,793 


2,054,086 
1,135,611 



There has thus been a decrease during the period of 918,475, or 45 per 
cent., in the numbers relieved. The decrease has been proportionately greater 
in the districts where maize and early millets, which were harvested during the 
month, are of most importance. Thus in the plateau districts of Mandla, Seoni, 
Chhindwara and Betul between the 1st and 29th September the numbers have 
fallen from 231,000 to 80,000 or 65 per cent.; while in the Nagpur Division, 

10666 H 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



where these early crops are of very little account, the reduction in numbers 
<from 618,000 to 442,000) is much smaller. 

4. Details of the numbers shown as on work relief, which have fallen from 
292,000 to 190,000 are gwea-bek>w s — — 



Division. 


Pablio Worka 
Department 
Works. 


Village 
Works. 


Forest 
Works. 


Weaver 
Relief. 


B.List. 


Jubbulpore • 


25th August, 1900 
29th September „ 


12,173 
7,940 


408 
369 






20,059 
6,285 


Nerbudda ... • 


25th August „ 
29th September „ 


30,457 

3,933 


17,408 
7,182 


46 


7,190 
5,908 


28,295 
8,717 


Jfagpur 


25th August „ 
29th September „ 


36,273 
36,460 


2,292 
2,279 


6,068 
5,332 


21,164 
17,902 


65,254 
79,324 


<Jhhattisgarh 


25th August „ 
29th September ,, 


30,097 
6,646 


15,000 
1,541 




94 




Total ... 


25th August „ 
29th September „ 


109,000 
54,979 


35,198 
11,371 


6,114 
5,332 


28,448 
23,810 


113,608 
94,326 



The numbers on Public Works Department works have become insignificant 
everywhere except in the Nagpur Division. Here, as the work of transplantation was 
■completed, some of those previously turned out of kitchens began to resort to the 
Public Works Department camps, and though their number was not large, it 
was found inadvisable to close camps too rapidly in this Division. Thirty-five 
Public Worts Department camps were, however, closed during the month,' and 
of the 41 still open on the 29th, 19 more had been closed during the first week 
of the current month. 

Orders were issued that village works should be closed by the end of 
September, and the numbers shown on them represent the figure of the last 
week before closure. 

Weaver relief is now being contracted, and will shortly come to a close, as 
the advances made are worked off. 

The B list relief has shrunk to very small dimensions in the Northern 
divisions. In the Nagpur Division it was necessary to continue it in the case 
of petty cultivators who are without resource until their crops ripen. It is now 
being rapidly curtailed. 

5. Under the various gratuitous heads, poor-houses remain as before, and 
the chief feature has been the reduction of kitchens. Thus : — 





Number 
of 

kitchens. 


Number Fed. 




Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 


On 28th July 


5,011 


679,972 


917,731 


1,597,703 


„ 25th August 


6,301 


641.6M 


920,126 


1,561,780 


„ 29th September 


3,663 


257,914 


. 542,447 


800,361 



Reduction of kitchen relief continues day by day. In some of the northern 
districts, in which distress has been always less acute, kitchens are now being 
closed altogether ; but where there are no early crops to reap, kitchen relief 
cannot be closed altogether for some time yet. 



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CENTRAL PR0VINCK8. 



On the list of those receiving gratuitous cash relief in their villages there is 
a reduction of 40,000, in spite of the fact that the closure of a kitchen entails, 
temporary additions to the list of those incapables who cannot be supported by 
their relations. 

6. On the whole, the progress in curtailing relief made during September 
has in the Officiating Chief Commissioner's opinion been satisfactory. September 
is a critical period ; it was hot until the end of it that prospects became really 
assured. Prospects, however good, can only alleviate distress when it has been 
severe ; they cannot terminate it. The food supply must be replenished, and 
prices must fall before relief can cease. But since the close of the month the 
curtailment has been proceeding with greater rapidity. Work relief will come 
to an end in a few days with the Devali holidays, and the relief in November 
will be confined to the tracts in which the crops are latest. The last rain of 
September has had the result of delaying the ripening of the rice crops in the 
south of the province. 

7. Imports of rice from Bengal have almost ceased, but a great deal of 
rice previously imported is being sent about the country. Dealers are trying to 
get rid of surplus stocks of imported rice before the new crop brings down 
prices. These movements have resulted in a great deal of local fluctuation in 
prices, but the net result of the good prospects has been the cheapening of rice 
in Chhattisgarh by two to three seers to the rupee. In the Nagpur country 
there has been a very slight fall only ; but in the two Northern Divisions the 
effect of the small millet harvest has begun to be felt. In Chhindwara, where 
prices were very high at the end of August, rice and wheat have fallen from 7£ 
and 6£ to 12 J and 8f seers per rupee respectively. 

8. The mortality returns of August have already been submitted to the 
Government of India. The hope was expressed in paragraph 12 of last month's 
report that there might be some improvement in August, but this hope has not 
been realized. The number of deaths has again risen over the province as a 
whole in spite of the fact that there has been a great abatement of cholera 
mortality. The following table shows the figures of the last three months : — 





Month. 


Cholera. 


Small-pox. 


All Causes. 






Jane 


22,788 


1,006 


70,728 






July 


13,753 


703 


71,055 






August ... ... ... 


8,639 


541 


78.753T 





The provincial death-rate per mille per mensem has thus risen from 6'82 to 
7-50, and in the Chhattisgarh Zamindaris from 726 to 8-49. 

9. While the total number of deaths has been grievously high, there has 
been a satisfactory decrease in the death-rate in Saugor, Jubbulpore, Betul, 
Chhindwara, Seoni, and Balaghat. In the following districts death-rates 
continue satisfactorily low : — 



District. 


Death-rate. 


Damoh ... ... 


3-58 


Jubbulpore 


3-91 


Narsinghpur 


3-50 


Mandla ... 


215 


Bilaspur 


4-26 







1056t> H.2 



Digitized by 



54 CENTRAL PROVIXCKS. 

The districts in which the rates are highest are : — 



District. 



Sambalpur 
Nimar ... 
Chhindwara 
Ward ha... 
Be till ... 
Chanda 
Nagpnr ... 




The reports by the local officers on the results of a special inquiry into 
mortality in Sambalpur have only just reached the Officiating Chief Commis- 
sioner, and he has not yet had time to examine the conclusions formed. In 
Nimar, as reported in previous months, there are good reasons for believing that 
the rate is deceptive and is not so high as the figures show, though, of course, 
much above normal. 

10. With all this heavy mortality it cannot be said that the condition of 
the people is bad, though the public health has been far from good. The 
amount of fever and bowel complaints to which all classes of the community 
have been subject has been very abnormal. It would be absurd to deny that a 
great portion of this mortality is due to the stress and strain which famine 
entails. But it is equally certain that, with the enormous extension of kitchen 
relief in July and August, few if any deaths can be ascribed to actual want of 
food. It has also to be borne in mind that the abnormally unhealthy conditions 
have prevailed among rich and poor, European and Native, alike. The returns 
for September are not yet fully available, but it is satisfactory to learn that, as 
far as can be judged, there has been a substantial improvement in some of the 
worst districts. 

11. The monthly report on famine relief in the Chhattisgarh Feudatories 
is forwarded as usual for the information of the Foreign Department. In most 
of these States early rice is beginning to come into the market, prices are falling, 
and relief is being rapidly contracted. 



No. 7. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. F. 2465, dated Nagpur, 
the 19 th November, 1900. 

I am directed to submit the monthly famine report for the period ending 
the 27th October together with the usual statements. No map is forwarded 
this month, as distress is now so rapidly abating that it seems hardly worth 
while preparing a map to show its distribution. 

2. Except in Chhattisgarh, where heavy rain fell in the first week of the 
month, there has been no rain in October. The weather has been clear and the 
nights cool with heavy dews at times. The fall at the beginning of October has 
finally secured the safety of the rice crop in Chhattisgarh. The harvesting of 
early rice has been in progress for some little time in that Division, and the 
main harvest is now just beginning. Excellent outturns are expected. In the 
Wainganga rice districts prospects are not quite so satisfactory, and the area 
sown has been smaller. Owing to the lateness of the monsoon, sowings were 
delayed and transplanting protracted. The heavy downpours at the end of 



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CENTRAL PBOVlNCBS. 



55 



September would ordinarily have finally secured the crop, but, owing to its 
backward condition, the dry October has caused some damage, and there are 
complaints that the crop growing on dry lands has suffered a good deal and will 
not yield a full outturn. Juar and cotton both promise a good yield, but the 
former suffered a good deal from excessive rain in the north of the Province. 
Til has not thrived very well in the Nerbudda Valley, and the late millets in 
Betul will give but a poor yield. On the whole, however, prospects are bright ; 
harvesting will shortly be at its height ; and distress is passing away. 

3. October was a month of general curtailment of relief Works were 
closed, kitchens reduced in number, and the persons fed at them eliminated. 
Curtailment could be carried out more rapidly in the northern districts where 
early millets and miscellaneous food crops are of much greater importance than 
in the south of the Province. Famine Circular No. 56 prescribed a procedure, 
but left it largely to the discretion of local officers to decide the precise date at 
which each stage of that procedure should be carried out. 

The usual tabular statements which follow show the extent to which 
contraction of relief was carried out in the several Divisions of the Province. 



Division. 


Belief 
Work. 


Depend- 
ants on 
Works. 


Poor- 
houses 
and 

Kitchens. 


Village 
Relief. 


Total 
gratui- 
tous. 


Grand 
Total. 


Jubbnlpore... • 


29th Sept., 1900... 
27th Oct. „ ... 


14,594 
1,458 


425 
60 


64,415 
6,369 


17,200 
5,380 


82,040 
11,809 


96,634 
13,267 


Nerbudda ... • 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


... 
... 


25,740 
765 


677 


68,936 
9,295 


19,968 
12,194 


89,581 
21,489 


115,321 
22,254 


Nagpnr 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


» ••• 
,, ... 


141,297 
26,574 


5,346 

227 


227,891 
79,300 


67,566 

38,873 


300,803 
118,400 


442,100 
144,974 


Chhattisgarh • 


29th Sept 
27th Oct. 


,, ... 
„ ... 


8,187 


1,698 


•440,764 
134,722 


30,907 
21,357 


473,369 
156,079 


481,556 
156,079 


Total ... 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


»> ••• 
... 


189,818 
28,797 


8,146 

287 


802,006 
229,686 


135,641 
77,804 


945,793 
307,777 


1,135,611 
336,574 



Details of the numbers shown as on work relief are given below : — 



Division. 


Public Works 
Department 
Works. 


Village 
Works. 


Forest 
Works. 


Weaver 

Relief. 


B. List. 


Jubbnlpore 


29th Sept., 1900 ... 
27th Oct. „ ... 


7,940 
1,458 


369 






6,285 


Nerbudda ... 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


„ 


3,933 


7,182 




5,908 


8,717 
765 


Nagpur 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


„ ... 
,, ... 


36,460 
1,715 


2,279 
942 


5,332 


17,902 


79,324 
23,917 


Chhattisgarh 


29th Sept. 
27th Oct. 


„ 

,, ... 


6,646 


1,541 








Total ... 


29th Sept. 


•> » ••• 


54,979 


. 11,371 


5,332 


23,810 


94^26 


; 27th Oct. 


n 


3,173 


942 






24,682 



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56 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



In the course of the month a million people have resumed their ordinary- 
avocations, and 85 per cent, of the enormous total on relief in August are now 
able to support themselves. A good deal of relief was however arranged to 
close at the end of October, and the figures for the week ending November 3rd 
are as follows : — 



Workers (B list) 
Poor-houses 
Kitchens... .. 
Village doles 



• • • 



Total 



5,233 
800 
132,273 
55,422 

193,728 



Complete figures are not available up to the 10th, but the telegraphed 
figures show 145,000 only on relief. Some districts report by telegram figures 
a week old, as the returns of the week are incomplete. The correct number is 
probably nearer 100,000. 

4. By the end df the month relief had been totally or nearly closed in 
Damoh, Mandla, Seoni, Narsinghpur, Chhindwara and Nimar, and of those 
returned as on relief on November 3rd all but 15,000 belong to the south of the 
Province. The, districts in which distress has been slowest to terminate are the 
rice districts of the south of the Province, and also Saugor, which has suffered 
from many years' depression, and Wardha, which depends almost entirely on 
the juar crop. In all of these a great reduction may be expected by the 25th 
current, and by the end of the month the relief lists should be clear of all but a 
few incapable paupers in poor-houses and pauper wards of dispensaries. 

5. Imports have now come to a practical standstill, but prices in some 
districts have not yet fallen to a very marked extent. Imports having now 
ceased, dealers are able to hold out for full prices until the new grain can come 
into the market in sufficient quantities to compel a fall. The demand for seed 
for sowing has also enabled them to keep up the prices of wheat and gram. 
Still in many districts prices are much easier than in September. Rice has 
touched 15 seers in Chhattisgarh, and has cheapened a seer or two in Bhandara 
and Balaghat. 

There is yet a month before the new rice and juar will come into market in 
large quantities, when the fall in prices should be -very great. The grains of the 
rabi season are not, however, likely to fall to normal rates until next spring. In 
Chanda, where the area sown is believed to have been very short, and early 
varieties are this year very little grown, prices remain obstinately high, but a 
fall cannot now be long delayed. 

6. ' The condition of the people is everywhere reported to be improving, 
but malarial fever has been very rife. Every class has suffered alike. The latest 
mortality returns available for the whole Province are those for September. 
This was the month in which the heaviest death-rate was apprehended, and it is 
satisfactory to find that on the whole there has been an improvement. The 
death-rates for the month of July, August and September campare as follows :— ^ 





District. 


Death rates per Miile per Mensem. 






July. 


August. 


September. 






Saugor 




7-46 


6-51 


5-60 






Damoh ... ... 




242 


3-58 


415 






Jubbulpore ... 




4-00 


3-91 


4-98 






Mandla 


... 


1/90 


215 


2-51 






Seoni ... ... 




. 5-61 


4-58 


3-80 






Narsinghpur 


... 


2-01 


3-50 


5-60 





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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



57 



District. 


Death rate per Mille per Mensem. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Hoehangabad — . ~~ 




7.AA 
• .4 n - 


£•18 

O XO 


Nimar .. 


1 ^ o* 


XO 04 


XU 00 


Betul ... ... ... 


XO DO 


11-11 


» ux 


Chhindwara 


1V78 

JL«J I O 


xo v/jy 


q.m 


Wardha 


XU A)0 




1 1-/1A 
XX 


Nagpur 


D Of 


o ox 




Chanda 


0 DO 




ii .ah 

XX SAJ 


Bhandara 


o 




7.19 


Balaghat 


7-07 


5-23 


4-08 


Raipur 


4-42 


5-90 


4-69 


Bilaspur 


3-86 


426 


3-97 


Sambalpur 


9-00 


'17-76 


15-89 


Total Khalsa 


6-82 


7-50 


t>-75 


ChhattiBgarb Zamindaris 


7-26 


8-49 


7-72 



7. In 13 out of the 18 districts there has been a fall in the death-rate 
recorded in September, the decline in the case of Nimar being specially satis- 
factory. Wardha and Chanda, the two districts in which a rise has occurred, 
*re also the two districts in which relief was slowest contracted. The 
grievously high death-rate in Sambalpur has been the subject of special 
inquiries. The reports of the local officers were incomplete in certain respects, 
and the Administrative Medical Officer was directed by the Officiating Chief 
Commissioner to visit Sambalpur in company with the Commissioner of the 
■Chhattisgarh Division, and to report. His report is awaited. 

The returns for October are not yet to hand, but, so far as they are 
available, they show a further decrease in the death-rate. If further reports 
confirm this result there will be every prospect of mortality returning to a more 
normal rate in the current month, and in December all unfavourable conditions 
should have passed away. 

8. This will be the last monthly report to be submitted, as the final report 
•on the whole famine is under preparation and it only remains now to wind up 
relief. As already stated, the kharif harvest will be in most places excellent 
and nowhere bad, and the prospects of the young rabi crops are at present 
encouraging. With the regular cold-weather showers a full yield should be 
obtained, and even without them there should be no failure. 

9. The report of the Political Agent, Chhattisgarh Feudatory States, is as 
usual attached for the information of the Foreign Department. Mr. Sly is able 
to write very hopefully of the prospects of the crops and condition of the people 
in these States. Relief has closed or is just closing in all of them. But in two 
"States, Patna and Sonpur, the mortality of the last two months, principally 
attributable to fevers, has been very excessive. A serious outbreak of dacoity 
occurred in Patna, for the suppression of which a special Police Officer with a 
body of British police has been detailed. It is believed that the outbreak, was 
largely due to the inefficiency of relief arrangements in a portion of that State, 
4md the Political Agent is dealing with this separately ; but it is noteworthy 



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58 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



that the heaviest mortality has occurred in the Sonpur State, where the arrange- 
ments made by the Chief nave earned special commendation. The question will 
be further dealt with in the Final Report. 



CROP STATISTICS. 



NO. 8. 



Note by C. W. E. Montgomery, Esq., Officiating Commissioner of Settlements 
and Agriculture, Central Provinces, on the Crop Statistics of the Central 
Provinces for the year 1899-1900, ending the 31s* May, 1900, dated 
Nagpur, Slst July, 1900. 

In accordance with the precedent of the last two years, I submit a brief 
note on the crop areas and yields of the past agricultural year, based on 
special returns compiled in the Forms B, C and D appended to the Chief 
Commissioner's Annual Resolution on the Land Revenue Administration. 

Statistics for the Jagirs of the Chhindwara District are for the first time 
included. 

The returns for the Zamindaris of Chanda were not received in time for 
compilation and, in default, the figures of the previous year were used. 

2. The inclusion of the statistics for the Zamindaris is sometimes a source 
of weakness. For want of funds, the Land Record Staff in the Zamindaris is 
not yet fully organised and can with difficulty secure accuracy ; and the area 
for which returns are made is liable to yearly increase. For this reason, 
separate figures for the khalsa area, excluding the Zamindaris and Jagirs, are 
in some cases given in this note. 

3. The pervading feature of the season was a failure of the monsoon, so- 
complete as to be unparalleled for sixty years, falling upon resources drained 
by previous failures. The north of the Provinces suffered somewhat less than 
the south. 

4. The returns show the occupied areas for the last three years, as 
Statement, C.I. follows, in acres : — 



Year. 


Including Zamindaris. 


Excluding Zamindaris. 




Acres. 


Acres. 


1897-98 


21,613,583 


18,925,093 


1898-99 


21,647,422 


18,923,134 


1899-1900 


21,718,066 


18,968,134 



The increase of 46,000 acres in the khalsa is satisfactory, but needs to be 
taken with qualifications ; the cultivated and cropped areas are a more ready 
guide. The Jubbulpore Division shows a decrease, the other three Divisions an 
increase ; but district figures vary greatly. The largest decrease in a district., 
however, is 3 per cent, in Saugor. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 59 



5. The following figures indicate the progress of cultivation as shown by 
the area cropped : — 



District*. 


1897-98. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 


* w»»«J.VMSj>ajO 

increase (+) 

(11* dtTsftrABAA 

(-)of 
colnmn 4 
on oolnmn 3. 


Percentage 
increase 
(+>or 
decrease 

(-)of 

oolnmn 4 

on 
oolnmn 3. 


1 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Acres. 


Aores. 


Acres. 






Bangor 


754,777 


697,711 


686,544 


—2 


— » 


Damoh ... ... ... ... ••• ... 


433,283 


403,344 


417,914 


+* 


—4 


J ubbulpore ... ... ... ... ... 


889,320 


!>42,666 


863,641 


—8 


—8 


Mandla ' 


446,923 


483,027 


492,461 


+2 


+10 


Seoni ■•• ■•• ••• ••• *•• ••• 


574,339 


695,812 


552,260 


—7 | 


—4 


i 

Total Jubbnlpore Division ..J 


3,098,642 


3,122,660 


3,012.700 


-4 i 


—3 


TVauroriTKrhmiF 

<W MW UglipUI ••■ *•• ••• •!• ••• 




009, 1 <6o 


rr i aeo 




ii 
+* 


Hoeh&ngabad ... ... "... ... ... 


857,227 


857,842 


812,942 


—6 


—5 


•Ni^nar ■*■ ... (.. ... ... 


562,069 


578,966 


515,332 


+1 


+4 


Betul ... ... ... ... ... 


528,049 


668.518 


464,261 


—30 


—14 


( Khalsa 

Ohhindwara >... < 

(Jagirs 


691,617 
67,266 


720,643 
83,892 


608,634 
89,918 


—16 
+f 


—12 
+8* 


Total Nerbudda i Inolttdin «f ***** - 


3,251,506 


3,348,984 


3,102,189 


—7 


—7 


Division. 1 Exolndimr do 


ft 1K1 9At\ 


ft OCK AOO 


3,01 4y»l 


o 

— O 


at 

— O 


Wardha 


916,854 


903,035 


788,553 


—18 


—16 


Nagpnr 


1,247,042 


1,224,818 


1,177,550 


-4 


—6 


. Khalsa 

Ohanda < 

( Zanundaria ... , ... 


615,688 
202,746 


607,260 
191,134 


530,444 
191,184 


—9 

m 


—11 
—6 


( Kh&lsa 

Bhandara < 

I Zamindaria 


561,274 
235,848 


569,347 
257,204 


469,029 
192,011 


—18 
—26 


—16 
—18 


( Khalaa ... 
Balaghat \ 

• (Zamindaria 


244,068 
88,708 


289,032 
84,891 


309,768 
77,352 


—27 
—8 


—14 
—IS 


Total Nagpnr 1 Inolndin « Zamindaria 
Diviaton. \ Excluding do. ... 


4,111,708 
3,584,916 


4,136,131 
3,593,892 


3,650,740 
8,190,848 


—12 
—11 


—11 
—11 


(Khalaa 

Raipor ... ... i 

( Zamindaria 


1,978,588 


2,054,369 


1,948,748 


—5 


— 1 


409,720 


481,963 


458,874 


+5 


+1* 


(Khalaa 

Bflaapnr < 

( Zamindaria 


1,126,636 
368,779 


1,231,313 
376,449 


1,165,783 
379,717 


—6 
+1 


+* 
+» 


• Khalaa 

Bambalpor ... < 

( Zamindaria 


618,032 
499,407 


648,453 
563,661 


637,878 
536,028 


—2 
—6 


+8 

+6 


Total Ohhattto- ( Indndtog Zamindaria 
* Mhmvi,d H Excluding do. ... 


4,994,062 
3,722,156 


6,296,107 
3,934,085 


6,110,373 
8,751,758 


—3 
—5 


+» 

+1 


Provincial 1 Inoludin « Zamindaria 
ToTAL - ( Excluding da ... 


15,455,918 
13,689,954 


15,893,772 
13,915,079 


14,875,961 

13,967,017 


—6 


—4 
—4 



10566 



Digitized by 



60 



CINTHAL PROVINCES. 



The Province shows a decrease of a million .acres in the i area dropped. 
Large areas were prepared for both kharif and rabi, but much was, ajlowed taj 
lie fellow for want of rain. The cropped area has sunk even below the level of 
189" -9 7. In the khalsa, decrease is. most marked in the Betul, Chhindwara, 
Wardha, Bhandara and Balaghat Districts, Damoh ; Mandla, Narsinghpur and 
Nimar show a slight increase, ■.. 

t 

4. The contraction o£ the cropped area has occasioned a large expansion 
of the area under current fellows, which has increased by nearly a million acres 
from the area of 1898-99. 

The area under old fellow has also increased ef*ice 1898-99 by a million 
and a-half acres. 

5. Double-cropping. — The area double-cropped during s^e past three years 
is contrasted belowi : — J 



r— — 

Tear. 


Including 
Zamindaris. 


Excluding 
Zamindaris. | 








Acres. 


Acres. 




1897-98 

i 


... 


1,1*9,222 


1,025,692 




1898-99 


•« ... 


1,235,684 


1,089,618 




1899-1900 ... 




167,855 


142,370 





The ground was far top dry for double-cropping and the current year's 
area is only one-eighth of that of the previous year. Double-cropping is of 
great importance in the two districts Raipur and Bilaspur, and in the khcdsa of 
these two districts, the double-cropped area fell from 545,571 acres to 49,375. 
The fell was also serious in Jubbulpore, Mandla, Chanda, Bhandara and Balaghat, 
especially the two last. 



Statement C-II. 



6. The total area irrigated in each of the 
three years is : — 



1 . . 
(. . ! 

1 1 ' 


* 

1897-98. 


1898-99. 


. 1899-1900. 




AcreB. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Area including Jagire and Zamiddari 8 ... 


562,784 


654,269 


352,232 


Percentage to total cropped area 


3-6 


41 


2-3 


Area excluding Jagira and Zamindaris 


468,171 


523,786 


274,085 


Percentage to total cropped area including Jagire 
and Zamindaris. 

. . . 1 , 


3-4 


3 5 


21 



Since there was but littlje water in either flanks or wells, irrigation fell off 
greatly. The number of both temporary anq durable irrigation wells -has 
considerably increased, but without water they vpre of but little use. 

7. The returns show the number of plough-cattle as having decreased by 
190,696, .or by 7 per cent. This, of course! does not include the loss of 
cattle whjch occurred in the hot weather after the patwaris had compiled their 
papers. ' ( -- • 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



T 1 ; - •» • 8; The following statetoent- centraBte the 

Statements D-I. and D-IL kharif and rabi cropping for the 1 three 'yeArfe 

1897-98, 1898-99 and 1899^-1900 ? — ; ■'•'••i 







1897-98. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900., 


Increase 7* 
xjt decrease *! 

.IS99-J900,, 
from 
1998-99. 

r 










Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Per cent. 


( Including Zamindaris 
Kharif... j 

( Excluding do. 


1 1 0/*T COO 

11,867,533 
10,103,562 


11,713,991 
9,934,570 


1 1 /*aa on/* 

11,622,396 
9,819,703 


— 1 

- 1 


{ Including do. 
Rabi ... j 

( Excluding do. 


4,737,607 
4,512,084 


5,414,465 
5,142,127 


3,421,410 
3,289,684 


-37 
-36 


Total 


Including Zamindaris 
Excluding Zamindaris 


16,605,140 


17,128,456 
1 1 07 fi fiQ7 


15,043,806 

AO, ' w,00 1 


-12 


Dedubt donhle- 


Including Zamindaris 


1,149,222 


1,235,684 


167,855 • 




cropping. 


Excluding Zamindaris 


1,025,692 


I,05i»,618 


142,370 


t 


Nbt Abba 


Including Zamindaris 
Excluding Zamindaris 


15,455,918 
13,589,954 


15,892,772 
13,915,079 


14,875,951 
12,967,017 


- 6 

- 7 



The area under kharif was virtually the same as in the previous year, but 
the area under rabi fell off by over one-third and was even less than that of 
1896-97. The gross cropped area decreased by 12 per cent., and the net cropped 
area by half as much. 



9. The area under the principal crops of the kharif season contrast as 
follows with that of the two preceding years : — 



Crop. 


1897-98. 


1898-991 


1899-1900. 


Increase ' 
or decrease, , ', 
from 
1898-99. 




Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Per cent. 1 


Ri£© ■ • • • • • ••• ■ • • •■• 


4,824,242 


5,120,405 


4,722,035 


- 8 


J U&l* ••• • • • ••• ••• ••• 


1,077,206 


803,356 


909,254 


+13 


Juar-tur 


1,248,532 


1,055,626 


1,230,192 


+16 


QTuf ••• ••• ••• 


, 175,887 


166,288 


193,049 


,+16 . 


Cotton and Cotton-tur 


734,477 


734,538 


805,289 


+io ; 


Til 


557,362 


510,587 


806,654 


+58 


Kodon and Kutki 


* 1,651,838 


1,705,267 


1,726,372 


+ 1 


Sugarcane ... ... ... ... 


27,081 


25,687 


25,205 


— 2 



Rice has fallen, off substantially > and sugarcane slightly ; the other cropi 
have increased. 

10666 I 2 



Digitized by 



CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



10. Hice.— -There has been a contraction of 398,370 acres, or 8 per cent, 
in the area under rice. In the Chhattisgarh Division there has actually been an 
increase, and consequently the area under broadcasted rice, over four million 
acres, shows a small increase. It is in the Wainganga districts that the decrease 
chiefly occurs, and the area under transplanted rice — the speciality of those 
districts — shows a violent shrinkage from 839,000 to 423,000 acres. Trans- 
plantation was terribly hindered by want of rain. 

The exports of rice for the last three years are as under : — 





Tear. 


Mounds. 






1897—98 ••• •■> ••* 


866,218 






1898-99 


2,233,325 






1899-1900 


788,124 





Even the small export of 1899-1900 includes the reserved stocks of pre- 
ceding years, and the needs of the Provinces were chiefly met by imports of 
rice lrom Calcutta and Burmah. 



11. Juar. — Combining juar with juar-tur, the area under crop 

Year. Acres. 



is :- 





Year. 


Acres. 






1897—98 ... ... ... ... 


2,325,738 






1898—99 ... ... ... 


1,858,982 




1899-1900 


1 

2,139,446 

i 



The area has increased by 280,464 acres, or 15 per cent. The increases 
occur particularly in the rice districts. Juar and tur were substituted for rice 
in fields which were too dry for rice. 

Almost everywhere the juar crop began well and for a long time resisted 
the drought better than any other, but the continued absence of rain and 
abnormal heat eventually caused the plants to dry up without flowering. In 
Jubbulpore and Raipur, and in the districts of the Nagpur and Kerbudda 
Divisions, the crop was almost a complete failure and most of it was cut for 
fodder. Ringni juar has generally done better. 

12. Tur. — The area sown with tur has increased by 26,761 acres, or by 
16 per cent. The rainfall was favourable to the crop at the time of sowing 
which accounts for the expansion in the cropped area. The increase is noticeable 
in the Nagpur and Chanda districts and in the Bilaspur Zamindaris. 

13. Cotton and Cotton-tur. — The area urider cotton and its admixture has 
increased by 70,750 acres, or by 10 per cent. The decrease in 1897-98 in the 
area under this crop was due partly to the desire of tenants to replenish food 
stocks and partly to their impoverished condition, owing to which they could 
not afford to pay for agricultural operations. 

In 1898-99 trade was dull, and there was little incentive to sow. The 
current year's increase was an indication of the improved condition' of the 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



63 



cultivators and of brisker trade. The following are the figures for the chief 
cotton-growing districts : — 



District. 


1887-98. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 


JJiinar ... ... ... ... ... ... 

^Vardha ... ••• .... ■■* ... 

N&gpur ... •■• ... ••• •-• 

Chhindwara, including Jagirs 


Mannds. 
126,598 

284,147 

140,764 

50,276 


Mannds. 

134,106 

305,228 
153,533 
49,146 


Mannds. . 
151,458 

. 309,968 

177,404 ' 

58,406 


The exports of the past three years, from the 1st October up to the 
17th June, are : — 


Distriot. 


Bales of 8J ewts. 


1897-98. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 


Nerbudda Division 

Nagpur Division ... 


48,116 
60,136 


48,581 
89,785 


31,828 
66,312 



The crop was very poor, but fortunately the market was brisk and exports 
were much larger in comparison with those of the two previous years than the 
outturn of the crop would have indicated. 

14. Til. — The expansion of the area under til, by 296,067 acres, or 58 
per cent., is one of the redeeming features of the season. The season favoured 
sowing operations, both of the early and late varieties, and this induced culti- 
vators to place larger areas than usual under this crop. The difficulty experienced 
in obtaining wheat and other expensive rabi seed was a further stimulus in the 
same direction. The crop was poor, but the demand was good, and the very 
heavy exports put some money into the cultivators' pockets. 

The exports for the past three years, for the period 1st October to 17th June, 
have been : — 





Tear. 


Bags of 2J Mannds. 






1897 - 98 ••* •■• •■• 


518,895 






1898-99 


425,102 






1899—1900 ... ... ... ... 


783,776 





The increased export is very satisfactory, even though it was partly drawn 
from reserved stocks. 

15. Kodon and Kutki. — The area under these hill millets remained 
practically unchanged. The crop was a poor one, surviving best in Chhattisgarh. 

16. Sugarcane. — The cultivation of sugarcane continues to decline ,* and 
this year the crop was poor. 

Sugarcane never does well without a few heavy downpours in the rains. 
These it did not get. Moreover, in the majority of wells, water was insufficient 
for proper irrigation, and much of the crop was, therefore, cut before its time, 
and produced inferior qur. 



Digitized by 



V .17. Qtkw 4fiopt*~> The.flgurqa for.^ese crops are qontntsted belqw,.: 



Orop. 



1(101— VQ. 



4MMLM 



Urad, Mung and Moth 
Castor ... ... 

Ban (Hemp) 

Grove* and Orchard! 
Garden crops ... . ... 

Miscellaneous Food-crops 
Miscellaneous Non-food-crops 



Acres. 
522,906 

317,961 

53,664 

45,826 

26,358 

345,474 

258,919 



Acres. 
544,842 

363,508 

38,767 

41,224 

32,097 

313,680 

258,119 



Acres. 
273,045 

243,283 

42,963 

39,473 

31,414 

344,179 

229,9'89 



18. Babi crops; —The following table shows the areas under rabi during 
the past three years : — 



1887-1898. 


! 

1898-1899. 


1896-1900. 


Increase or Decrease 
of 1899-1900 Figures 
over those of 189849. 


Increase or Decrease 
of 1899-1900 Figures 
over those of 1897-98. 








Actual. 


Per- 
oentage. 




Per- 
centage. 


275383 


338,149 


301364 


— 36,785 


— 11 


+ 26341 


4- 9. 


138,967 


204,436 


178373 


— 23,463 


— 12 


— 10384 


— 6 


523360 


657,970 


S7833S 


— 179372 


- 32 


— 144,452 


— 28 


1*1*574 


134324 


83,772 


— 60352 


— 40 


- 67302 


— 40 


239,470 


285,781 


248,092 


— 37388 


- 13 


+ 8322 


+ 4 


1.389,874 


1330350 


1,191399 


— 328361 


— 22 


— 177375 


1 

— 18 


254,789 


807,197 


268388 


- 48,489 


• —18 


+ S3T» 


+ ,» , 


464332 


527396 


603,412 


— 24384 


— 6 


+ 38380 


+ 8 


43,310 


60387 


7,'40 


- 62,747 


- 88 


- 36,470 


-88. 


164,838 


194302 


86368 


- 10733* 


- 66 


- 77370 


•-47. 


217,427 


247336 


121328 


— 126308 


— 51 


— 86398 


— 44 


Xxf,l*n 


ik man 




+ . 581 


+ 4 


- 3,766 


- 1» . 


1,164,640 


1352375 


993,394 


- 369,481 


- 27 


- 171346 


-•is" 


1,144396 


1337,478 


977,416 


- 860,062 


-27 


- 167480 


- 14 


i 

214362 


266373 


66333 


- 193340 


-74 


- 147329' 


- 69 


486,708 


523306 


324361 


- 198348 


-38 


- 161347 


- 33 


241,467 


248385 


180306 


- 67.779 


- 27 


- 60361 


-26 


16341 


17362 


17,062 






+ 121 


+ 1 


242312 


282,728 


141,466 


- 141382 


- 60 


- 101346 


-42 


72338 


82336 


17369 


- 64367 


-78 


- 64369 


- 76 


76,879 


113,476 


27.748 


- 85,727 


- 76 


- 48331 


-64 


27,084 


39349 


11319 


- 27330 


-70 


- 15465 


- 66 


1377,291 


1366,417 


787.664 


- 778J5S 


-60 


- 689327 


-48 


1,360,928 


1,427.470 


740,714 


- 686,768 


-48 


- 520314 


-41 


wism 


626368 


195304 


- 329364 


-69 


- 266376 


-88 


44347 


56.146 


36,147 




- 86 


- 9300 


, -a 


266366 


319,631 


180350 


- 138381 


— 43 


- 85306 


- 32 


88436 


52361 


30308 


- 22343 


- 42 


- 8328 


— 21 


8351 


11340 


3,401 


- 8439 


- 71 


- 5360 


— 81 


6333 


10397 


3^43 


- 7454 


- 70 


- 3390 


- 62 ' 


826,003 


974323 


'448,8."»3 


- 523370 


- 54 


- 377349 


- 48 


736386 


866329 


379355 


- 476374 


- 66 


- 356,731 


-49 


4,737307 


6,414*466 


' 1 1 ) 
^421.410 


-1393356 


-87 


-1316487 


~» 


4312384. 


5442027 


3389384 


-1362,443 


r 86 


-132&V400 


- 27 



Divi- 
sion. 



District. 



Bangor 
Damon . . 
Jubbulpore 



Seoni 



Total 



Narsinghpur 
Hoshangabad 
Nlmar .. 
Beta! 



Ohbindwara 



(Khaka 
I Jagirs 



Total 



{Including Jagirs . 
Excluding Jagirs. 



Wardha 
Nagpur 

Ohanda 



Bhandara 
Bhalaghat .. 



fKhalsa 
(Zamlndaris 
Khalsa 
Zamlndaris 
fKhalsa 
( Zamlndaris 



Total 

Balpnr 
Bilaspur 
Sambalpnr.. 

Total 



{Including Zamlndaris . 
Excluding Zamlndaris. 



I Zamlndaris 
fKhalsa 
( Zamlndaris 



(zamlndaris 



( Including Zamlndaris . 
( Excluding Zamlndaris. 



GRAND ( Including Zamlndaris .. 
TOTAL. J Ezcladlrj g Zamlndaris. 



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>> The shrinkage ift the sooth' was much more Btwrtgent thai -footle north ; 
the Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions show a decrease of a quarteiy b&t) then 
Nagpur ana -€lhhattisgarh Bwi&ioas^ decrease -of -a half. — — 

After the recovery of the previous year, it is deplorable to find the current 
year's rabi area below that of 1896-97. 

19. Wheat. — The areas under wheat and wheat-gram for the past three 
years are aa follows : — 



Crop. 


1897-98. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 

.../'I. 


Wlieat ... ... ... ... ••• 


Acres. 
1,570,726 


Acres. 
1,792,484 


• Acres.' ' • 
1,078,938 


Wheat-gram ... ... ... 


744,845 


890,744 


658,771 


/ Total 


2,315,671 


2,683^28 


1,777,709 



According to the accepted formula, the true area under wheat would be ' 
as shown below : — 





Tear. 


Aon*. • 






1897-^98 ••• ••• ••• ••• 


2,203344 . 






1898 - 99 ••■ ••• 


2,549,616 


, < » 




1899-1900 


1,672,893 





The current year's area is 34 per cent; less than the previous year's. 

The normal wheat area of the Central Provinces is four million acres. In 
1896-97 the area shrank to less than two million acres, but in the present year- 
it was even less. The decline is most marked in Nimur and Wardha, but there 
the normal area is unimportant. 

The season was very unfavourable to wheat. The soil was dry, the heat 
above normal, and the usual dews did not fall. With so small a prospect of a 
successful crop many cultivators had left their fields unsown. Mandla is the 
only district which reports a normal outturn ; elsewhere a normal outturn was 
impossible. 

20. Gram. — The area under this pulse has also declined by 185,433 
acres, and on the whole only half a normal outturn was got in. 

21. Linseed. — The area under linseed has also shrunk largely. The area 
returned is only a quarter of the average. The shrinkage is most marked in , 
the important linseed-growing parts of Nagpur and Chhattisgarh. The area 
under this crop during the past three years is as under : — 





Tear. 


Aores. 






1897—98 ... ... ... •• 


635,770 






1898-99 ... ... ... ... 


■ 766,578 






1899-1900 ... 


250,699 





The .outturns are very poor throughout the Provinces. In Mandla, 
where the rain in January benefitted the crop, the outturn is reported to be 70. 
No other district reports even half a normal crop ; in Nimar ana Wardha it was 
a complete failure. The outturn of the linseed erop is estimated this year at 
only 4,3il tons, find represents only one-fourteenth of either the previous year's 
crop or of the average. 



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CENTRAL PBOVINOKfl. 



22.- The following statement shows the areas under peas, masur, and 
teori (Ukh) 



i Crop. 


1897-98. 


1898-99. 


1899 -190& 






Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Focus **• ••• 


••• 


92,280 


129,020 


72,190 


l£&sur ••• . •• ••• 


••• • • • 


188,534 


180,353 


132,203 


Teori (lakh) 


••• 


382^44 


444406 


164,923 



The decrease in area was accompanied by a failure of the crops. 

23. These are the true features of a year of universal agricultural 
depression, which has annihilated the improvement that followed the famine of 
1897, and still further reduced the resources of the cultivators. 

24. The average outturn (in the American notation) of all food stuffs was 
53 in 1896-97, and 100 in 1897-98. It has fallen to 35 in the year under 
report. This is a clear indication that the gravity of the present famine is &r 
greater than it was in the famine of 1896-97 — 1897-98. 

25. Moreover, as the following table shows, the outturn of the year was 
only a quarter of the normal outturn of all crops on their normal area : — 



District, 


Outturn expressed 
in percentage of 
normal crop. 


Percentage by 
which cropping 
baa fallen below 
normal. 


Out-turn of district. 
100=normftl out- 
turn on normal 
area. 


Saagor 


• • • • 


48 


—33 


32 


Damoh 




59 


-28 


43 


Jnbbnlpore .. 




34 


—27 


25 


Manilla 




50 


—14 


43 


Beoni ... 


• ••• ••• ••• 


47 


—27 


34 


Narsinghpur .. 




47 . 


—19 


38 


Eoshangabad 




39 


—17 


32 


Nimar 


• ••• ••• ••• 


17 


— 3 


16 


Betul 




28 


-30 


20 


Chbindwara • 


Khalea 

Jagirs 


27 

29 




— 4 


26 


Waidha 




34 


—16 


29 


Nagpur 


. ... ... ••»■ 


37 


— 6 


35 


Chanda 


Khalea ... ... 

Zamindaris 


33 
21 




1 - 


27 


i Khalea 

Bhandara ... j 

( Zaniindaris 


20 
13 


J —38 


12 


Balaghat ... 


Khalsa 

Zamindaris 


23 
23 


| —51 


11 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



67 



Distriote. 



Outturn expressed 
in percentage of 
normal crop. 



Percentage by 
whioh cropping 
hM fallen below 
normal. 



Outturn of district 
100 — normal out- 
turn on normal 



Raipur 

Bilaspur ... j 
Sambalpur . 



Khalsa 
Zamindaris 
! Khalsa 
Zamindaris 
Khalsa 
Zamindaris 



Total for the Provinces 



26 
30 
25 
26 
40 
42 



34 



—38 



—29 



\ - 



—24 



16 



18 



39 



26 



No. 9. 

Note by F. G. Sly, Esq., Commissioner of Settlements and Agriculture, on the 
Agricultural Statistics of the Central Provinces for the year ending the. 
?Ast May, 1901, dated Nagpur, the 20th August, 1901. 

This brief note on the crop areas and yields of the past agricultural year 
is based on special returns compiled in the Forms B, C (1) and (2) and D '1) 
and (2) appended to tbe Chief Commissioner's Annual Resolution on the 
Revenue Administration of the Central Provinces. The crop statements have 
been re-cast in accordance with recent instructions, and, where possible, the 
figures of previous years have been revised in order to admit of true comparison,, 
but in some few minor crops this has not been possible. 

The returns relate to the same areas as those of the previous year with the 
exception of the addition of a few newly-settled ryotwari villages, which are of 
no importance except in Nimar. In portions of the districts of Chanda, Raipur r 
Bilaspur, and Sambalpur, in which the land record staff was employed upon 
settlement or map correction, the statistics are estimates only and not compiled 
from field inspection. 

2. The monsoon set in about the middle of June, and during that month 

gave good rain in Raipur and Sambalpur, 
Rainfall. moderate rain in Saugor, Seoni, Nimar, Chhind- 

wara, Nagpur, Chanda, Balaghat, and Bilaspur, 
but only light showers elsewhere. In most of the northern districts of the 
Province there was very little rain, and great anxiety prevailed in that part until 
the second week in July, when excellent general rain fell, the showers in the 
northern districts being particularly heavy. In the latter half of July the rain- 
fall was heavy in Saugor, Damoh, Narsinghpur, and Balaghat, and good showers 
fell in the remaining districts of the Province. The first week of August 
brought good rain to all the districts of the Nagpur and Nerbudda Divisions, 
and the falls were still heavier in the Jubbulpore and Chhattisgarh Divisions. 
In the second week of this month heavy rain fell over the whole of the Provinces. 
During the second half of the month the rainfall was light with short breaks in 
most of the districts of the Nerbudda and Nagpur Divisions, but was heavy over 
almost the whole of the Jubbulpore Division, Narsinghpur, and the Chhattisgarh 



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CENTRAL fcRtfVIUOas. 



country. During the first half of September heavy rain continued in Chhattis- 
garh and in Jubbulpore, Mandla, and Nimar, and moderate to lig^ht rain fell in 
the other districts of the. Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions, blight showers 
only were received in the Nagpur country. In the latter half of September 
continuous but moderate rain again fell in the Jnbbulpore Division, and there 
were more or less heavy falls in Chhattisgarh. In the Nagpur and Nerbudda 
Divisions slight showers fell in the third week, but were followed by heavy and 
continuous rain in the last week of that month. In the first half of October a 
cyclonic storm gave heavy rain in Raipur and Bilaspur, but with this exception 
the month was practically rainless and the monsoon withdrew unusually early, 
no rain being received in November. The rainfall was thus fairly suitable for 
kharif crops. 

The rainfall in December was confined to the plateau and northern districts, 
but was unusually heavy. The weather during January was very unsettled and 
fairly general rain fell, the districts in the Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions 
receiving moderate fells, and the Nagpur and Chhattisgarh country light 
showers. Showery weather* prevailed throughout the Provinces during 
February, the falls being -heaviest in the Nagpur and Chhattisgarh Divisions'. 
Showers were also registered in March, April, and May. The distribution of 
rainfall during the second half of the year was thus most unusual, no rain for 
the most part being received in October and November, whilst exceptionally 
heavy showers fell in the following months. The conditions under which the 
rabi crops were sown were, therefore, not altogether favourable, and the subse- 
quent heavy showers injured the crops when flowering and in the ear. The 
Provinces were visited by several hailstorms during the year. Taking the 
Province as a whole, the rainfall in the year averaged 55*46 inches, as compared 
With 44*65, the normal rainfall. 

3. The season was generally a favourable one for kharif crops. Sowings 

were retarded in some districts, but the subsequent 
Character of the season. rainfall was sufficient. The outturn of rice was 

generally iip to the average. Jubbulpore and 
Sambalpur reaped a bumper crop, whilst the outturn in the important rice 
districts of Raipur and Bilaspur was but little, if at all, below the average. 
Transplanted rice generally did better than broadcasted rice, but the crop did 
not equal the normal in Seoni, Bhandara, and Chanda. Juar gave a fair yield 
everywhere, and was quite up to the average in most of the important juar- 
growing tracts. The year was a most favourable one for cotton, and the 
yield was generally a full one. There seems but litte doubt that the district 
estimates are below the mark. The outturn of til varied considerably from 
district to district ; in the important til -growing tracts of the north an average 
harvest was reaped, but in Chhattisgarh it was somewhat below the normal. 
The smaller millets, kodon and kutki, which are important food-crops, gave a 
bumper yield in the north and an average yield elsewhere. Arhar was the only 
important kharif crop which did badly, being spoiled by rain at flowering time 
and by the attacks of caterpillars. The yield was generally only half the 
average, and was very small in Raipur, Bilaspur, the Nagpur country, and the 
Nerbudda valley. 

The rabi crops were singularly unequal. The conditions under which 
wheat was sown were not altogether favourable owing to the absence of 
October rain, but a good crop was anticipated until prospects were injured by 
the excessive rain in January, February and March, which injured the grain in 
the . ear and induced rust. The yield was about three-fourths of the normal, 
being better than this in the northern and plateau districts, but much worse in 
the Nagpur country. Gram fared still worse, principally owing to the attacks 
of caterpillars ; the average yield was about half the normal, Jubbulpore, 
Hoshangabad, and Raipur being even much below this. The yield of linseed 
was also a poor one, being little better than one-third of the normal, the northern 
districts again doing better, whilst the crop was almost a complete failure in 
the Nagpur country. 



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CJESTtAL -PBOYIlfCKS; : 



69: 



4. Statement C (1). — The statistics of the occupied 'area require some 

explanation. Unless formally relinquished, hold- 
Progress of cultivation. ings left fallow are not struck off the records until 
Occupied area. ' they have been abandoned for a period of two 

years. The abandonment of land is, therefore, 
often not recorded in the year in which it occurs, and it is probable that in 
some districts the statistics overstate the occupied area. This has risen from 
21,688,948 to 21,787,638, or by 98,690 acres. The Jubbulpore, Nerbudda, 
and Nagpur Divisions show increases over the figures of last year of 77,600,. 
35,600, and 25,800 acres respectively ; while the Chhattisgarh Division shows 
a decrease of 40,400 acres. In the Jubbulpore Division the districts of Mandla' 
and Seoni show the largest increases. Of the Districts in the Nerbudda 
Division the occupied area in Nimar has risen by 37,696 acres. The districts of 
Narsinghpur and Chhindwara (Khalsa) show slight increases, while the 
area in Betul has fallen by some 15,000 acres. 

In the Nagpur Division, the areas in Wardha, Nagpur, Chanda (Khalsa), 
Bhandara (Zamindaris), and Balaghat (Khalsa and Zamindaris) show an 
increase, while the Chanda, Zamindaris, and the Khalsa portion of Bhandara* 
exhibit a decrease. 

In the Chhattisgarh Division, the statistics are not reliable owing to map 
correction being in progress, but the decrease largely consists of holdings 
abandoned in tne famine of 1896-97, which have now for the first time been 
struck off the records. It is not improbable that other holdings subsequently' 
abandoned should be struck off. There is some increase in Raipur (Khalsa), 
Bilaspur (Zamindaris) and Sambalpur (Khalsa), whilst the decrease is in the 
Raipur Zamindaris, Bilaspur Khalsa and Sambalpur Zamindaris. The severity 
of the last famine has left its mark upon this Division. 

5. The area placed under crops in 1899-1900 was the smallest recorded 

rw*n«H am* f° r years past, smaller than in the famine year 

uroppeaarea. q£ lg96 _ 97 The of ^ raing m nQt 

admit of sowing. The present figures show a small recovery of 480,131 
acres, or 3 per cent. To judge of the effect of the famine, the present figures 
should be compared with those of 1898-99, and this comparison shows a 
falling-off of 560,120 acres, or 3f per cent. The sowing seasons were fairly 
suitable, and this decrease must be ascribed to deterioration caused by the last 
famine added to the fact that it was „ almost impossible in some districts to 
procure some grains for seed, notably rice, although there was money ready to, 
purchase it. .The fact that the decrease is not much larger is due to the 
assistance given to cultivators by agricultural loans and grants from the 
Charitable Fund, The effect of the famine has varied in different parts of the 
Provinces. In the Jubbulpore Division there has been no backward step but, 
an advance, the area placed under crop been larger than in 1898-99. The 
Nerbudda and Nagpur Divisions are also nearly as well off in this respect as in, 
that year. It is the Chhattisgarh Division which shows the most deterioratioa 
in spite of the liberal famine relief, and these varying results are in accord with 
other ascertained facts of the comparative severity of the famine in the different 
divisions. 

Taking the figures of the year, the cropped area increased in all the 
divisions, save Chhattisgarh. The increase in the Jubbulpore, Nerbudda and 
Nagpur Divisions was 302,883, 183,664 and 482,739 acres respectively. This 
increase is most marked in Jubbulpore, Seoni, Chhindwara (Khalsa), Wardha, 
Nagpur and Bhandara (Khalsa and Zamindaris). The area in the Chmda 
Zamindaris fell by 62,000 acres. 

The Chhattisgarh Division shows a decrease of 489,155 acres, which is 
common to all three districts, Khalsa and Zamindaris. Taking the year 

10566 K 3 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



1895-96, which was a fairly normal one, as a standard of 100, the decrease has 
been as follows : — 



District 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 


1900-1901. 


Raipur, Khalsa ... ... ... ... ... ... 


99 


94 


91 


Bilaspnr, Khalsa 


102 


97 


92 


Sambalpur, Khalsa 


110 


105 


91. 



Whilst this decrease is largely, due to deterioration caused by the famine of 
the previous year, a good deal of it is accounted for by an actual inability to 
obtain rice seed by cultivators who had the means to purchase it, and a quick 
recovery is expected with good seasons. The cultivators who freely used Bengal 
rice for food had considerable mistrust of it for seed. 

6. The expansion of the cropped area in the Jubbulpore, Nerbudda and 
Current and old fallows. Nagpur Divisions has occasioned a contraction in 

the area under current fallows by 284,463, 14o,937 
and 415,089 acres, respectively. The area under current fallows in Chhattisgarh 
increased by 417,161 acres, but whilst the total fallow area in this division is 
probably not far different from that recorded, there is most likely considerable 
error in the classification between old and new fallow. 

The area under old fallow has increased by 59,185 acres in the Jubbulpore 
and by 31,578 acres in the Chattisgarh Division. The decrease in the Nerbudda 
and Nagpur Divisions is 2,056 and 41,^20 acres respectively. Land not cropped 
in the two previous years has now been transferred from new to old fallow, and 
in some districts where this has been accompanied by an increase of the occupied 
area, it is reported that cultivators have not again cultivated fallow lands 
overrun with kans (Saccharum spontaneum), but have preferred the easier task 
of breaking up waste land. 



7. The double-cropped area rose from 164,567 to 959,739 acres. In the 

t. . , Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions the double- 

Donble-cropping. s . . - r 

cropped area is in excess or the areas ot the 

two preceding years. In the Nagpur Division the area far exceeds that of 

1899-1900, but fells short by 78,566 acres of that of 1898-99. In the Raipur 

and Bilaspur districts, where double-cropping is important, the area is in excess 

of that of the preceding year. The amount of double-cropping largely 

depends upon tne suitability of the rainfall, and during this year the 

conditions admitted of raising a kharif crop in the wheat lands of the 

northern districts and of putting down a second crop in the rice lands of 

Chhattisgarh. 

8. Statement C (2). — In 1899-1900 the area irrigated fell to a minimum 
Irri tion owing to the absence of water. This year. has 

' shown a recovery of 147,173 acres, but falls short 

of 1898-99 by 256,948 acres. Irrigation is comparatively unimportant in the 
Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions, but it shows signs of recovery to the 
normal standard. In the districts of the Nagpur Division, Chanda (Khalsa 
and Zamindari) returns 86,501 acres less than in 189K-99, the decrease in the 
Khalsa area being 75,830 acres. The other districts show increases over that 
of 1899-1900, but they are still short of the area of 1898-99 except Wardha, 
which shows an increase. The irrigated area in Chhattisgarh (Khalsa and 
Zamindari ) shows a decrease of 85,407 and 54,159 acres compared with 
1899-1900 and 1898-99, the decrease in Sambalpur being most marked. The 
explanation is that owing to the favourable rainfall during the year, irrigation 
from tanks had but in very few cases to be resorted to. 



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CENTRAL PB0VINCB8. 



71 



9. The number of plough -cattle has still further decreased by 51,243. 
Plough-cattle e decrease is observable in all the divisions 

' ^ " * * except Chhattisgarh, where there is a slight 

increase of 250. The returns show a loss of over 200,000 plough-cattle, or 
8 per cent, during the last famine. 



10. Statements D 
Kharif crops. 



(1) and D (2). — I now come to the detailed crop 
statistics which show the distribution of the crops 
between the two seasons. The area of crops grown 
in the kharif season during 1900-01 exceeds that of the two previous years by 
301,680 and 42,076 acres, respectively. This for the most part represents real 
recovery, for it is accompanied by an increase of rabi cropping. The need for a 
quick renewal of food supplies and the cheapness of the seed of most kharif crops 
lead to an expansion of kharif cultivation after a famine. The Jubbulpore, 
Nerbudda and Nagpur Divisions have contributed to the increase, the largest 
increase occurring in the Jubbulpore Division. The area under kharif crops in 
Chhattisgarh fell by 476,616 acres, the decrease being principally under unirri- 
gated rice. The areas under the other principal crops, except tur and sugar- 
cane, show an increase. The expansion is most marked in the Wardha and 
Nagpur Districts, where an exceedingly large area was devoted to valuable 
cotton and juar crops, which is entirely satisfactory. The increase is to be 
regretted in some of the northern districts where inferior kharif crops have ousted 
more valuable rabi. Betul shows the severity of its famine by the absence of 
recovery, short sowings being general amongst the aboriginal population ; a 
severe outbreak of cholera at sowing time also interfered with cultivation in that 
district. 

11. The ground lost in the famine has not yet been made up, the area 
jy ce being still short of the normal by about a million 

acres. The continuous rainfall at the time of 
sowing, and the scarcity of seed due to the failure of the crop last year, account 
for some of the decrease. The decrease is of most importance in the following 
districts, where the area sown with rice during the past three years is compared 
with that of 1895-96. which was a fairly normal year and is taken as a standard 
of 100 :— 



District. 


1898-99. 


1899-1900. 


1900-01. 


Seoni... 




86 


41 


66 


Chanda, Khalsa 




102 


46 


18 




Khalaa ... ... 


99 


60 


80 


Bhandara 












Zamindari 


93 


68 


76 




Khalsa 


88 


63 


72 


Balaghat 












Zamindari 


74 


71 


68 




Khalsa 


95 


95 


77 


Raipnr 












Zamindari 


121 


128 


78 




Khalsa 


88 


89 


69 


Bilaspor 












Zamindari 


105 


106 


92 


Sambalpnr, Khalsa .. 


• ••• ••• *•• ••• ••■ 


109 


105 


92 



Chanda shows a most serious decline, the area under rice being only half of 
the normal, and the decline in Balaghat has been large. The Chhattisgarh 
Khalsa comes out badly, whilst the decrease is also important in Bhandara and 
Seoni. 



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CENTRAL PROVINOBS. 



•'• ' 1 A normal' yield has been reaped in most districts. In Raipur this was 
reduced to about |ths of the normal owing to the use of old seed, thin sowing, 
and careless weeding. The yield was also only about two-thirds of the normal 
ih' the important districts of Seoni, Chanda and Bhandara. The exports of rice 
up to date have amounted to the small quantity of 205,37 7 bags of 2£ maunds, 
so that the bulk of the crop has been reserved for the replenishment of stocks 
and for seed. 

12. Of the kharif crops, juar is next in importance to rice, nearly two- 

Juar thirds of it being grown as a mixture with arhar. 

The area occupied t>y juar shows a large increase, 
but does not quite equal that of 1897-98. The amount of seed required is 
small, and food -stocks are replenished by this crop earlier than by rabi. The 
increase is large in the Jubbulpore, Nerbudda and Nagpur Divisions, while the 
area in Chhattisgarh Division, where it is unimportant, contracted. Thp 
increase in the Jubbulpore Division amounts to 26,0Q0 acres and occurs in the 
Saugor and Seoni districts. The area under juar in Nimar, where its production 
is important, expanded slightly. In the districts of the juar country proper, 
viz., Chhindwara, Wardha and Nagpur, large increases are noticeable, and the 
outturn of the crop in these districts was good, being quite up to normal. The 
area under juar-tur also increased in the Jubbulpore, Nerbudda and Nagpur 
Divisions, but . decreased considerably in the Chhattisgarh Division. AJ1 the 
districts of these three divisions show an increase except Narsinghpur, Betul 
and Wardha, the largest increase being in Nagpur. The crop has yielded well 
in most districts, the exceptions being Mandla, Narsinghpur, Hoshangabad, 
Bhandara, Raipur and Bilaspur, where three-fourths of the normal was obtained. 

13. The area under these hill millets, which are important food -grains, 

Kodon and kutki nas ' ar S e ^7 expanded in the Chhattisgarh Division, 

the increase being 250,686 acres, or 39 per cent. 
Owing to the difficulty and expense of obtaining rice seed, much rice land was 
put down to these inferior millets, so that much of the increase must be 
regarded as deterioration. The increases in the Jubbulpore and Nagpur 
Divisions are 66,478 and 27,808 acres, respectively. The area in the Nerbudda 
Division fell by 15,373 acres, the largest decrease (13,000 acres) occurring in 
Nimar. The outturn has been good, being a bumper one in seven and normal 
•in all the remaining districts except Narsinghpur, Hoshangabad and Bhandara, 
where the yield was about three-fourths of the normal. 

14. The area sown with unmixed tur throughout the Provinces shows a 
Arhar (TurJ decrease of 37,000 acres, and this decrease is shared 

by all the districts of the Provinces, but is 
specially marked in the Nerbudda Division. This crop is, however, mostly 
grown as a mixture with juar, cotton and kodon, under which mixtures there 
are large increases. The district of Nimar, which grew 26,000 acres under this 
crop alone, devoted a much larger area to juar-tur and cotton-tur than in 
the previous year. The crop is of most importance in the Nagpur and 
Chhattisgarh Divisions, where there are large increases in it both sown alone 
and as a mixture. The outturn was generally poor, owing to damage from 
excessive rain and caterpillars. In Raipur the crop entirely failed, and the 
yield was only nominal in Bilaspur, Bhandara, Chanda, Wardha and Nimar. In 
other districts it yielded about half the normal. 

1 5. In consequence of the relative cheapness of cotton seed, favourable 
Cottoc conditions at sowing time and good prices, a very 

extensive area was sown. The area under cotton 
and its mixtures has increased by 108,662 acres. This increase was most 
marked hi the large cotton-growing districts of Nagpur, Wardha and Nimar. 
The year was most favourable for cotton, and there can be no doubt- that the 
yield was much understated, and that in most districts it was a bumper crop. 
In the -final forecast of last December, the yiel&-was--dstunated~at- 190^646- bales 
of 400 lbs., but the exports from the 1st December up to date have amounted to 
236,807 bales as compared with 110,150, 144,185 and 103,331 bales in the 
corresponding period of the previous three years. Exports have thus been very 
heavy, and high prices have made cotton the most remunerative crop of the 
year. The profits of cotton cultivators must have been enormous. 



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16. The area under til has increased by 25,242 acres. . This area, 

Tll , however, represents that grown during the kharif 

season. The area devoted to this oilseed dnring 
the rabi season is included in the area under " Miscellaneous non-food crops. 
The area in the Jubbulpore, Merbudda and Nagpur Divisions has increased by 
56,991, 7,063 and 10,842 acres, while the area in the Ohhattisgarh Division fell 
by 49,654 acres. The season favoured sowing operations, but it did not 
continue favourable and the abnormal heat of November did much injury. - The 
early sown crop was fairly successful, but the cold weather til was sown under 
much difficulty owing to continuous rain. The yield was normal in most 
districts, but was only three-fourths of the normal or less in Seoni, Nareinghpur, 
Hoshangabad, Betul and Wardha. The exports from the J ubbulpore Division 
correspond closely with those of the previous year. Those of the Nagpftr 
Division increased by 25,000 bags of 2£ maunds, while those of the Nerbudda 
and Ohhattisgarh Divisions show a considerable falling-off. Altogether the 
total exports have been comparatively small. 

17. The areas under castor, san (hemp) and miscellaneous food and noa- 

M . ., food crops have increased, while the areas under 

Minor kharif crops. r , •• ' •• •, , 

sugarcane, groves, orchards and garden crops have 

shrunk. A substantial export trade in hemp is springing up along the Great 

Indian Penninsula Railway. 

18. An increase of 973,623 acres in the rabi area has taken place, but it 

Rabi crops * 8 st ^ ^ 8 ^ ort °^ area * n 1898-99. In every 

district except Saugor, Seoni and Hoshangabad, 
there has been an increase, the districts in which the increase is most marked 
being Jubbulpore, Mandla, Balaghat, Raipur and Bilaspur. The Jubbulpore 
Division shows much the best, the acreage being but little short of that of 1898-99, 
whilst the Nerbudda and Nagpur Divisions snow a decrease of 28 per centi since 
that year. The Nagpur country received compensation in the large area put 
down to cotton and juar, but this is not the case in the Nerbudda Division. The 
unfortunate Hoshangabad district shows a still further decline even from the 
figures of the previous year. 

19. The area placed under wheat and wheat-gram amounted to 2,189,508 
yf^ogfr acres and exceeded that of the previous year by 

411,481 acres. If the mixed crop is resolved 
according to the accepted formula, the area under wheat is 2,018,290 acres, and 
is 24 per cent, above that of last year. Almost all districts have contributed to 
this recovery. But the area is still only half the normal preceding the famine 
cycle. To show the full decrease it is necessary to go back to 1891-92, which 
was a normal year. Taking this year as a standard of 100, the decrease in 
the important wheat-growing districts has been as follows : — 



District. 


1898-99. 


1899-00. 


1900-01. 


Saugor 


32 


29 


33 


Damoh 


36 


35 


42 


Jubbulpore ... 


77 


46 


71 


Soom ... ... ... •»• ... ... 


67 


61 


62 


Narsinghpur 


77 


62 


67 


Hoshangabad 


49 


36 


46 


Chhindwara 


89 


44 


55 


Wardha 


62 


9 


29 


Nagpur 


75 


42 


44 


Raipur (Ehalsa) 


104 


79 


95 


Bilaspur (Khalsa) 


125 


103 


98 



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Wheat is not so important in the southern districts, where it has largely 
been replaced by valuable cotton and juar. Most of the northern districts show 
hopeful signs of recovery, but the decrease is still very serious. 

The continuous rain during August and September interfered with the 
preparation of the land, whilst the absence of October showers was unfavourable 
to sowings in some districts. Continued showers in the cold weather injured 
the grain in the ear and induced rust. The year's yield has varied considerably 
from district to district. In the Jubbulpore and Nerbudda Divisions the 
outturn was generally but little below the normal, and in some districts 
exceeded it. Wheat suffered severely in the Nagpur country, where the yield 
was only about half the normal, whilst in Chhattisgarh the outturn was about 
three-fourths of the normal. 

The export trade has been exceedingly dull, only 196,834 bags of 2^ 
maunds having been exported up to date, which is not a third of the amount 
exported in good years. ' Much of the crop has been withheld from the market 
for the replenishment of stocks. 

20. The area sown with gram alone has risen by 118,353 acres, the 
p . cheapness of its seed compared with wheat being 

nBeB ' in its favour. The crop suffered everywhere from 

excessive moisture and from caterpillars, the yield being only about half the 
the average. It did better than this in some northern districts, but the yield 
was very small in Jubbulpore, Hoshangabad, the Nagpur country and 
Chhattisgarh. 

The area under peas, masur and lakh (tiura) shows an improvement. The 
last-mentioned crop is generally sown as a second crop in Chhattisgarh, and 
134,742 more acres have been so utilized this season. 

21. The area under linseed and linseed-gram amounted to 518,082 acres 

T . . and is in excess by 197,022 acres of that of the 

Linseed. . Te J , ' 

previous year. If, however, the area grown as a 

mixture is resolved into pure linseed, the area stands at 492,235 acres and 

exceeds that of the previous year by 185,302 acres. The conditions under 

which it was sown were similar to those already described for wheat. 

Continued showers in the cold weather injured the crop at flowering time and 

induced rust. The yield was about three-fourths of the normal except in the 

Nagpur country and Chhattisgarh, where there was practically a complete 

failure. 

22. The area under tobacco, garden crops and miscellaneous food crops 

r ... . . exceeds that of the previous year. The area under 

Other rabi crops. ,, £ j l. l 

r miscellaneous non-food crops, however, shows a 

felling-off of some 52,000 acres. 

23. This examination of the agricultural statistics of the past year, 
General Remarks following upon a famine of unprecedented severity, 

i k., s » . gives cause for relief that the deterioration has not 

been worse than that now found. There has been but little abandonment by 
cultivators of their holdings and the occupied area is as large as it has ever 
been, a decrease in Chhattisgarh being more than counterbalanced by an increase 
elsewhere. The area sown with crops is only 3,| per cent, less than that 
sown prior to the last famine. The Jubbulpore Division has, indeed, done 
better than before the famine and it is again the Chhattisgarh Division which 
shows most deterioration. There is a considerable recovery in double-cropping 
throughout the Provinces. And this improvement has been effected although 
there has been a serious loss of plough-cattle. The less valuable kharif crops 
still displace the more valuable rabi in the northern districts, but there are signs 
that this form of deterioration is now arrested, whilst the expansion of cotton 
and juar in the Nagpur country is not a cause for regret. The year was 
generally up to the average, and perhaps above it in the northern districts. 
The kharif crops, with the exception of tur, generally gave an average yield, 
whilst the valuable cotton crop was above the average. The northern half of 
the Provinces, with the unfortunate exception of the Hoshangabad district, also 



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reaped a fairly good wheat crop, and fair gram and linseed crops. The rabi 
was extremely poor in the Nagpur country, but this was more than counter- 
balanced by the excellent cotton. The Chhattisgarb Division has fared worse ; 
the season was favourable for rice, but the yield was reduced by the use of old 
or foreign seed and by insufficient weeding ; the tur crop practically failed ; 
and wheat was the only rabi crop that gave a fair outturn, the pulses being 
very poor indeed. And it must be remembered that these yields have only 
been obtained over much contracted areas. 



SUSPENSION AND REMISSION OF LAND REVENUE. 

No. 10. 

Circular Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, to all Commissioners, Central 
Provinces, No. F. 780, dated Nagpur, the 20th December, 1899. 

I am directed to address you with reference to the suspension or remission 
of land revenue which may be necessitated by the present famine. It is 
essential that early orders should issue for the information both of the people 
and of the revenue officers with reference to the collection or suspension of the 
first kist. The decision as between collection and suspension must be made 
immediately ; the decision as between suspension and remission can be made at 
leisure when more detailed information is available. 

2. It is, however, impossible for the Officiating Chief Commissioner to 
issue any general orders applicable to the whole Province, as the circumstances 
of the various districts differ so greatly, not only as regards the crops just 
harvested, but also in respect to the recent history of the districts and the 
pressure of the revenue assessments. Wherever rice is the most important crop 
of the kharif harvest and has failed totally, an immediate and liberal measure of 
suspension appears to be necessary, and such small yields of the less marketable 
millets as may have been reaped will hardly affect the case. They will be 
needed for the food and seed supply of the cultivators. On the other hand, in 
districts where juar, cotton, tur, and til are the principal crops of the kharif 
season, it is probable that collection may be made, if not of the whole kist, at 
least of a fractional share of it. 

3. One of the chief difficulties which surround the question is the extreme 
unevenness of the outturns. If every man reaped *a six -anna crop (45 per cent, 
under the new notation), it might be fair to collect, say, a quarter of the rent 
and revenue due ; but if the all-round outturn of six annas resulted from the 
fact that half the cultivators get in 75 per cent, and half only 15 per cent, of 
tke normal outturn, it is obvious that a general order as to the proportion to be 
collected must be quite unfair. In these circumstances the nature of the order 
passed must depend upon the distribution of the areas which have yielded a crop 
of sufficient amount to justify the realization of rent. If in a large tract there 
has been general failure, but a few villages or a few fields have yielded a 
moderate outturn, it is not worth while to exclude them from the general 
orders at the cost of the delay and general uncertainty which must be involved 
before fair differentiation can be made. In the same way, if the failure is 
exceptional, and the bulk of a tract has yielded enough to warrant the payment 
of some rent and revenue, the general orders issued must be applicable to the 
tract as a whole, the particular, exceptions being left for later concessions as 
details become known. 

4. The Officiating Chief ■Cammiiiioaor htiiwm that in . most districts 
there will be well-defined agricultural tracts, e.g., rice tracts and juar tracts, 

10666 L 



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which can be differentiated, in the general orders which are made applicable to 
them, without detailed investigation ; and, for the reasons stated above, even in 
cases where ultimate remission is highly probable, he prefers suspension in the 
first instance. If subsequent investigation shows that too liberal a suspension 
has been granted in the case of a village or tract than the circumstances 
warranted, the fact can be considered when the collection or remission of the 
suspended revenue comes up for decision. 

5. In determining what, if any, fractional share of the first kist ought to 
be collected in any tract the past history of the tract must receive due weight. 
For instance, in Sambalpur, or parts of Nimar, which have enjoyed previous 
good years, or are paying a low revenue, and were not much affected in the 

gist famine, the same liberality is not required as in districts like Balaghat or 
etui. A recent enhancement of the revenue demand is also a fact to be 
considered. It is better to be more liberal in the year of stress and collect the 
new revenue afterwards with regularity than to impose too severe a burden now 
and afterwards hamper the working of the revised settlement. 

6. Furthermore, in estimating the share of the kist which may be levied 
as judged by the amount of the outturn, it must be remembered that we are not 
dealing with a crop failure which has occurred once in a way among a series of 
normal years, but with a failure which falls for the most part on people 
suffering from agricultural depression in various degrees of intensity. In the 
Katol Tahsil of Nagpur, the Arvi Tahsil of Wardha, or the Dhamtari Tahsil of 
Raipur, it might be possible to demand a larger share of the revenue in 
proportion to outturn than would be fair in the Umrer, Hinganghat, and 
Simgah Tahsils of the same districts. In the standing orders relating to 
suspension of revenue contained in Revenue Book Circular I — 9, it is indicated 
for general guidance that an all-round four-anna crop (30 according to new 
notation) justifies the levy of the full rent. This normal percentage applies to 
occasional fields in which crops have been damaged by hail. But for widespread 
calamities, especially where they have followed previous failures, the scale must, 
the Officiating Chief Commissioner thinks, be much more liberal than this. 
And the scale adopted must be adjusted to the needs of each well-defined 
locality on the lines roughly indicated in this letter. 

7. As the matter is one of urgency, Mr. Fraser desires that Commissioners 
will indicate to him as early as possible the general suspensions which they 
would at once authorise, discretion being given them to make further local 
concessions at greater leisure. We must remember that, on the one hand, the 
expenditure incurred on famine relief which falls on imperial funds is on an 
unprecedented scale, and that revenue which can be reasonably demanded should 
not lightly be foregone ; while, on the other hand, it is most desirable not to 
deprive cultivators of the small resources which they may have for maintenance 
until a good food supply can be obtained, and for seed for the next sowing 
season. It has also to be borne in mind that undue pressure now by landlords 
for rent might force cultivators to sell plough-bullocks which they will urgently 
need later on. 

8. The orders given above relate solely to the first instalment. As 
regards the second instalment, although it is practically certain in the case of 
some districts that the rabi outturn will be quite inappreciable, there are other 
districts in which rain at the close of this month or early in January would 
materially alter the position for the better. It is unnecessary therefore at 
present to make any decision about the second instalment. This can be done at 
leisure. But it is incumbent on all Deputy Commissioners through the Circle 
Officers and Land Record Staff to obtain as early information as possible in 
detail as to areas and outturns of the crops of both seasons. This information 
will enable the Chief Commissioner to come to a decision better as to the 
necessity of remission of any portion of the first instalment and as to the orders 
to be passed in respect of the second instalment. 



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No. 11. 

Circular Letter from E. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, to all Commissioners and Deputy 
Commissioners, Central Provinces, No. F. 44, dated Nagpur, the 26w 
February, 1900. 

I am directed to address you in continuation of Famine Circular No. 36, 
dated the 20th December, 1899, on the subject of the suspension and remission 
of land revenue necessitated by the famine. 

The previous circular provided for the prompt suspension of the first 
instalment wherever general information without minute differentiation showed 
such a course to be necessary ; and in the last paragraph it directed general 
inquiry in order that materials might be available in time for a decision as to the 
second instalment. 

2. Some instructions recently issued by the Ccmmissioner of Jubbulpore 
to his Deputy Commissioners were recently forwarded to the other Commissioners 
fur information, and these instructions (which have been since slightly amplified 
by Mr. Fuller) have now been printed and are appended to this circular. With 
such modifications as local circumstances may show to be necessary, they will 
be found most useful as a guide to the framing of proposals. 

3. The main principle to which the Officiating Chief Commissioner 
attaches importance is that the total revenue demand of the year should be 
considered as a whole. The instalments which were proper at the time that the 
settlement was announced may have become unsuitable since, owing to changes 
in cropping during recent years, and this disturbing element will be eliminated 
by considering the marketable crops as a whole and the revenue of the year as a 
whole. 

4. The arithmetical check, indicated by Mr. Fuller, by comparison of the 
figure of production of the year with the normal figures of production will be a 
useful aid to conclusions on general grounds. In cases where the cropped area 
of the season was normal or nearly normal the comparison can be made with 
the normal outturn of the cropped area of the year. In other cases, as, for 
instance, in the rice districts of Bhandara, Chanda and Balaghat, where the area 
of transplanted rice has shrunk into insignificance, it must be made with the 
normal outturn of the cropped area of the year preceding ; and in a district like 
Hoshangabad, where deterioration has gone on for several years, the comparrison 
must be made with the area under the chief crops at the last settlement. 

5. When it has been indicated in this manner what amount of the total 
demand it is fair to take, the next step will be to deduct from this amount the 
amount out of the first instalment which it has been decided to collect ; the 
balance will be the demand on account of the second instalment. In all villages 
where the kharif crop was a total failure and the rabi crops have also failed or 
are quite insignificant, these calculations will of course not be needed. 



In order to afford information as to the financial, as distinguished from the 
revenue, year which the concessions affect it will be convenient if the proposals 
are put into the following form : — 



District. 
1 


First 

lost, 
Financial 

year 
1899-1900. 

2 


Second 

kist, 
Financial 

year 
1900-1901. 

3 


Total 
both 
kists. 

4 


Amount to 
be realised 
on account 
of 

both kists. 
6 


Balance 

to be 
suspended 
on account 
of both kists. 

6 


Amount 
already 
suspended 
on account 
of first kist. 

7 


Balance 
(col. 6—001.7) 
= amount of 
second kist 
suspended. 

8 








1 








• 



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It must be understood that cesses are to be kept quite distinct from land 
revenue, and should not be shown in this table at all. 

6. As was stated in the previous circular, the Officiating Chief 
Commissioner desired that all revenue which it was not decided to collect should 
in the first instance be suspended. This decision must also hold good as regards 
the second instalment. By this Mr. Fraser does not wish it to be understood 
that he contemplates the ultimate collection of suspended revenue in all cases, 
but he does not wish remission proposals to be sent up to him piecemeal. The 
immediate duty is to decide what sum to attempt to collect in the current 
revenue year ; this is quite a distinct matter from the sum which is to be finally 
remitted. It is not unlikely that the sum proposed for remission will be large, 
and that a reference to the Government of India will prove necessary. It is 
essential, therefore, that the question of remission should be separately considered 
after the current year's demand has been decided. It will be necessary to 
consider each district on its merits. There are already arrears of the last 
famine and subsequent years outstanding which must be included in the reference, 
and the Officiating Chief Commissioner does not desire that the current year's 
demand should be complicated by consideration of the larger question. 

7. Mr. Fuller has fixed the 1st of April as the date by which 
recommendations in regard to the current year should be sent in by Deputy 
Commissioners in his Division. This date will be equally suitable elsewhere. 
Commissioners should, after considering the district recommendations, send in a 
consolidated report for their Divisions, which should reach the Secretariat by 
the 15th of April. 

8. The larger question of remission can conveniently be taken up in the 
rains. The revenue accounts of each district will have to be considered for 
several years back, namely, since 1894-95, their past treatment and history 
being contrasted with reference to the pressure of the demand, the re-settlement, 
if any, which has taken place or is about to be effected, the extent of arrears 
outstanding of suspended and unsuspended revenue, the suspensions of the 
current revenue year. Upon a consideration of all these circumstances will 
depend the decision of the amount of remission to be given, so far as a decision 
can be made independently of the character of future harvests. The information 
required can be summarised in a statement showing for each year from 1 894-95 
to 1899-1900, both inclusive, the following particulars :— 

(1) Revenue year. 

(2) The current demand (Land Revenue on the Roll only). 

(3) Actual collections — 

(a) On current account. 

(b) On arrear account. 

(c) Total. 

(4) The cropped area, percentage of normal (the area of 1893-94 = 100 

normal). 

(5) The outturn (100 = normal). 

(6) Proportion of produce to normal <^<«> I ^»»<» 

(7) Percentage of total collection [Column (3) (c)] to current 

demand [Column 2]. 

(8) Arrears — 

(i) Already remitted. 

(ii) Suspended. 

(iii) Unsuspended. 

9. A careful examination of the past history, of which the salient features 
will be shown in the above statement, will greatly facilitate the decision as to 
the extent of remission to be allowed, and will lend support where support is 
needed to liberality of treatment. Mr. Fraser does not desire in any way to 



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anticipate a decision by stating at this stage what his personal views on the 
subject are. It is for Deputy Commissioners and Commissioners to make their 
recommendations as to what concessions they believe necessary, and these 
recommendations will receive the Officiating Chief Commissioner's most careful 
consideration. 

10. Land revenue not on the roll, which is now practically all revenue 
due from ryotwari villages, does not require such detailed examination, and 
proposals regarding suspension, remission, or collection of arrears may be sub- 
mitted from time to time in the Revenue Department. As regards the current 
revenue year Commissioners are authorised to order such suspensions as they 
think fit. They should report for information, in replying to this reference, 
what action they have taken and the amounts suspended. Miscellaneous land 
revenue has no concern with the present reference. 

11. One more point remains — the collection of cesses. Standing orders 
are that cesses and revenue must go together, and when it is merely a question 
of a few isolated remissions here and there on account of local calamities, this is 
the best and simplest principle to follow. But these cesses are devoted to 
certain objects, and though they may be suspended or remitted, the expenditure 
on those objects cannot be similarly suspended or retrenched. The several 
District Funds and the Provincial Patwari fund cannot close business, because 
the cesses on which they depend are not collected. As regards the current year 
it is best not to complicate the situation by demanding cesses and separating 
them from revenue, but it may well be decided to collect the cesses later on, 
even though the revenue be remitted. It is the same thing in the end whether 
Local Funds are replenished by cesses, or whether, an equivalent sum being 
collected and credited as land revenue, Provincial revenues have to come to the 
assistance of the Local Funds, and recoup the loss incurred in uncollected cesses ; 
but if this aid has in any case to be given it is better that it should, if possible, 
be given by collection of cesses directly. 

In the case of cesses the detailed statement required by paragraph 8 in 
respect of land revenue is not necessary. All that is needed is a statement 
showing : — 

(1) Outstandings at the commencement of the revenue year 1899- 

1900 with the year on account of which they are due, for — 

(a) Settlement cesses. 

(b) Additional rates. 

(c) Malguzari patwari cess. 

(2) The demand of the revenue year 1899-1900. 

(3) The amount suspended for the same year. 



Enclosure in No. 1 1 . 

Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., I.C.S., CLE., Commissioner, Jubbulpore 
Division, to the Deputy Commissioners, Jubbulpore Division, No. C. 100, 
dated Camp Bilthara, the 27th January, 1900. 

With the general approval of the Chief Commissioner. I have the honour 
to address you as follows in regard to the proposals to be submitted for the 
collection or remission of this year's land revenue. 

2. It has been decided by the Chief Commissioner that so far as the 
kharif kist is concerned, nothing beyond suspension will be ordered. Whatever 
trouble may have been taken, the information on which your proposals in 
regard to this kist were based cannot have been complete. 

3. The task is now before us of formulating final proposals for the year's 
land revenue as a whole. Having regard to the abrupt changes of soil which 



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generally characterize these Provinces, and to the extraordinarily uneven distri- 
bution of last monsoon's rainfall, I do not think that generally proposals will be 
satisfactory unless they are drawn up mauzawar. But where crops have failed 
altogether over a considerable and well-defined tract of country all villages 
included in the tract may be dealt with together, and in this case these 
instructions will not apply. 

4. The first point to be considered is loss of cropped area since the year 
in which the present assessment was framed. For each village for which a 
suspension of total revenue is not obviously justifiable, there should be 
calculated the percentage of the current season's cropped area on the cropped 
area of the year of settlement, excluding from both totals, as non-revenue paying, 
the area under kodon-kutki and grass-birs. When the percentage is as low as 
80, that is to say, when there has been a fall of as much as 20 per cent., it will 
generally be fair to reduce the revenue in proportion to such fall before con- 
sidering the character of this season's harvests. Thus, if the cropped area of 
settlement was 593 acres and the present area is 420 acres, the percentage 
would be 71, and a revenue of Rs. 500 would be taken as Rs. 355 (for Saugor, 
Damoh and Jubbulpore only). But such a calculation will not, of course, be 
necessary in the case of villages, the revenue of which was abated last year, or 
will be abated with effect from the commencement of the current year. In 
their case the abated revenue will be taken as the full revenue payable. 

5. In considering the revenue-paying capacity of this season's harvests, 
we need hardly concern ourselves with all crops, but merely with those which 
are sold to pay rent. These may be classified according to the way in which 
they have yielded or promise to yield this year, as — 

1. Rice. 

2. Juar alone or with arhar. 

3. Cotton (with or without arhar), til and hemp. 

4. Ramtilli (or jagni). 

5. Pulses (arhar, mung, urad). 

6. All rabi crops except masur and linseed. 

7. Masur and linseed. 

But this fist is only meant to be suggestive. It may be that the kharif 
pulses are hardly worth considering, or, that where linseed has failed, masur 
has in your district not failed also. In the case of some villages which grow 
nothing but the small millets (kodon and kutki) it may be necessary to take 
them into account. But they are grown for food, not for sale, and I doubt 
whether they should be included. 

6. For each village from which any revenue can be collected a line of 
figures should be given showing the area under its revenue-paying crops 
(classed in some such fashion as above) and below this line a second line 
showing in red ink the estimated outturn in American notation for each of 
these crops. To arrive at the outturn estimates is, of course, the most difficult 
part of the business. The villages should be listed by Patwaris' Circles and 
marked differences between the estimates of one village and of those near it 
should be looked into. I fear that there is an impression amongst the people 
that in the matter of revenue suspension or remission they are very much at 
the mercy of the Patwaris and Inspectors. The estimates which are sent in 
will, of course, be checked by the local knowledge of yourself and your 
Assistants and Tahsildars. Useful information will also be often obtainable 
from the Civil Surgeon and the District Superintendent of Police. 

7. The two lines of figures taken with the percentage of total cropping 
will give you something definite to go upon in deciding what revenue should be 
collected. For myself I should like to assist my judgment by some such 
calculations as are prescribed by Revenue Book Circular I — 9 for the suspension 
of revenue in cases of hailstorms. That is to say, I would compare the sum of 
the areas multiplied by the outturn figures with the sum of the areas multiplied 
by 100. But in making this calculation one important condition should not 



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be lost sight of, namely, that when the outturn of a crop falls below a certain 
quantity no rent-paying surplus is left, and indeed the seed sown may not be 
recovered, but that wheu the outturn exceeds this quantity, the rent-paying 
surplus increases in a much higher proportion than the increase in outturn. 
The less are the present resources of the people, the more important does this 
condition become. I think that it might be met by omitting from the calcula- 
tion all outturn figures amounting to only 30 or less, and by deducting 10 from 
all outturn figures between 30 and 60 (both exclusive). Thus if the areas and 
outturns were as below — 





Rioe. 


Til. 


Rabi. 






200 


50 


100 






25 


120 


50 





the calculation would be 200 x 0 + 50 x 120 + 100 x 40 = 10,000 (for 
this year) compared to 350 x 100 = 35,000 (as the standard). To allow for 
loss in cropping (when such loss amounts to 20 per cent.) the standard figure 
would be raised in proportion : thus, if in this case the cropped area was 80 per 

cent, of the settlement area the figures 35,000 
* i.e., be multiplied by 100 would be raised* to 47,500 and the fraction of the 
and divided by 80. revenue demandable would be -J^Mf lbs. or 21 per 

cent. Where the harvest is a fair one some allow- 
ance should be made for the profits which will result from this season's high 
prices, and for instance an 85 per cent, or 90 per cent, crop can certainly be 
taken as equivalent to the average. I repeat that if you adopt such calculations 
as these as a guide to your judgment it would be unnecessary to make them, or 
even to record this season's crop areas or outturns, in the case of villages which 
lie in a tract of which the whole revenue will be suspended, as for instance a 
rice tract which has gathered less than a 3 -anna crop. 

8. The form in which the mauzawar list would be prepared would be 
such as the following : — 







11 


Crop Areas and Outturns 1899-1900. 


& 






Amount to be collected 
with percentage on full 
demand or proportion in 
annas. 


Balance to be suspended. 






1 

& 

■S 
a 

S3 


i 


Percentage of this seas 
cropped area or crop 
area of settlement 


t 

3 


1 

3 

a 

i 

i> 


Cotton, til and bemp. 


3* 

1 




All rabi except Un- 
seed and masur. 


Linseed and masur. 


1 

I 

t 
& 




Land revenue demand. 


1 

o 
9 

1 

2i 
s| 

I 1 


i 


l 


2 


3 


4 


6 


8 


7 


8 


9 


10 


n 




12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


























Bs. 


Bs. 


Bs. 


Bs. 




26 


Bampur.. 


80 


250 
25 


10 

35 


40 
105 




5 
100 


85 
50 


10 
16 


40,000 
100 

80 

= 50,000 
8,360 




•600 


80 

= 16 
percent 


420 


120 





If you decide to make no use of arithmetical calculations column 11 would 
be omitted. 

9. I have included a column to show the proportionate amount of rental 
the malguzar will be entitled to collect. This will be entered up after the 
return of the statement. Experience has shown the importance of expedition 
in informing malguzars of the share of the rental they are to collect, and as 
soon as this is settled, each malguzar should be informed of the amount by 



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notice and be called on to communicate to the Inspector or Patwari the details 
of its distribution amongst his tenants. This distribution must be shown in 
the jamabandi to be filed in July, and if the malguzar does not prepare and file 
a list he should sign the jamabandi. Unless there is precision in this matter, 
the rental accounts fall into great confusion. It is to facilitate the calculation 
of the rental due for collection that provision has been made for showing (in 
column 13) the proportion of revenue to be realised. 

10. Villages should be arranged in the statement bv revenue inspector's 
circles or by settlement groups. Totals should be struct for each circle or 
group, and should be shown in your forwarding letter. 

11. Rents fall due on the 1st May or earlier, and it is of the utmost 
importance that the people should know what is expected of them in time to 
perform it. The rabi crops are this year much more forward than usual, and 
by the end of February it should be possible to frame as reliable an estimate 
of their outturn as could be arrived at without very numerous crop experiments. 
The statement should reach me by the 1st April at latest. Tt may be submitted 
in vernacular, but should, of coarse, be fully commented upon in your 
forwarding letter. 

12. In forming your conclusions you will, of course, bear in mind that 
while on the one hand Government can afford to abandon no revenue to which 
it is fairly entitled, on the other hand, to exact money from impoverished 
tenants, who cannot pay it without trenching on their food supplies, may very 
possibly entail its redistribution to them in the form of famine relief. This is 
especially the case in localities where there is no sharp distinction between the 
cultivating and the labouring classes, as in the case of Gond villages. 

13. In writing of revenue as to be suspended I do not, of course, mean to 
imply that any decision has been arrived at in favour of suspension as opposed 
to remission. I merely wish to avoid any appearance of anticipating the 
Chief Commissioner's orders. 



No. 12. 

Letter from T, W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Honourable the Chitf 
Commissioner of the Central Provinces, No. 1175 F., dated Simla, the 
%th June, 1900." 

With reference to the circular instructions cited in the margin, which you 

No. F. 36, dated 20th Decern- ^ issued on the subject of suspension of the 
ber, 1899. land-revenue demand, T am directed to request 

No. F. 44, dated 26th Feb- that the Government of India may receive at an 
ruarr, 1900. early date a short report as to the suspensions of 

land-revenue already made in consequence of the present scarcity and the 
further suspensions likely to be made. The question to what extent the 
suspensions will be converted into remissions will, it is assumed, be kept over 
until the stress of the famine is over and a reasonable forecast of the next 
agricultural season can be made. 

'2. I am to invite attention to the paragraphs marginally given of the 

Land Revenue Administration Report of the 
15 Bep °j33 paragraph Pun j ab for 1896-97 and 1898-99 on the subject 

Report, 1898-99. °^ differentiating between well-to-do and needy 

Resolution, paragraph 8. landholders in granting or refusing suspensions, 
Report, pages 39, 40. and to ask what course has been pursued in the 

^xtracte from District Re- Central Provinces, 
pons, Fart I., pages 19, 20. 



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The Government of India wish to know on what principle suspensions 
have been granted, and whether the determining factor in the case of each 
estate has been the ascertained extent to which the crop has tailed, or the ability 
of the proprietor to pay the land revenue from other resources. 



No. 13. 

Letter from R. H. Craddoch, Esq., I. C. S., Chief Secretary to the Chief Commis- 
sioner, Central Provinces, to ihe Secretary to the Government of India, Revenue 
and Agriculture Department, Simla, No. i' 1 -1682, dated Nagpur, the 
27th June, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 1175-F, dated 
the 6th June, 1 900, and to submit the following reply. 

2. The two Circulars addressed to local officers on the subject of suspension 
of revenue, Nos. F-36 and F-44, dated respectively the 20th December, 1899 and 
the 26th February, 1900, are already before the Government of India, and I am 
to attach a statement showing the amount of revenue suspended in each district 
as the result of the inquiries carried out in accordance with the orders contained 
therein. This statement deals only with the land revenue actually on the roll, 
that is to say, the fixed demand payable by Malguzars and Zamindars. Action 
taken in respect of ryotwari villages will be referred to separately at the close of 
this letter. 

3. The two factors which most influence the principles on which revenue 
has to be suspended in the face of a calamity like the present are, first, that under 
the tenancy law of the Province a suspension or remission of land revenue must 
precede a suspension or remission of rent ; and, secondly, that great promptness- 
is essential if the full benefits are to be derived from the suspension. Theoretically^ 
no doubt, the proper method of procedure would be to enquire into each tenant's 
capacity to pay his rent with reference both to the actual crops reaped and to- 
other independent resurces which he might possess, add up for each village the 
total rental realizable, and demand the corresponding revenue from the landlord. 
This would be possible where a few isolated villages had been ravaged by locusts,, 
or damaged by hail ; but it is practically impossible where the whole country 
side has been stricken by drought ; and it becomes doubly impossible when the 
energies of the whole revenue staff are concentrated upon famine relief. The 
time taken in enquiries so minute would be so great that the date for a decision 
would have passed long before the enquiries were complete. In such matters 
delays must be avoided at all costs. 

4. In these circumstances capacity to pay independently of the crop must 
be disregarded so far as individuals are concerned. The Malguzar may be rich, 
but if we demand his revenue in full on this account, we cannot order him to 
suspend the rents due by his tenants, and he will have a free hand to harass them 
as he chooses, In order to protect them we must give him relief. To secure 
suspension of rent, we must grant suspension of revenue. It is the necessity of 
the tenants with which we have really to deal. Great masses of these have been.' 
seA'erely stricken in the present calamity. There are some, no doubt, who could: 
pay their rent independently of their crops ; but (as has been said above) to- 
differentiate would necessitate inquiries which it is impossible to make. While 
however it is impossible to extend inquiries into the capacity of each individual 
to pay independently of his crop, this consideration may be given some weight 
when it applies to a tract of country. In Nimar and Sambalpur for instance the 
people have enjoyed sufficiently prosperous years in the past to be able to pay 
a larger share of their revenue than could have been demanded had preceding 
seasons been as bad as elsewhere in the Province. 

5. With these preliminary observations I am to turn to a consideration of 
the orders issued, and the action actually taken. The first Circular, F.36 of the 
20th December, 1899, called for very early and general proposals regarding the 
first kist due in February, 1900. The rents leviable on account of it feii due in 
January, and it was most important that such suspension as was plainly necessary 

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should be announced at once, leaving any detailed differentiation by villages to be 
made subsequently and given effect to when the second instalment fell due. The 
only differentiation enjoined by this Circular related to differences in crop outturns 
which could be easily distinguished over homogeneous tracts of country ; and in 
determining the amount of the concession to be allowed regard was to be paid to 
such considerations as past history, the recent introduction of a new settlement, 
the lightness or heaviness of the demand with reference to the deterioration or 
progress of the tract since it was last resettled. These were all general consider- 
ations suitable for a summary investigation ; proposals were duly submitted aud 
orders passed. It is, however, unnecessary to specify the details of these suspen- 
sions, as they have merged into the general concessions carried out in accordance 
with the more detailed enquiries ordered by Famine Circular 44. Before passing 
on to this latter Circular there is, however, one point in the earlier orders upon 
which the Officiating Chief Commissioner lays much stress. 

6. The standing orders of the Administration, contained in Revenue Book 
Circular 1 — 9, dealing with suspensions necessitated by losses caused by hail, 
locusts, &c, and contemplating detailed enquiry holding by holding, lay it down 
that if a crop amounts to 4 annas (30 by the new notation ) the full rent may be 
demanded. It was pointed out in Famine Circular 36 that this rule, though appli- 
cable to occasional failures in ordinary times, was much to strict a rule when the 
country is suffering under a widespread calamity. If a few individuals in isolated 
villages are called upon to pay a full rent out of a 4-anna crop, it is very probable 
that they will draw upon savings or borrow. They may dispose of surplus cattle 
or pledge ornaments, but the chances are that until the next harvest comes round 
they will have added to their liabilities. It is, however, not unreasonable that they 
should be called upon to make such sacrifices. They will obtain fair prices for 
their ornaments, or cattle, and reasonable terms if they borrow. But the case is 
different when the whole community is in this plight. It hardly needs demonstra- 
tion that, if the great majority of cultivators have to sell ornaments and cattle or 
borrow money, the blow to the community as well as to the individual will be 
infinitely more severe than it was to the individuals in the hypothetical cases 
referred to above. The prices obtainable for surplus property fall, and it is 
disposed of at a ruinous loss ; credit sinks to a low ebb, and those already involved 
are turned into applicants for famine relief. Where the position is still worse 
'than this, where the majority have not even reaped a 4-anna crop, where credit 

is already low and bad years have reduced surplus property to a minimum, it is 
quite evident that such rule-of-thumb scales, as the one that a 4-anna crop justifies 
the leA^y of a full rent, must be abandoned. 

7. It was on this account that the Officiating Chief Commissioner approved 
and circulated as a general guide the instructions drawn up by Mr. Fuller, 
Commissioner of Jubbulpore, for the guidance of the Deputy Commissioners of 
his Division. These instructions were appended to Famine Circular 44. The 
revenue-paying capacity of each village is roughly computed by taking the areas 
multiplied by the outturns of the chief marketable crops in every village and 
comparing the figure thus obtained with the moral areas under the same crops 
multiplied by 100. Thus, if a village paying, say, Rs. 500 revenue had a normal 
area, cropped with cotton, wheat, pulses and oilseeds, of 1,000 acres, the normal 
outturn on a normal area, would be represented by the figure 100,000. In the 
recent famine year its areas and outturns, let it be supposed, were as follows : — 



Crop. 


Area. 


Outturn 
per Cent 


Produce. 


Cotton 


Acres. 
300 


60 


18,000 


Wheat 


300 


15 


4,500 


Oilseeds 


100 


25 


2,500 


PuIbqs ■•■ *•• ••• 


100 


40 


5,000 


Total 


800 




29,000 



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Its revenue-paying capacity would then be -n^^nr or 29 per cent. But on 
the principle that the rent-paying capacity of land disproportionately increases 
when its outturn exceeds a certain proportionjand diminishes to nothing when it 
falls below a certain proportion, Mr. Fuller proposed that outturns not exceeding 
30 should be disregarded altogether and outturns below 60 should be reduced by 
10. Reduced in this manner the outturn figure in the case given above would be 
21,000 only, or 21 per cent., and this would be the proportion to be levied. 
The revenue to be collected in the village given above will then be Rs. 105 out of 
the full demand of Rs. 5,000. This would be announced to the landlord, who 
would be ordered to put in a list showing how he proposed to distribute the 
concession among his tenants. If the rents of the village were Rs. 800 he would 
have to collect only 21 per cent, of Rs. 800, or Rs. 162, and suspend the balance, 
or Rs. 638. This distribution he would be allowed to make among his tenants ; 
and his list would be handed over to the patwari for entry of the demand made 
in each ryot's account book. In this way the landlord who would know best 
what each man could pay would be able to distribute the required suspension 
roughly according to the resources of each ryot in a way in which no Government 
officer could do within the time required. It is true that the landlord is thus 
given a very wide discretion ; but he would be very foolish if he attempted to 
levy rents from the poor and gave up his chance of collecting from the well- 
to-do. 

8. It might of course be objected to Mr. Fuller's calculations that this 
system would, if, applied in almost any year, result in the reduction of the full 
demand ; but the reply to this argument is that this is freely admitted, but the 
system is not intended to apply to ordinary years. Moreover, it is only pre- 
scribed as a general guide, and the main object sought is to arrive at such a 
rough computation of the relative revenue-paying capacity of the many thousands 
of villages to be dealt with as will serve as a useful check on generalizations. 
When the proportion of the outturn to the normal has been estimated, other con- 
siderations may come into play. It might be decided that any outturn exceeding 
25 and 50 per cent, (after the deductions referred to have been made) would 
justify the realization of half and the whole demand respectively. The proportion 
of demand to follow the fraction of outturn need not be rigidly fixed, but may 
vary according to circumstances. This is practically what has occurred ; and the 
arithmetical guides have not been slavishly adhered to, as will appear from the 
summary which follows. 

9. The table which is attached to this letter shows that in the Jubbulpore 
Division the amounts suspended ranged from 45 per cent, in Damoh to 74 per cent. 

in Jubbulpore.* The Damoh crops were, taken all 

•Saugor 48 round, better than those of anv other part of the 

Damoh to n- • ■ v j. • i_- j. • j >j 

Jubbulpore 74 -Division, but its previous history required consid^ 

Mandla 55 eration. Similarly, in the Saugor District, where 

Seoni 60 48 per cent, was suspended, different tahsils require 

different treatment. The deeply-distressed Khurai 
Tahsil could not be asked to pay anything, while the Rehli Tahsil will pay 83 
per cent, of its revenue. In Jubbulpore the haveli wheat crop, which pays the 
lowest share of the revenue of the district, was very poor ; and the extensive 
rice-growing areas in the north and east gave no crop at all worth mentioning. 
But throughout this division, where the amount of revenue suspended may seem 
to be disproportionately high as compared with the intensity of the famine, the 
previous history of the country has been a most important factor. The extent 
of deterioration has had to be considered. 

10. In Narsinghpur also, in the Nerbudda Division, where there is hardly 
any famine-relief being given, and the district is rather affected than distressed, 
the proportion of revenue suspended (54 per cent.) may appear unduly high. 
The general outturn of the district, however, only amounted to about 39 per cent, 
of the normal, the district has not enjoyed very liberal concessions hitherto, 
although it has suffered a good deal from bad seasons and was somewhat severely 
affected in the famine of 1896-97. Moreover, when districts are hovering on thft 
verge of famine, it is far better to forego a little revenue than to risk driving the 
poorer cultivators in to seeking relief and depriving the better ones of the means 

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to employ labour. It was on these grounds that rather more liberal suspensions 
were granted in these districts than the extent of the failure might seem to 
warrant. In Hoshangabad, another district which has suffered severely from a 
series of Dad seasons, the proportion suspended is 58 per cent. ; and special care 
has been taken by the Deputy Commissioner to modify arithmetical deductions 
in the light of local knowledge ; but the full revenue has only been demanded 
in the few cases in which the outturn reached 70 per cent. 

11. In Nimar, a district in which the current year's failure was very com- 
plete, the people were better off and had enjoyed good crops in previous years. 
The amount suspended is only 43 per cent. Viewed on the crops alone greater 
liberality would have been justified, but in this district the people are not so 
badly off as elsewhere. Facts justified our concession. For the crops are mainly 
kharif, and the people are accustomed to pay rents and revenue mainly in the 
first instalment. Before, therefore, the necessary calculations could be made, 
the Deputy Commissioner found that a considerable amount of rent had been 
collected and revenue voluntarily paid in. The Deputy Commissioner therefore 
framed his proposals mainly on the amount of rent collection. Of the two 
remaining districts of the Nerbudda Division, in Chhindwara arithmetical con- 
siderations pointed to a suspension of about Rs. 2,20,000, but this district has 
not appreciably deteriorated, and the amount actually recommended for suspen- 
sion and sanctioned was Rs. 1,65,000 or 57 per cent, of the total demand. 
The difference arose from the fact that when the outturns were substantial the 
proportion levied exceeded the arithmetical share. In Betul the crop outturns 
were really nominal, and the amount to be collected. Rs. 6,000 out of 
Rs. 2,71,000, represents the demand made in a few fortunate villages which 
partially escaped the general ruin. 

12. To turn next to the Nagpur Division, in the two districts of Wardha 
and Nagpur, where rice is of little importance (except in a strip of Nagpur which 
was specially treated), the only crops which yielded well were cotton (in parts) 
and til. These districts had hitherto avoided actual famine, and were accounted 
fairly prosperous, but they have had very indifferent seasons for several years 
and suffered severely (Wardha especially) in the present failure ; juar yielded 
hardly any grain, and the rabi crops practically gave no outturn. The Nagpur 
proposals were received late and have been returned for revision ; and the figures 
entered in the statement are, therefore, approximate only. It will probably 
only be possible to collect about 40 per cent. In Wardha 77 per cent, has been 
suspended. In this district also actual rent collections have been used to 
modify the deductions drawn from outturn calculations. In the three great 
rice districts of the Division the failure of rice was so complete that nothing can 
•be demanded from the rice tracts. The sums shown for collection against 
Bhandara and Chanda represent the demand made on the non-rice tracts, which 
fared better than the similar country in Nagpur and Wardha. Balagbat has 
but little non-rice land, and it suffered so severely both in the present and 
previous years that it would have been impossible to collect anything. 

13. In Chhattisgarh (excluding Sambalpur) only a few isolated tracts 
and some of the Zamindaris partially escaped the general failure, and the sums 
to be realized are quite trifling. But the districts of Raipur and Bilaspur 
suffered greatly in 1896-97. Sambalpur on the other hand profited by the 
high prices of 1896-97 ; its revenue is specially low, and its previous history 
favourable. Severe famine in the present year was confined in this district to a few 
localities. Suspension has been freely given in the areas most affected, but the 
amount is not large on the whole, only 15 per cent, of the total demand. 

14. The foregoing summary will have indicated that, while there has 
been considerable weight allowed to general considerations which affect the 
several tracts and districts as a whole, the main basis of the calculation has been 
the crop of the year. Except in the few cases in which ability to pay has been 
demonstrated by actual payment without coercion, personal considerations have 
had no influence on the proposals for suspension. On the whole (accepting 
approximate figures for Nagpur) out of a total demand of Rs. 86,86,000, the 
sum of Rs. 60.25,000, or 70 per cent, in round numbers, has been suspended. 
This may be taken to represent an equivalent rent suspension of at least a crore 



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of rupees. Although it is improbable that any large portion of this could 
without resort to some coercion have been realized, yet the result of these 
liberal concessions will be to leave a large sum of money in the country which 
must have a beneficial effect upon the means and credit of the cultivating 
classes, even if it has not saved a good many cultivators from coming on relief. 
I am to express a hope that the action taken will meet with the approval of 
the Government of India. 

15. I am now to make a brief reference to the case of ryotwari villages. 
The ryotwari demand over the whole Province only amounts at present to 
about 2£ lakhs of rupees. The only districts in which there are ryotwari areas 
of any importance are Nimar, Mandla, Chanda and Balaghat. In Mandla and 
Balaghat the ryots largely consist of Gonds with little or no capital. In Nimar 
and Chanda the ryots are of better cultivating classes. In both these last districts 
the failure of crops was very severe ; and in Nimar particularly, unlike the 
malguzari areas of that district, the ryotwari tracts have had a series of bad 
years before they were even well established. Commissioners have been given 
authority to suspend revenue in the case of ryotwari villages. Complete 
information regarding them has not been received, but as yet very little capital 
has had time to be collected in ryotwari areas, and there is little likelihood that 
any substantial sum will be demanded from them this season. In these 
ryotwari areas, though the amount to be levied from the village could easily 
be calculated in the same manner as in malguzari villages, the Revenue Officer 
would not have the assistance of a proprietor to distribute the demand among 
the ryots. But as these villages become better established and the status of 
patels is improved (to which end steps are already being taken) there is no 
reason to think that village officers could not be trusted to give reliable advice 
on the distribution of the revenue demand between the ryots, provided that the 
reduced demand had been first worked out for the village as a whole. For the 
present, however, it has not been necessary to resort to such a procedure. But 
whether the tract be malguzari or ryotwari the general principle which has been 
followed in these proceedings, and M. Fraser would submit that it is the best 
one, is that where losses are isolated and Tew it is proper to work from detail to 
aggregate, but where the calamity is widespread the only possible course is to 
work from aggregate to detail. 



Enclosure in No. 13. 



Statement showing (he amount of revenue suspended in each District (re/erred to in 
paragraph 2 of letter No. F-1682, dated the 37th June, 1900). 



District. 


Total demand 

for the 
revenue year 
1899-1900. 

00 


Amount 
suspended. 

« 


Balance for 

collection. 

00 


Percentage 
of (p) on 
00. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 




Sangor ... 


5,23,326 


2,52,277 


2,71,049 


52 


Damoh 


3,97,991 


1,79,455 


2,18,536 


55 


Jubbulpore 


9,34,426 


6,90,714 


2,43,712 


26 


Mandla 


1,04,871 


58,012 


46,859 


45 


Sooni ... ... ... ... 


2,89,003 


1,72,321 


1,16,682 


40 


Nareinghpur 


6,34,660 


3,40,275 


2,94,385 


46 


Hoehangabad 


7,67,647 


4,41,438 


3,26,209 


42 



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Statement showing the amount of revenue suspended in each District — continued. 



District. 


Total demand 

for the 
revenue year 
1889-1900. 


Amount 
suspended. 


Balance for 

collection. 


Percentage . 

of 00 ° n 

00- 




00 


(») 


00 




Nimar ... 


Ra. 
2,85,776 


Rs. 
1,23,000 


Re. 
1,62,776 


57 


Betol 


2,71,406 


2,65,213 


6,193 


2 


Chhindwara 


2,91,437 


1,64,684 


1,26,753 


43 


Wardha 


6,40,878 


4,90,459 


1,50,419 


23 


Nagpur 


9,85,771 


6,00,000 


3,85,771 


39 


Chanda 


2,88,519 


2,13,959 


74,560 


26 


Bhandara 


5,03,027 


4,32,417 


70,610 


14 


Balaghat 


2,39,200 


2,39,200 






Raipur ... 


8,51,271 


8,36,387 


14,884 


2 


Bilaspur 


5,11,576 


5,00,965 


10,611 


2 


Sambalpar 


1,65,238 


24,496 


1,40,742 


85 


Total 


86,86,023 


60,25,272 


26,60,751 


30 



No. 14. 

Letter from T. W. Holdemess, Esq., C.S.T., Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Honourable the 
Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces, No. 1,578 F., dated Simla, 
the 20M July, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Craddock's letter, 
No. 1,682 F., dated 27th June, 1900, submitting a report on the suspensions 
of the land revenue demand in the famine stricken districts of the Central 
Provinces. 

2. The Governor General in Council has read the report with interest and 
I am to express approval of the action which you have taken in the matter. 

3. It is understood that the question of remissions of the suspended 
demand will be postponed until distress shows signs of declining, and the 
result of the autumn and the prospects of the winter crop are known. 
Remissions on a large scale will, doubtless, in any case, have to be made ; but, 
should the crop prospects be good, a considerable portion of the suspended 
revenue should be capable of realization by instalments without hardship to 
tenants and landlords. It is almost unnecessary to observe that in collecting 
hereafter such portions of the suspended revenue as is considered capable of 
realization, care will have to be taken not to realise too quickly on the return of 
favourable seasons, as otherwise the good effect of suspensions might be 
undone. 



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RELIEF MEASURES AND REGULATION OP APMIS- 
SION TO RELIEF WORKS AND KITCHENS. 

NO. 15. 

Letter from T. W. flolderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Commissioner 
of the Central Provinces, No. 408 F., dated Calcutta, the 1st March, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Craddock's letter* 
No. 238, dated the 3rd February, 1900, replying to this departments circular 
letter of the 27th December, 1899, in which attention was drawn to the great 
rise in the numbers in receipt of famine relief, and the views of the Governor 
General in Council communicated on some of the principles of famine admin- 
istration. The Governor General in Council observes with satisfaction that 
your views are in general accordance with the policy there described as to the 
more effective enforcement of proper precautions and adequate tests in the 
administration of famine relief. My present letter will be confined to two or 
three points in connection with the action taken or proposed to be taken by you 
to give effect to that policy, on which the orders of the Government of India 
are sought by you or an expression of their views is desirable. 

2. In paragraph 17 of your Secretary's letter it is stated that you have 
decided, as a temporary measure, to prohibit further admissions to all Public 
Works Department relief camps in the Chhattisgarh Division, and to direct 
that persons applying for employment on such works shall be referred to the 
charge officers of their track for employment on village works. For the views 
of the Government of India on such restrictions I am directed to invite 
attention to the correspondence on this subject (copy enclosed) which has lately 
passed between them and the Resident at Hyderabad. As in the somewhat 
analogous case of Berar, the Government of India approve the measures you 
have taken in the Chhattisgarh Division on the understanding that they are 
temporary, and that they have been advised to meet a temporary and peculiar 
emergency. The Government of India do not think that it would be either safe 
or practicable, as a permanent measure, to constitute the charge officer of the 
tract the judge in each case of a person's eligibility for relief by means of work, 
or to make the village work the sole door of , entrance to large relief works 
under professional management. In assenting to your action as a temporary 
expedient, intended to give time for putting tne large relief camps into 
thorough order, the Government of India wish to be informed how long the 
restriction is to continue in force. 

3. Another reason for making this restriction a temporary one is the 
possible effect it may have on the number of persons employed on village 
works in the Chhattisgarh Division. The number is already very large in the 
Raipur district, and both in it and in the Bilaspur district the effect of you? 
orders will be to considerably increase the relief population on village works, 
thereby making it increasingly 'difficult to ensure that these scattered works are 
properly supervised and that labour is duly tasked. -It is indeed stated in your 
letter that in the Chhattisgarh Division a relief work managed by the Public 
Works Department is more attractive to the people than a village work. The 
Government of India are constrained to say that this is altogether opposed to 
experience elsewhere, and they imagine it could only be true as regards 
Chhattisgarh if the professionally managed relief works in that division are at 
present so imperfectly organized as to make the enforcement of discipline and 
the exaction of proper tasks impracticable. All experience shows that village 
works are liable to become dangerously attractive to the people, and as regards 
Chhattisgarh it seems probable that the one effective safeguard hitherto existing 
there against this danger is that the numbers are in practice kept down by the 



* See page 448 of Command Paper 205, presented in 1900. 



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ticket admission system. No one, it is understood, is allowed on a village 
work unlesu he obtains a ticket from a circle or charge officer or a Tahsildar, 
who is required to satisfy himself that the applicant is necessitous, and in case 
of doubt has hitherto referred him to a Public Works camp. So long as this 
was the rule, there was no real equality of conditions between the two classes of 
works, and no conclusion could be fouEded on the fact that on professionally 
managed works the numbers increased more rapidly than on village works. Now 
that the charge or circle officer has no longer the assurance that an applicant 
has the professionally managed works open to him if refused a ticket for the 
village work, his inclination will be to admit more freely to the latter, and the 
check on numbers which has hitherto existed with regard to this class of works 
will become less operative. 

On all grounds it is therefore desirable that the effect of the action taken 
in Chhattisgarh should, as you propose, be most carefully watched. 

4. With regard to the Nagpur and Nerbudda Divisions, the Government 
of India are glad to hear that there is no present necessity for similar action. 
With regard to the .Tubbulpore Division you state that the Commissioner has 
already been successful in regulating admission to his test works by tickets and 
that you have authorised him to try whether a similar procedure cannot also be 
worked with success with regard to Public Works Department works. The 
Governor General in Council agrees to the proposal only as an experiment, to be 
confined to the Jubbulpore Division where the circumstances are special. He 
also considers it essential that efficient arrangements should be made in oil 
villages by the circle and charge officers and the Tahsildars to give persons the 
opportunity of applying for admission tickets without a troublesome and 
uncertain journey, and that tickets should be granted not merely when 
destitution is clearly proved but also in all doubtful cases. The civil officers, in 
charge of relief works should also be authorised and required to admit all 
applicants whose physical condition indicates their need for relief, and their 
conduct in this matter should be strictly supervised. 

5. I am to add that though the Government of India assent to the 
experiment in deference to your views, they are not by any means assured 
either that the ticket system is necessary in the Jubbulpore Division, where the 
Public Works organization is presumably sufficient, or that it can be exercised 
so as to safely discriminate between man and man, or can be kept free from 
corruption. They should therefore like to receive a special report on its 
working after it has been six weeke in force, and they consider that your 
sanction should be made strictly conditional on the results of further experience. 



No. 16. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. F-S25, dated Nagpur, 
the 4th April, 1900. 

1 am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 408-F, dated 
the 1st March, 1900, conveying the remarks and orders of the Government of 
India upon special measures regulating admission to relief works in the 
Chhattisgarh and Jubbulpore Divisions, which were reported in paragraphs 1 7 
and 20 of my letter, No. F-238, of the 3rd February last. 

2. Your letter under reply was received by the Officiating Chief Commis- 
sioner while he was on a tour of inspection in the Raipur District in the 
beginning of March, and as he had arranged to visit the Jubbulpore Division 
later on in the month he has deferred a reply until that visit also had been 
made. 



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3. In respect of relief works in Chhattisgarh, you state that the Govern- 
ment of India approve of the action taken in closing works to new admissions, 
on the understanding that this proceeding was to he temporary only and 
designed to meet a temporary emergency. That the expedient should be a 
temporary one, to afford a breathing time while disorganised camps could be set 
in order and new ones opened, was all along the Officiating Chief Commissioner's 
intention. The effect of the measure can best be judged from the following 
figures : — 





27th January. 


24th March. 


District. 


No. of 
Camps. 


No. of Relief 
Workers. 


Average per 
Oamp. 


No. of 
Camps. 


No. of Relief- 
Workers. 


Average per 
Camp. 


Raipur 


22 


190,533 


8,661 


41 


194,876 


4,753 


Bilaspur 


13 


102,978 


7,921 


24 


81,465 


3,394 



The numbers on Village Works in the two districts on the same dates 
contrast as follows : — 







27th January. 


24th March. 






RftipQI* >■* ••• ••• 


186,276 


200,300 






Bilaspur 


37,264 


64,508 





The aggregate of those employed on both kinds of works has not risen 
very much in either district — i.e., from 376,800 to 395,000 in Raipur, and 
from 141,000 to 146,000 in Bilaspur — but the means of employing them and of 
enforcing discipline in the Public Works Department camps have much 
improved. 

4. Mr. Fraser accordingly ordered on the occasion of his recent visit to 
Raipur that Public Works Department camps were to be again opened to free 
admissions, with the exception of a few works, to be specified from time to time, 
which had not reached a sufficient stage of organisation or had become 
temporarily disorganised. The Deputy Commissioner and Executive Engineer 
were to arrange the matter subject to the advice of the Commissioner. Weakly 
gangs were to be organised on all works, and all works without exception were 
to be open to the admission of persons only fit for employment in weakly 
gangs. It was clearly to be understood that the majority of works were to be 
open. There will be, the Officiating Chief Commissioner thinks, no risk under 
these orders of anybody being refused relief who really requires it. Nor does 
Mr. Fraser believe that the temporary closure of works had any bad effect. 
During the period of closure there was a large extension of village works and 
kitchens. 

5. I am now to turn to the arrangements made in the Jubbulpore 
Division. The Officiating Chief Commissioner inspected a few works in the 
Jubbulpore and Saugor districts during his visit to the Division, and discussed 
the procedure in force with the Commissioner and the local officers. I am to 
forward a copy of the rules issued by Mr. Fuller, and of his letter, No. 2672, of 
the 18th March, showing the result of his action. The rules are of a simple 
nature and explain themselves, the principle being that everybody resident 
within a 4 -mile radius of a relief work must procure a ticket before he can be 
admitted to the work. If he is rejected wrongly he can be admitted without 
question at another work, Mb acceptance of this distance test being admitted as 
qualifying him for relief. It is no doubt true that when distress is not very 



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severe there are many people in a village who will go to work at a camp close 
to their homes, but who are not really distressed and will not go on it unless it 
is easy accessible. A moderate rabi harvest has been reaped in a considerable 
part of the Division, and very acute distress is not apprehended. In these 
circumstances the rules seem to the Officiating Chief Commissioner to be well 
calculated to prevent money being wasted on persons not in real need ; and for 
the present, at least, the system is not attended by any risk. The condition of 
the people is very superior to that observed in rice districts, general health is 
good, and mortality low. Mr. Fraser would, therefore, ask the permission of 
the Government of India to allow the system to continue in this Division, unless 
and until it is found necessary to abandon it. 

6. The question naturally arises whether a similar method of confining 
relief to the really distressed might not be introduced in other parts of the 
Province also ; but, after giving the matter full consideration, Mr. Fraser has 
come to the conclusion that this would now be impossible. When distress is 
severe, it is doubtful whether, even in its initial stages, such a procedure could 
safely be carried out. It is possible that if introduced from the first, before the 
people had left their villages, it might have proved workable ; but to examine 
into the circumstances of each individual of the vast hordes of people now on 
relief works in our rice districts, would at this stage be out of the question. 
Mr. Fraser has, therefore, no desire to extend the system to other parts of the 
Province. 

7. Another point touched on in your letter is the alleged popularity of 
large Public Works Department Works as compared with Village Works. Where 
distress is not very acute the village work for the residents of the village where 
it is actually in progress would certainly be the more popular ; but it is not so 
in our rice districts. There the extra pice obtainable on the Public Works 
Department Work, the kitchen for dependants, the arrangements for water and 
for the purchase of grain, fully outweigh the disadvantage, if any, arising from 
the extra discipline enforced. To this discipline the relief-worker soon 
accustoms himself ; he is by nature a creature of routine, and when once he has 
made up his mind to a course of steady daily labour he readily accepts a stricter 
discipline in consideration of an extra pice and organised arrangements for his 
comfort. Different circumstances might no doubt produce a different case. 
But in the circumstances with which we are dealing, local officers are every- 
where agreed that the large work is the more popular, and Mr. Fraser himself, 
when in Raipur, came across numerous instances of desertion from the Village 
to a Public Works Department Work. It is also far from being the case that 
the v illage Work is unsupervised ; the numbers on it are small, the workers 
are concentrated within a small compass, and the malguzar who will benefit by 
the work will generally take care that a proper task is rendered. The task 
also is easily checked ; and the charge officers and other inspecting officers have 
been constantly on the move, and have supervised these works well. Mr. Fraser 
has inspected not a few, and has been satisfied of this. Certainly had not 
Village Works been largely extended in Chhattisgarh, the programme of useful 
Public Works would have been rapidly exhausted, and the camps would have 
been swamped by undisciplined rabbles. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 16. 



Letter from J, B. Fuller, Esq., L.C.S., CLE., Commissioner, Jubbvlpore 
Division, to the Famine Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, Central 
Provinces, No. 2,672, dated Jubbvlpore, the 18M March, 1900. 

I have the honour to submit, for the information of the Chief Commissioner, 
a set of instructions which I issued last month to the Deputy Commissioners of 
Saugor, Jubbulpore, and Seoni — the only districts in which Public Works 
Department relief charges have been opened in this Division — under the 
authority given me by paragraph 4 of your letter, No. F. 173, dated the 22nd 
January, 1900. I did not issue then: till I had ascertained by personal trial 
that the enquiries on which they depend were feasible. 



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2. At the time the instructions were acted upon the numbers on relief- 
works had fallen very greatly owing to the commencement of harvesting and 
(in Jubbulpore) to a reduction in wages which followed a fall in prices. 
Between the beginning and the end of February the numbers on Public W orks 
Department relief-works in the three districts fell by 52 per cent. Persons of 
the better classes were the first to leave, and, in consequence, although previous 
enquiries had given ground for the belief that fairly well-to-do cultivating 
families constituted from 20 per cent, to 80 per cent, of the workers, the 
instructions have led to the rejection of a much smaller proportion — less than 
10 per cent, in Saugor and Jubbulpore, and about 15 per cent, in Seoni. It is 
reported, however, that on some works people left at the commencement of the 
enquiries when they saw that their result would be against them, without 
waiting for an order of exclusion. The instructions will be felt in lessening 
the number of fairly well-to do persons who return to the works during the 
coming hot weather. 

3. No reports have reached me of any difficulty in working the 
instructions or of complications arising out of them. Deputy Commissioners 
will watch their effect most carefully, and if there is any risk of their excluding 
the deserving they will be at once withdrawn. 



Annexure to above. 

Rules for the use of some discrimination in admitting to Public Works Department 

Famine Relief Works. 

1. The object of these rales is to exclude from works families who are not at the end 
of their available "resources, and who arc not deterred from seeking admission by any 
"distance test." A consequential advantage will be that we shall be able to deal more 
leniently with relief- workers as a class, and can avoid the risk of driving away by hard 
tasks and low wages those whe stand most in need of assistance. 

2. The first step is to draw up a list of villages lying within 4 (or perhaps 5) miles 
off the relief -work or any part of it. The list will need revision as the work shifts its 
situation. Poor villages with infertile soil need not be included, unless they are grazing 
villages. A copy of the list should be given to the Officer-in-charge, and be posted con- 
spicuously at the camp. No person should be admitted from these villages without an 
admission ticket. 

3. The next step is to distribute tickets to present relief- workers belonging to these 
villages who need relief, and to refuse tickets to those who do not need relief. For this 
purpose the relief -workers belonging to these villages should be marshalled by villages and 
by families, and enquiries be made regarding each family with the assistance of the 
mukaddam, the patwari, and the patwari's cattle list. Tickets should be refused to families 
who posse&s more than two head of cattle other than plough cattle, or possess a cart, or 
who have sown five acres or more of rabi. The Deputy Commissioner may find it possible 
to add to this definition of the fairly well-to-do. A ticket should be piven to each member 
of a family not excluded by this rule. The ticket need be nothing more than a slip of 
paper bearing the name of the village (in Hindi), a letter to signify whether the person is 
a man, woman, or child (M., W., W.C.), and the initials of the distributing officer. In a 
trial I made 950 persons were disposed of in three hours. I do not think that ordinarily 
more than 1,000 persons can be dealt with in a day, and the workers from 20 or 30 villages 
may occupy an officer for two or three days. Tickets should not be distributed by an officer 
of rank inferior to that of Charge Officer. 

4. To provide for the admission in future of deserving persons belonging to the 
listed villages who are not on the work at the time of the enquiry, the Charge Officer or an 
officer of superior rank should visit the locality every eight or ten days, sending notice 
beforehand to the villages that persons wishing for admission should attend at a certain 
place and on a certain date. He will then go through them, and distribute tickets exactly 
as in dealing with relief -workers. 

5. When the Officer-in-charge is a man of experience and judgment, authority to 
distribute tickets to new-comers may be given to him. 

6. The difficulty will be to prevent non-ticket holders belonging to the listed villages 
from gaining admission by mis-stating their villages of residence. Mates should he made 
responsible for reporting any such cases, and I think that the services of the kotwars might 
be usefully enlisted, giving them a small fee in return. I believe, however, that when 
once the intention of Governments known, evasions of rule will be of rare occurrence. 



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No. 17. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.L, Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Commissioner 
of the Central Provinces. No. 775-F., dated Simla, the 21st April, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Craddock's letter, 
No. 825-F., dated 4th April 1900, regarding the special measures for regulating 
admission to relief works in the Chhattisgarh and Jubbulpore Divisions. 

2. The ticket admission system in force on the departmental famine relief 
works in the Jubbulpore Division is reported to be working satisfactorily, and 
permission is asked to allow the system to continue in the Division unless and 
until you should find its abandonment necessary. The rules are considered by 
you to be well calculated to prevent money from being wasted on persons not in 
real need, and for the present at least to be unattended by any risk, as the 
condition and general health of the people in the Division is good and mortality 
low. You are, however, of opinion that the procedure could not now be safely 
extended to the more acutely distressed districts of the province, as inquiry into 
the circumstances of each individual of the vast hordes of people on the relief 
works, which the system necessitates, is at this stage out of the question. You 
have therefore no wish to extend the rules to other parts of the province. 

3. The Government ot India accept without hesitation your opinion on 
this latter point, as it is in entire accord with the conclusion arrived at by the 

Famine Commission of 1880, which pronounced 
Report, Part i, paragraph no. against the practicability of working any rule of 

selection where, as in an Indian famine, millions of. 
people have to be dealt with. In the Jubbulpore Division " scarcity " rather 
than true " famine " conditions appear to prevail, and the numbers of persons 
in need of relief are comparatively limited. The circumstances are thus special, 
and the considerations which condemn the principle of individual selection as a 
basis for any general system of famine relief lose in this case part of their 
weight. The experiment initiated by Mr. Fuller is valuable and instructive, 
and it may be continued as long as you think its continuance is expedient. 

4. Turning to the rules themselves it is observed that they do not specially 
provide, as the Government of India in my letter of the 1 st March suggested, 
for the immediate admission to the work by the officer- in-charge of persons 
whose physical condition indicates their need of relief. Unless the officer-in - 
charge is given the special powers mentioned in rule 5, an applicant for relief 
belonging to a " listed ' village cannot be relieved at the work, however urgent 
and apparent his necessities may be, until an officer of superior rank next visits 
the locality. It may be said that the distressed person has the option of 
repairing to a more distant work, to which he will be admitted without question. 
But that work may be twenty or thirty miles away, and the option in such 
circumstances is of little practical use to an exhausted famine stricken sufferer. 
The Government of India consider that the rules should authorise the officer- in - 
charge to admit temporarily, pending the next visit of the superior officer, anv 
applicant whose physical condition is unmistakeably bad. 

5. To prevent any possible misunderstanding of the rules, it is further, 
desirable that they should explicitly state that applicants for relief who are not 
residents of the listed villages are to be admitted to the work without question 
by the officer-in-charge. This intention is clearly explained in your letter and 
may be inferred from the text of the rules. But explicitness in this matter is 
desirable, as it is within memory that in the Bilaspur District in 1897 relief was 
refused to thousands by subordinates of the Public Works Department on a mis- 
reading of the admission rules, which antecedently would not have been 
considered possible. 



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No. 18. 

Famine Circular from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, to all Commissioners and Deputy 
Commissioners, the Superintending Engineer, and the Superintendent of 
Works, No. F-49, dated Nagpur, the 7th May, 1900. 

I am directed to address you with reference to the arrangements for 
famine-relief to be made during the rains. The instructions which follow, as 
well aB the principles upon which they are based, have been determined at a 
Conference held at Pachmsrhi on the 20th and 21st of April, at which all 
Commissioners and the Deputy Commissioner of Hoshangabad were present. 
They will require careful study by all officers whose duty it is to carry 
them out. 

2. Large relief works under the Public Works Department have been up 
to the present, save in a few special localities, the mainstay of our system of 
relief ; and the first and principal question before the Conference was whether 
the policy of placing our chief reliance on these major works was possible, or 
desirable, in the rains. To this question the Conference unanimously returned 
an emphatic negative. 

3. In the first place, the reason for the maintenance of large relief-works 
at selected centres disappears when employment is available in the villages. In 
the second place, these large works at that season of the year tail adequately to 
•check mortality. The area they serve is curtailed, while the exposure and 
discomforts inseparable from them, even under the best arrangements, tend to 
■cause sickness and increased mortality. Furthermore, it is the general belief that 
even if the Public Works Department camps were all kept open during the 
rains, a large nnmber of the relief-workers would certainly desert them. 
Hutting accommodation must be provided for all camps that are kept open ; 
and, if these were maintained at their present number, the cost of such accom- 
modation would be very heavy, and would be almost wholly wasted if the 
anticipated departure of workers took place. Added to these arguments against 
relief by large works in the rains is the consideration that the exaction of tasks 
is always difficult, and often impossible, and that the money spent, viewed in 
proportion to the insignificant work done, could be utilised far more efficiently 
on other forms of relief. Lastly, if reliance were to be placed on Public Works 
Department works mainly, these would have to be increased so as to take on 
all persons now engaged on village works. This would be practically impossible 
in Chhattisgarh, and difficult elsewhere. 

4. While, however, it is clear that Public Works Department relief-works 
cannot be depended upon as the backbone of relief during the rains, it is equally 
•certain that they cannot all be simultaneously closed at a given date. The last 
Famine Commission wrote (paragraph 243 of their Report) : — " We think that 
the policy of inducing people to leave the works before a famine is ended is a 
dangerous one, unless used with the greatest caution and supported by a large 
extension of gratuitous village relief. . . . The evidence we have taken is 
in favour of the view that, except perhaps in the case of very laxly and profusely 
managed relief-works, the cultivators and agricultural labourers leave works as 
soon as ever they see their way to getting a living off them, and often on the mere 
chance of so doing." Elsewhere in their report they condemn any attempt to 
drive people off the works, and prefer to see the works die a natural death by 
voluntary efflux of labourers. 

5. The policy which the Officiating Chief Commissioner has decided to 
adopt is a policy of inducing the people to leave the works only by an assurance 
of support for their dependants. That policy is based on the known facts that 
in normal years the whole of the agricultural population now on relief finds 
support during the rains in agricultural operations, which support will be 
-equally available during the coming monsoon period except in so far as (1) the 
wages to be earned will be les? by the possible curtailment of the area sown, 
and (2) owing to high prices the wages earned will be insufficient to purchase 



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food for the whole of the labourer's family. In other words, during the rains 
Government will be required merely to supplement, and not to take the place 
of, private employment and wages. The mode of supplementing earnings will 
be by cooked food at kitchens to dependants and by expansion of the village 
cash relief lists. 

6. In all districts where distress is comparatively slight, where a substan- 
tial amount of capital is still available to finance the cultivator, and agricultural 
operations are not likely to be curtailed to any material extent, the support of 
the labourer's dependants, extended if necessary hereafter to working members 
of his family according to rules to be presently explained, should suffice to 
relieve any distress which may occur. The reason for high mortality in the 
rains is usually not that the labourers cannot earn anything at all, but that he 
cannot earn enough to support all the members of his family. Either he feeds 
himself and leaves them hungry, or else he and they endeavour to subsist on a 
ration inadequate for the support of all. But in the most severely distressed 
districts, where capital will not be readily available, and employment will be 
specially scanty, it will probably be necessary to extend relief upon occasion 
to a certain proportion of the labourers themselves. Whenever it is necessary 
to give money doles to able-bodied persons other than children, the gift must 
be conditional on work done by the recipients under the supervision of the 
mukaddam. 

7. These relief arrangements will enable the system of Public Works 
Department relief-works to be largely dispensed with ; but they will not enable 
them to be entirely superseded. There will be foreigners who have no home in 
the district and cannot be sent to their homes, a sprinkling of labourers and 
artizans who will not leave the works, and a certain number of waifs and strays, 
with no settled home, to be provided for. For these classes it will in most 
districts be necessary to keep a few Public Works Department charges open, for 
a short time at all events. These must be selected beforehand, and good 
hutting accommodation must be provided. As works become gradually 
deserted, the remnant of workers must be drafted to the selected works ; and 
the rest can be gradually closed. The approximate number of works which 
it may be advisable to keep open is indicated in the district notes which 
accompany this circular. The list is not, however, a final one, and is subject 
to modification, provided that the general principles of giving relief in villages 
are maintained. 

8. The above being the principles of famine relief to be followed in the 
rains, the following instructions indicate the measures to be adopted to give 
effect to them : — 

(1) Public Works. 

I. — Large works under the Public Works Department will occupy 
only a subsidiary place in the relief programme for the rains. 

II. — A limited number of works, chosen with reference both to the 

localities where work is most likely to be needed, to the utility 
of the work, and to the possibility of carrying it on in the 
rains, must be selected with the approval of the Commissioner, 
and hutting accommodation must be provided for as many 
workers (varying probably between 500 and 1,500) as may be 
determined in each case. 

III. — No action will be taken to drive people from the works, but they 

will be induced to leave by promise of support to their 
dependants. As a first stage to the clearing of the works 
Officers-in-charge will arrange with the Circle Officers 
concerned to put all members of weakly gangs on the cash- 
relief list of their villages ; and on the 20th May all such 
persons who are willing to leave the works will be given one 



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month's gratuitous dole and despatched to their villages, a list 
of such persons and the doles given them being furnished to 
the Circle Officer of the village to which they belong. 

IV. — Early in June it will be generally proclaimed by beat of drum 
throughout the camp that on the rains breaking Government 
wishes the people to return to their villages, and that if they 
do so arrangements will be made for the support of their 
dependants in their villages, and that all kitchens will be open 
to free admission. 

V. — As soon as the rains break an exodus from the works may be 
expected. Those works on which the numbers decline below 
a certain limit, to be fixed by the Commissioner, will then be 
closed, the residue being drafted to the next nearest work, 
until in time only the selected camps, where efficient shelter 
has been provided, remain open. Charge and Circle Officers 
will visit the camps in their charges which are about to be 
closed and see that all pauper dependants, who will not be 
within reach of a kitchen at their homes, are put on the village 
relief list. 

(2) Village Relief. 

VI. — Village relief will be the backbone of the relief system to be 
followed in the rains. It will consist of : — 

A. — Gratuitous relief to the non- working population, and to 

children below 14 years of age ; and 

B. — In certain cases, relief in return for work to the working 

population, consisting of able-bodied adults over 14 
years of age. 

(A) Gratuitous Relief. 
Gratuitous Relief will consist of : — 
(i.) Kitchens ; and 
(ii.) Cash doles. 

Kitchens will be multiplied in all tracts where distress exists, and 
sufficient kitchens are not at present open. Admission will 
be free to anybody who will accept cooked food, and is not 
being otherwise relieved. Shelters from the rain must be 
run up at all kitchens. 

Cash doles will only be necessary to those who cannot walk to a 
kitchen, or who, being' reduced in condition, have never 
taken food at a kitchen and refuse to do so. Children 
within two miles of a kitchen should rarely be put on cash 
relief. This relief list will be styled list A, and the numbers 
on it will be returned as on gratuitous relief. 

VII. — During May, the village relief list A may be gradually expanded 
under the directions of the Commissioner, so as to include 
weakly persons who have been struck off the lists previously in 
the expectation that they would attend kitchens, but who have 
refused to do so, as well as those sent from Public Works 
Department works to their homes under Rule III., care being 
taken that these latter are not paid twice over. The Charge 
Officer will also see that dependants of workers on village 
works within his charge who have refused to accept cooked 
food are brought on to the village relief list, and doles given 
them on the village works being closed. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



(B) Village Relief Works. 

In tracts severely distressed. 

VIII. — In districts severely distressed, in whicli this procedure is- 
enjoined by the Commissioner of the Division with the previous 
sanction of the Chief Commissioner, a special list termed the 
B list will be prepared. On it will be entered the names of 
the heads of the poorest labouring families in each village, with 
the number of members in each family, to whom relief will be 
given if the need arises. The list will show how many 
members of the family are receiving relief gratuitously or at 
kitchens. 

Note (1). — No farm servant in permanent employ can be put on this list. 
Note (2). — Persons who habitually labour for hire will not be excluded from the list of 
labourers merely because they happen to own a small plot of land. 

IX. — The preparation of this list can be put in hand at once by patwaris 
and mukaddams under the supervision of Circle and Charge 
Officers. 

X. — Distribution of relief to able-bodied persons on the B list will only 
be given for one month at a time, and only when, owing to 
partial cessation of agricultural operations, there is insufficient 
field work available, and can only be allowed on the sanction 
of the Commissioner, who shall at once inform the Chief 
Commissioner of the orders passed by him. An application 
by the Deputy Commissioner to the Commissioner for 
permission to distribute relief to able-bodied persons on the 
B list must contain an estimate of the numbers likely to be 
relieved. 

XI. — Relief to able-bodied persons under these rules will be conditional 
on work which will be exacted from them by the mukaddams. 
The mukaddam must be ready to inform the Circle or Charge 
Officer what work persons on the B list have been put on ; 
and the kind of work will be generally arranged with the 
mukaddams by Charge officers. It may consist of petty local 
improvements, as well as weeding or transplanting in fields of 
ryots unable themselves to employ labour ; but Circle Officers 
must not be permitted to interfere with the discretion of the 
mukaddam. 

In tracts not severely distressed. 

XII — In districts not severely distressed, it will not be necessary to- 
prepare formal B lists beforehand ; but if, later on, in the rains, 
distress is found to increase, discretion must be given to Charge- 
Officers to expand the gratuitous list by the addition to them 
of dependants of labourers without special reference to their 
capacity for work. But persons added on in this manner will 
be distinctively marked on the list, and the mukaddams will 
be required to exact work from them. 

9. The twelve rules embodied in the preceding paragraph convey the- 
general instructions to be observed ; but, owing to the great differences in local 
circumstances, it is impossible to frame instructions in sufficient detail applicable 
to all periods of the season or to all localities. Subsidiary instructions will, 
therefore, be necessary, which Commissioners have discretion to issue, provided 
that they do not conflict with the spirit of the rules, and are reported for the 
Chief Commissioner's approval. For instance, in regard to the B list, selections 
may prove difficult, and it may be necessary to limit the numbers on this form 
of relief to a certain percentage, on the basis that if a certain proportion of 
labourers are assisted by Goverment, the rest will find work. It may also be 
found advisable to prescribe limitations as to the total amount of relief which. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



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may be given to a single family. The relief is intended to supplement, not to 
take the place of, what the family may earn. These are all matters on which it 
is impossible to lay down strict rules at this juncture, but in respect of which 
the Officiating Chief Commissioner will be glad to consider any suggestions 
which local officers may have to make when the situation is further developed. 

10. It is of the greatest importance that no time should be lost in making 
the arrangements whereby the system of relief may be changed from camps to 
villages without a hiatus of insufficient relief. The actual workers in the camps, 
will probably have a small saving, and in the first burst of sowing operations 
will find sufficient employment ; but their dependants have to be provided for. 
These have hitherto been accepting cooked food at the camp kitchens, and 
should continue to receive this form of relief in their homes. It would be quite 
unnecessary to put them on the village relief list if there are kitchens within 
reach. It will, therefore, be necessary in those tracts in which kitchens have 
not been widely extended, and where distress is apprehended, to open kitchens 
in advance of the tide of returning dependants. They are the ultimate means 
of saving life, if the distressed person has failed to attract the notice of the 
Circle Relief Officer. 

11. There are certain tracts in the Province, the wilder zamindaris and 
the hilly regions of the Satpura districts, in which, owing to the great distance 
between villages, kitchen-relief cannot be managed. In some local areas of 
this description, distribution of dry grain at depots has taken the place of 
cooked food. This plan may be necessary in a few local areas, but it can never 
be worked side by side with kitchen -relief, and it still requires cash doles paid 
in the villages to the infirm who are unable to come to the dep6t. Any tracts 
in which resort to distribution of dry grain is considered to be necessary on any 
ground should be distinctly specified by Commissioners, and the necessity for 
the system, as well as the plan on which it is to be carritd out, should be clearly 
explained. 

12. In conclusion I am to forward some district notes showing in general 
terms the plan of relief in each district which seems to be primd facie necessary. 
It is, of course, subject to modification, but may be of general use. 



Enclosure in No. 18. 

Note appended to Famine CirctdarNo. F-49, dated the 7th May, 1900, regarding 

arrangements in the rains. 

The following district notes indicate generally the views of the Com- 
missioners as expressed at the conference. Under the estimates it is probable 
that the number of Public Works Department camps will be reduced from. 
180 to about 50, with further gradual reduction as the season advances. 

2. The estimates of the number of kitchens required to serve each district 
*re based on the calculation that a kitchen will serve effectually a radius of 
three miles or 27 square miles. The area under Government forest is deducted 
from the total area of the district. Some districts show already more kitchens 
than this number, but a very slight reduction in the radius adds greatly to the 
number of kitchens. For instance, if a district of 2,700 square miles requires 
100 kitchens for a three-mile radius, it will require 225 for a two-mile radius. 

3. As regards the numbers likely to return to the works after the rains 
break, it will be observed that in certain districts, e.g., Raipur, Bilaspur, Betul, 
Balaghat, and to a small extent in Nimar and Bhandara, the percentage of 
population on relief exceeds the percentage of labourers. In such districts the 
number of cultivators on works must be very large, and the numbers when the 
rains break should drop very rapidly. 

10566 . . . o 



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DISTRICT NOTES. 

Saugob. 
Percentage on Total Population. 



1 1 
Field 
Labourer*. 

- • j 


G«neral 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Beliel 
np to the Present. 


: 8-1 


16-1 


24-2 


9-85 


663 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district .,. 120 
Number of kitchens at present open 45 

Distress of a severe character will probably be confined to the two northern 
tahsils of Rhurai and Banda. Commissioner thinks that two Public Works 
Department works in the rains will suffice, and that kitchens (which will be 
considerably increasedV and a liberal gratuitous village relief list, expanded if 
necessary under Rule ill., will meet the needs of the district. 

Damoh. 
' Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. - 


General 
' Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up tot the Present 


'8-1 


8-2 


■ 


18-32 


2.31 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 75 
Number of kitchens at present open 32 

Distress in this district is slight, no Public Works Department work has 
been opened and none will be required. Kitchens must be increased, but no B 
list will be necessary. 

JUBBULPOBE. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


11-7 


100 


217 


12-95 


7-24 



Total. number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ~. 126 
Number of kitchens at present open 70 

The Commissioner thinks that two Public Works Department works, 
preferably metal-breaking, will suffice for the rains in this district, for a time at 
all events. It will be necessary to expand gratuitous relief and to increase the 
number of kitchens. But he does not anticipate that a B list will prove 
necessary. Distress will practically be confined to the non-haveli tracts. 



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CENTRAL PBOViNCXS. 10^ 

Mandla. 



Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
! Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


9-7 


6-9 


1516 


10-8 


1-00 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 86 

Number of kitchens at present open 37 

There is only one Public Works Department work in this district, and, 
none will be required in the rains. Kitchens will be difficult to manage inj 
remote villages, and in forest areas ; and gratuitous and village work relief 
must be the main stand by. List B will therefore probably be necessary in- 
order to deal with petty cultivators who also fall in the category of labourers. 
Kitchens will however be expanded as far as possible. 



Seoni. 



Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 


General 




Maximum on Belief 


Maximum on Belief 


Labourers. 


Labourers. 


Total. 


in last Famine. 


up to the Present. 


7-0 


10-9 


17-9 


5-23 


12-60 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 86 

Number of kitchens at present open 64 

Two Public Works Department works will probably be maintained in the 
Seoni Tahsil and possibly one in Lakhnadon. As far as practicable the railway 
camps will he selected. There is little distress in the haveli, and if a B list is 
required it will be in the Korai, Ugli, and Barghat tracts, where rice is most, 
important. Kitchen relief must be extended. 

Nabsinohpub. 



Percentage on Total" Population. 



Field 


General 




Maximum on Belief 


Maximum on Belief 


Labourers. 


Labourers. 


Total. 


in last Famine. 


up to the Present. 


6-8 


170 


23-8 


15-96 


1-68 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 60 

Number of kitchens at present open 38 

The district is very slightly distressed ; the kitchen attendance is small. 
No Public Works Department works will be required, and no B list will be 
necessary. In the hilly portion of the district, gratuitous relief, both cash doles 
and kitchens, will be extended. In the plains portion a few test kitchens should 
be established ; they can be very rapidly extended there if distress is found to 
increase. 

10566 O : 



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CENTRAL PBOVINCB8. 



HoSHANGABA 1). 

Percentage on Total Population. 













Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximnm on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximnm on Belief 
up to the Present. 


61 


15.1 


21-2 


13-80 


13-22 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 102 

Number of kitchens at present open 26 

Two Public Works Department camps during the rains will certainly be 
necessary for foreigners who do not return, and cannot be returned, to their 
homes. Two more will probably be required for local workers. Kitchens will 
have to be greatly expanded all over the district, and in two tahsils, Harda and 
Hoshangabad, a B list will be necessary. 

Nimab. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


14-7 


4-0 


18-7 


1'19 


19-01 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 77 
Number of kitchens at present open .. ... ... ... 70 

The inclusion of the Harsud Tahsil and opening of ryotwari villages has 

added to the labourer and labouring-cultivator classes since the census. 

Kitchens may still be increased, and in view of the high mortality in the 

district, this kind of relief should not be stinted. 

F^The two works on the Khandwa-Akola Railway, one at Manjrod and one 
at Jaswari, must be kept open, principally for foreigners. It may be necessary 
to keep one work in the Harsud Tahsil, though land reclamation by persons on 
the B list will probably suffice for relief of the able-bodied. It is most important 
in the ryotwari tracts to keep the ryots to the villages. 

; ~ ^Burhanpur can probably be served by kitchen and town relief ; but, if 
necessary, a Public Works Department work, to which admission will be by 
ticket, can be kept open sufficiently near Burhanpur to allow hutting to be 
dispensed with. 

A B list will only be necessary in the Harsud tahsil, and possibly in the 
ryotwari areas elsewhere in the district. 



Betul. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field ' 
| Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


121 


6-2 


18-3 


807 


34-36 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 95 
Number of kitchens at present open 123 



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OBNTBAL PROVINCES. 



The district is poor, and very deeply distressed. It will probably be 
necessary to keep three Public Works Department works open along the 
Nagpur-Itarsi Road, at first at all events. Kitchens have already been greatly 
extended, their distribution has only to be considered. B lists will be 
necessary. The possibility of distributing relief to those on the A and B lists 
in jungly tracts by means of existing depots must be considered, but dry-grain 
doles and kitchens cannot be kept going side by side, and arrangements for 
infirms unable to walk to a kitchen or dep6t must be made. 



Chhindwaba. 
Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


15-9 


27 


17-16 • 


4-82 


18-54 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 145 

Number of kitchens at present open 82 

Distress is less severe than in Betul. Commissioner considers that three 
to four works in the Chhindwara tahsil will probably be necessary, especially in 
areas which chiefly produce rabi crops, where there will be less field labour 
available. The jagirs and the Ambara and Ehamarpani tracts may be served by 
a depot system like that in force in Betul. Kitchens may be extended wherever 
possible. In the Sausar tahsil arrangements under Rule XII, if required should 
meet necessities in all open tracts. 



Wabdha. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the present. 


29*6 


5-6 


3412 


211 


16-75 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 84 

Number of kitchens at present open 63 

Distress is at present severe in this district ; but agricultural work in the 
rains will probably provide for the able-bodied. Three public works may be 
maintained for a time, preferably ballast-breaking for the railway. All that is 
believed necessary is relief to labourers by supporting their dependants by 
kitchens and cash doles ; and Rule XII. should meet all requirements. 
Kitchens will need extension. 



Naopub. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


17.3 


4-7 


21-10 


2-40 


5-96 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 122 
Number of kitchons at .present open 26 



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CSNTBAL PBOVINCBS. 



'" It is not expected that any Public Works Department relieftwork will be 
required here; as the 1 most distressed part of the district (Dongartal) is not very 1 
populous and is served by village works, but a B list may prove necessary in 
this tract. 

Kitchens will have to be extended everywhere for the dependants of 
labourers and distressed artizans, as a test of distress as well as a means of relief,' 
With the possible exception of the Dongartal tract, Rule XII should meet all 
requirements. 

Chanda. 



Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
op to the Present 


17-8 


3-7 


20-15 


1-5 


15-65 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 272 

Number of kitchens at present open 54 

The rice tracts of this district are severely distressed, and the distances and 
wildne8s of the zamindari areas make relief arrangements difficult. Three 
Public Works Department works only should be maintained, viz., Chanda, Mul 
and Brahmapuri. Kitchens must be very largely extended, B lists framed and 
relief given liberally to dependants of the labouring classes. 



Bhandara. 



Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers, 


General 
Labourers. 


. • Total 


Maximum on Belief 
in mt r uii we. 


Maximum on Belief 
xtp to "the Present. 


14-9 


2-1 


16-10 


5-76 


16-95 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 127 

Number of kitchens at present open ... 188 

It is expected that one work at Gondia, and two more, to be selected after 
local consultation, should suffice as Public Works Department relief camps. 
Kitchens have already been widely extended, but their distribution must be 
examined. B lists will be necessary, but exception may be made in a few 
tracts where distress is less severe. 



Balaghat. 
Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


. Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


12 7 


2-6 


1413 


1815 


29-69 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 82 
Number of kitchens -at present-open ■ .*..'• • - ;.. -188- ■ 

Kitchen relief has been well extended. Commissioner think that four 
camps may be needed in the rains, probably two along the railway, one at.Katangi, 



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a very distressed tract, and one at Waraseoni. Bat these may very likely be 
susceptible of reduction. ' 

List B will be necessary here ; and arrangements for the Behir tahsil will 
require special consideration. 



Raipub. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 


General 




Maximum on Belief 


Maximum on Belief 


labourers. 


Labourers. 


Total. 


in last Famine. 


up to the Present. 


6-2 


4-7 


10-9 


6-77 


36-02 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 383 

Number of kitchens at present open ,,, 612 

There are nearly 50 Public Works Department works open, and over, 
200,000 people on village works. A very large number of the people on theae^ 
works must be cultivators (compare percentage on relief with percentage of 
labourers). These will all return to their villages for agriculture. B lists will 
be necessary. Kitchens appear to be sufficient. It is estimated that 10 Public 
Works Department camps will have to be maintained, but the estimate seem* 
high. 



BlLASPUB. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourer*. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum en Belief 
up to the Present. .. 


5-2 


6-5 


11-7 


12*81 


. — ., 

2215 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 285 

Number of kitchens at present open 321 

It will probably be possible to reduce the number of works to six. B list*' 
will be required, with plenty of kitchens. ' 



Sambalpub. 

Percentage on Total Population. 



Field 
Labourers. 


General 
Labourers. 


Total. 


Maximum on Belief 
in last Famine. 


Maximum on Belief 
up to the Present. 


05 


10-9 


1044 


•35 


417 



Total number of kitchens required to serve the entire district ... 168 

Number of kitchens at present open 88 

It is thought that no large work will be necessary. Kitchens will meet 

most of such distress as continues. In a few tracts village relief lists may be 

expanded under Rule XII. 



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CBNTBAL PBOVINCES. 



No. 19. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agriculture Department, to the Chief Commissioner of 
the Central Provinces, No. 1130. F, dated Simla, the 1st June, 1900. 

The Governor General in Council has read with interest Famine Circular 
No. 49. F., dated 7th May, 1900, which you have caused to be issued to 
divisional and district officers with reference to the arrangements for famine 
relief to be made during the rains. 

2. His Excellency in Council has no doubt that in a province like the 
Central Provinces with a heavy rainfall, great distances, and imperfect com- 
munications, major relief works cannot be made the main basis of relief during 
the rains. The prosecution of such works during the rainy season is difficult in 
any part of India, and in the famine of 1897 this method of relief had every- 
where to be accompanied with a considerable expansion of village and kitchen 
relief, and with considerable grants of money in the form of loans or gifts to the 
cultivating classes, to enable them to resume their home occupations and to give 
employment in the villages to the labouring and menial classes. In the Central 
Provinces in 1897 the rainy season was marked in many districts by a deplor- 
able increase of malarial diseases and mortality, and experience clearly proved 
that in such circumstances large public works were kept open with difficulty 
and failed to give suitable relief to the classes which most required it. 

3. The scheme of relief described in your circular is framed on very 
generous lines, and in a famine of less intensity would unquestionably be open 
to the charge that it erred on the side of excessive liberality. It practically 
amounts to the offer of cooked food throughout the distressed area to all comers, 
irrespective of their bodily condition or material circumstances, and to the 
establishment of kitchens in such numbers as to bring this offer within easy 
reach of nearly every ' village. It may be doubted whether in any previous 
famine relief has been made so easy and universal, or so free from any test of 
want other than the test imposed by the scruples of the higher classes or castes 
to eat cooked food. Such scruples appear to be less strong in the Ceniral 
Provinces than elsewhere, and they are known to diminish or disappear 
altogether under the force of circumstances. 

It is further provided that persons in weakly condition who refuse to accept 
cooked food are to be brought on the gratuitous cash relief list of the village, 
and that able-bodied labourers may similarly be brought on the cash relief list 
of their village on the condition that they perform any work which the headman 
of the village may prescribe. Such work, it is stated, may include weeding or 
transplating in the fields of the headman or of the other ryots of the village if 
they are unable themselves to employ labour. As the discretion of the headman 
in the matter of prescribing work is not to be questioned by the circle officer, 
this particular condition may be considered elastic. 

4. This scheme of relief has been framed by you in concert with the most 
experienced relief officers of the province, and is considered to be the best, if not 
the only, way of bringing the great mass of the labouring classes back to their 
villages and their usual occupations, without exceptional mortality or privations 
at the close of a famine of unprecedented severity. In these circumstances the 
Governor General in Council refrains from dwelling on the possible objections 
which might be taken to it on various grounds. He is willing that it should be 
fairly and fully tried, recognising that the problem of famine relief during the 
rainy season is one of very great difficulty, and that in the Central Provinces in 
1897 it was not satisfactorily solved by the usual methods. But he trusts that 
vigilance will be exercised in seeing that the liberality of the State is not abused, 
that the scheme will be tightened up if abuses should become general, and that 
relief under its provisions will not be maintained, especially in the case of the 
able-bodied, longer than is necessary for the avoidance of mortality. The 
particular feature of the scheme which is open to the greatest abuse is that 
enabling the village headmen to carry out the cultivation of their own fields and 



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that of their friends by State paid labour. Unless very close check in the 
manner suggested in paragraph 9 of your circular is kept on the numbers so 
employed, the cost of such relief may outrun all bounds, and substantial culti- 
vators, who have received large sums of money for cultivation expenses from 
the State and the Charitable Relief Fund, will escape their natural obligations. 
Between 50 and 60 lakhs of rupees are being distributed for this purpose in the 
Central Provinces, and the addition of so much capital to the remaining resources 
of the cultivators should create a substantial fund for the employment of field 
labour during the coming rains. The Governor General in Council accepts the 
opinion of yourself and your officers that this fund, though substantial, is in 
itself insufficient this year for the full employment of the labouring classes, and 
will require to be supplemented in the manner proposed. But he must ask that 
the B lists be very closely regulated and kept within proper limits, that they be 
disallowed altogether by the district officer in villages which he considers can 
pay for their own labourers, and that the number of labourers placed in each 
district on the B lists be shown in a separate column in the weekly detailed 
statement of relief operations compiled for the province. 



No. 20. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S. Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commisioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of India, 
Revenue and Agriculture Department, No. i^l604, dated Pachmarhi, the 
18th June, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 1130.F., dated 
the 1st June, conveying the observations and orders of His Excellency the 
Governor-General in Council upon the programme of relief operations during 
the rains, contained in this Administration's Eamine Circular No. F.49 of the 7th 
ultimo. I am to express the thanks of the Officiating Chief Commissioner for 
the permission accorded to him to carry out relief administration on the 
undoubtedly liberal lines provided in the Circular. 

2. The general caution enjoined by your letter and the instructions con- 
tained in the closing paragraph will be strictly and loyally observed, and I am 
to forward for the information of the Government of India copy of a letter 
(No. F.1603, of to-day's date) which is issuing to all Commissioners in regard 
to the regulation of the B lists. The necessity for caution had been insisted on 
at the Conference which preceded the issue of the Circular ; but the Officiating 
Chief Commissioner has thought it well to call special attention to it now. 

3. I am to represent, however, one or two matters in which the orders con- 
tained in Famine Circular No. 49 have been construed by the Government of 
India to imply more than was intended. Although it was laid down in Rule XI. 
(paragraph 8 of the Circular) that Circle Officers were not to interfere with the 
discretion of the headman in regard to the work taken from labourers on the 
B list, it was not intended to give the headmen an absolutely free hand. The 
nature of the work to be taken was to be settled by the Charge Officer. Though 
it may occasionally happen that B list labourers are put to weed the headman's 
fields, it is not contemplated by the rules that this should be the general practice. 
The fields to be weeded are those of cultivators unable to employ labour, and the 
village headman will seldom or never fall within this category. 

4. I am further to submit, with reference to another remark made in para - 
graph 4 of your letter, that takavi and charitable grants have not been given to 
substantial cultivators. The takavi advances have generally been made to 
cultivators who can command but little credit, and grants from the Charitable 
Fund have been confined to tenants who are poorer even than the recipients of 
takavi. In order also to make these sums go as far as possible individual loans 
and grants have been kept small, and the recipients will not have much to spare 
for wages to labourers. 

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5. As desired by the Government of India the number on the B lists will 
duly be shown in a separate column in all returns. Orders have issued which 
will secure this. 



Enclosure in No. 20. 



Circular Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., 7.(7.6'., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to all Commissioners of Divisions, Central 
Provinces, No. F.-1Q0Z, dated Pachmarhi, the 18/A June, 1900. 

With reference to paragraph 9 of Famine Circular No. 49 enjoining the 
issue of subsidiary instructions by Commissioners for the purpose of carrying 
out the orders of that Circular, I am directed to impress upon you the necessity 
for exercising special caution in regard to the preparation of the B lists, and the 
distribution of relief to persons entered on these lists. 

2. In particular it is necessary to limit the number of labourers upon these 
lists, since all labourers will not be unable to find employment. Where relief- 
works are kept open according to the set programmes, no persons should be 
entered on the B lists within a certain radius of such relief works, otherwise 
such persons might after receiving the dole present themselves at the relief works 
and thus obtain double relief. Again such lists should be dispensed with, or 
curtailed to the narrowest limits in all villages in which the villagers are 
sufficiently well off as a body to pay for their own labour. In such cases it 
must be remembered that dependants will under the Circular still be eligible to 
receive support. The distribution of relief to those on the B lists should also 
be very closely supervised and watched, so that abuses which may come to light 
may be promptly checked. Persons entered on these lists should not be led to 
anticipate as a matter of certainty that they will receive relief ; for it is from the 
B list as originally framed that selections will be made of those labourers who 
have, as a matter of fact, failed to obtain employment, who are unlikely to resort 
to kitchens, and who actually appear to be in want. 

3. Rule XI (paragraph 8 of the Circular) allows a considerable discretion 
to the village headman to decide upon the work to be taken from labourers on 
the B list, and it is stated that Circle Officers must not be permitted to interfere 
with that discretion. This discretion is intended to prevent the risk of ill-advised 
interference by Circle Officers of small experience or lacking in tact ; but it is 
also clearly provided that the kind of work must be generally arranged with 
Mukaddams by Charge Officers. The kind of work to be done should as far as 
possible be work which, owing to want of funds, could not have been carried out 
but for the help given by Government ; and if a Circle Officer finds that the 
Mukaddam is generally employing these State-paid labourers on work which he 
or others could easily afford to pay for, it will be that officer's duty to bring the 
facts to the notice ot the Charge Officer,. All these points, together with any 
other safeguards which may, without prejudice to the success of relief, occur to 
you to be advisable, should be made clear in the subsidiary instructions which 
you issue under paragraph 9 of the Circular. 

4. This letter does not issue as an ordinary Famine Circular, because the 
circumstances of different districts differ so much that it is desirable that the 
preparation and regulation of B lists should be left in the first instance to the 
initiative and control of Commissioners. General orders which would filter 
down to Charge and Circle Officers might lead to excessive or insufficient 
liberality, as the case might be, in different localities. The Officiating Chief 
Commissioner desires here rather to indicate and enforce the responsibility of 
Commissioners for the issue of necessary instructions. 



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No. 21. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the .Commissioner, Chhattisgarh 
Division, Raipur, No. F. 1805. dated Nacjpur, the llth July, 1900. 

I am directed to address you with reference to the various matters relating 
to famine relief discussed with yourself and the local officers on the occasion 
of the Officiating Chief Commissioner's recent visit to the districts of your 
Division. 

2. Not much progress has as yet been made in reducing the number of 

Public Works Department charges in the districts 
I.— Public Works Department of Raipur and Bilaspur, and there is reason to 
works. suppose that, as already reported by yourself, the 

Public Works Department works are still too 
attractive. The measures to be adopted in order to encourage the people to 
return to their homes, without actually refusing this form of relief to those at 
present resorting to it, were fully discussed, and the following course of action 
met with general approval : — 

(i.) To exercise greater strictness in the matter of tasks, which had 
been somewhat relaxed during the period of greatest heat. 

(ii.) To abolish the rest-day wage. This had, in fact, alreadv been 
done, except in the Janjgir tahsil of Bilaspur, where it will 
now be carried out. 

(iii.) To double up adjacent charges and draft the workers. 

(iv.) To close all works to new admissions except in the case of the 
charges selected for maintenance during the rains, and a few 
others which the Deputy Commissioner may select. 

(v.) To refuse admission to applicants at Public Works Department 
kitchens not being dependants of workers in the camp, except 
in the case of persons requiring hospital relief, who could not 
with safety be directed to the nearest Civil kitchen. 

3. These were the measures advocated which were, or could be made, 
applicable to both districts. In Bilaspur it was also determined to lower the 
wage basis so far as the 25 per cent, rule admitted. In Raipur there was no 
scope for further action under this rule. The Deputy Commissioner urged the 
adoption on Public Works Department works of the lower scale of wages paid 
at Village Works, but it was considered that this was a measure to be 
held in reserve, and one which it was hardly safe to resort to at the present 
juncture. 

4. It was also determined to confine admissions to open camps, in the 
case of residents of villages within a five-miles radius of the work, to persons 
certified by the Charge Officer, or under his orders, to be fit recipients for 
relief. In this connection I am to forward a copy of the rules relating to 
admission by ticket which were introduced into the Jubbulpore Division. 
These rules related to a different season of the year and may require some 
modification, but they will probably be of use to you as a general guide. 
You will observe that the grant or refusal of tickets is reserved to Charge 
Officers, and Mr. Fraser thinks that this is the wisest course to follow, even 
though it causes some delay. Practically it may be said that the persons who 
would be allowed tickets would be the persons who would otherwise be entered 
on the B list, but it is important to remember that if small cultivators are 
refused B list relief on the ground that they can go to the work, their chances 
of cultivating their land will be very small. 

5. Another measure which was approved in Raipur, was the handing 
over of relief workers to mukaddams of their villages who apply for labour 
for weeding and guarantee employment and wages to the labourers. It was 

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not an uncommon complaint in the last famine by malguzars that they could 
not secure labourers for weeding. The complaint, in many cases, was found to 
be due to the desire of the malguzars to underpay agricultural labour ; but, if 
the mukaddam is a trustworthy man, aud can be relied upon to pay reasonable 
wages, there is no risk in handing over to him labourers resident in his village. 
The extent to which resort is successfully made to this expedient, should be 
noticed in the weekly and monthly reports. There is, of course, no reason 
why this same procedure should not be followed in Bilaspur also. 

6. It was brought to notice that able-bodied persons are now resorting to 

kitchens in increasing numbers. But the general 
II. — Kitchens. opinion, in which Mr. Fraser concurs, was that the 

general orders contained in Famine Circular 
No. 49 should be adhered to for the present. If the able-bodied man is 
excluded, and is unable to find work, he will before long cease to be able- 
bodied, and will be unable to do agricultural work when it does become 
available. For the present, therefore, admission to kitchens must continue 
free. The position can be reviewed later on when it is seen how far persons 
for whom work in the field is really available, prefer idleness and a meal at the 
kitchen. The feasibility of exacting some work on the analogy of B list relief 
from able-bodied persons attending kitchens is a matter for local experiment 
and report. The issue of general orders must await further experience of the 
working of the free admission rules. The system of branch kitchens started 
by Captain Hardinge, Charge Officer of Drug, appears to be very successful. 
The officiating Chief Commissioner would be glad of a note from that officer 
describing in detail the sytem on which they are worked, and the advantages 
gained thereby. 

7. The B lists have not yet been completed in Raipur, but are, it is 

understood, ready in Bilaspur, though no distribu- 
III.— B list relief. tion has yet been sanctioned. It was represented 

that in the Janjgir tahsil it is possible to keep a 
certain number of Village Works open in the rains ; and it was suggested that 
in such cases the distribution of B list relief would be unnecessary. Village 
WorkB are, however, carried out by piecework, and even in the most favourable 
soils it would not always be possible to ensure regularity of employment and 
wages. It is doubtful, therefore, whether a village worker having no. means 
of subsistence, could earn enough to maintain himself upon these works. The 
following rule was accordingly adopted : — 

" If in any charge there are villages in which minor village works are • 
feasible during the rains, such works may be opened from time to 
time as the weather permits. On these works may be employed — 

(i) People on the B list who have actually received a dole. 

(ii) Applicants to be paid by the day on the ordinary 

village-work system, such persons being admitted by 
the mukaddam ' in accordance with the orders of the 
Charge Officer." 

In villages where such works are feasible the B list will be restricted, and 
it may even be dispensed with in any village where the work available is likely 
to afford regular employment. But care will be necessary that small cultivators 
labouring in their own fields do not suffer. So far as present information goes, 
such persons are likely to accept food at kitchens if in real want, but their case 
must not be overlooked. This rule was decided upon at the conference at 
Bilaspur, but there is no reason why it should not be applied tjo any charge in 
Raipur where the character of the country admits of such village works being 
carried on in the rain. 

8. 1 am now to turn to the Sambalpur District, where the circumstances 

mi, a u i rv -i • * differ considerably from those of the other two 
Ihe Sanibalpur District. r J r .. . . r P i , 

districts of your Division, lhere are at present 

two Public Works Department works in Sambalpur — at Dabra in the 

Chandarpur Zamindari, and at Barpali in the Bargarh tahsil. Two more works 



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are under Civil Officers — the tank work at Sanimal, the road work at Padampur. 
The Dabra work will for the present remain open ; it seems the most distressed 
tract in the district, and the 9-seer rate may also be maintained there so Ions: as 
prices warrant this. The workers at Barpali and Padampur should be drafted 
to the Sanimal tank, to be re-drafted to those works when that tank is 
completed. The double drafting will clear all these works of all those persons 
who can obtain employment in their villages, and it is not unlikely that it will 
be possible to close all these works as the season advances. 

9. No B list relief has been sanctioned in this district, and village relief 
(A list) is confined to the country round Dabra. The main reliance, therefore, 
for the relief of the really distressed will be the kitchens, to which the lower 
classes in this district are very ready to resort. Admission to the kitchens 
should be quite free- 

10. Mortality has risen considerably in this district during the past few 
months, and it did not appear that Charge Officers had made due inquiry into 
its causes. The Officiating Chief Commissioner pointed out how detailed 
inquiry in selected localities might be of the greatest use in enabling Charge 
Officers to discover the chief causes of mortality and so perhaps to adopt means 
of counteracting them. Cholera, both reported and not reported, has, no doubt, 
been the main cause of the increase, but the flight of people from their villages 
and the enforced isolation by the Gaontias of their villagers in such cases has 
served to deprive the inhabitants of the benefits of kitchen relief. It will require 
the most careful attention on the part of the Charge Officers to see that kitchen 
relief is within the reach of all in the distressed tracts of the district. The 
Raipur system of branch kitchens above referred to may be useful in this 
connection. 



Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., L.C.S., CLE., Commissioner, Jubbulpore 
Division, to the Famine Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, Central 
Provinces, No. 2672, dated Jubbulpore, the 18$ March, 1900. 

I have the honour to submit for the information of the Chief Commissioner 
a set of instructions which I issued last month to the Deputy Commissioners of 
Saugor, Jubbulpore and Seoni— the only districts in which Public Works 
Department relief charges have been opened in this Division — under the 
authority given me by paragraph 4 of your letter No. F. 1 73, dated the 22nd 
January, 1900. I did not issue them till I had ascertained by personal trial 
that the enquiries on which they depend were feasible. 

2. At the time the instructions were acted upon the numbers on relief- 
works had fallen very greatly owing to the commencement of harvesting and (in 
Jubbulpore) to a reduction in wages which followed a fall in prices. Between 
the beginning and the end of February, the numbers on Public Works 
Department relief-works in the three districts fell by 52 per cent. Persons of 
the better classes were the first to leave, and in consequence, although previous 
enquiries had given ground for the belief that fairly well-to-do cultivating 
families constituted from <20 per cent, to 30 per cent, of the workers, the 
instructions have led to the rejection of a much smaller proportion — less than 
10 per cent, in Saugor and Jubbulpore, and about 15 per cent, in Seoni. It is 
reported, however, that on some works people left at the commencement of 
enquiries when they saw that their result would be against them, without 
waiting for an order of exclusion. The instructions will be felt in lessening 
the numbers of fairly well-to-do persons who return to the works during the 



Enclosure in No. 21. 



coming hot weather. 



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3. No reports have reached me of any difficulty in working the instructions 
nr of complications arising out of them. Deputy Commissioners will watch 
their effect most carefully, and if their is any risk of their excluding the 
deserving they will be at once withdrawn. 



Annexure. 

Rules for tlie use of some discrimination in admitting to Public Works Department 

Famine Relief Works. 

1. The object of these rules is to exclude from works families who are not at the end 
of their available resources and who are not deterred from seeking admission by any 
" distance test." A conse.quential advantage will be that we shall be able to deal more 
leniently with relief-workers as a class and can avoid the ritk of driving away by hard 
tasks and low wages those who stand most in, need of assistance. 

2. The first step is to draw up a list of villages lying within 4 (or perhaps 5) miles 
off the relief works or any part of it. The list will need revision as the work shifts ite 
situation. Poor villages with infertile soil need not be included, unless they are grazing 
villages. A copy of the list should be given to the Officer-in-charge and be posted con- 
spicuously at the camp. No person should be admitted from these villages without an 
admission ticket. 

3. The next step is to distribute tickets to present relief-workers belonging to these 
villages who need relief, and to refuse tickets to those who do not need relief. For this 
purpose the relief-workers belonging to these villages should be marshalled by villages and 
by families, and enquiries be made regarding each family with the assistance of the 
mukaddam, the patwari and the patwari's cattle list. Tickets should be refused to families 
who possess more than two head of cattle, other than plough-cattle, or possess a cart or whc- 
have sown 5 acres or more of rabi. The Deputy Commissioner may find it possible to add 
to this definition of the fairly well-to-do. A ticket should be given to each member of a 
family not excluded by this rule. The ticket need be nothing more than a slip of paper 
bearing the name of the village (in Hindi), a letter to signify whether the person is a man, 
woman or child (M., W., W. C.) and the initials of the distributing officer. In a trial I 
made, 950 persons were disposed of in three hours. I do not think that ordinarily more 
than 1,000 persons can be dealt with in a day, and the workers from 20 or 30 villages may 
occupy an officer for two or three days. Tickets should not be distributed by an officer of 
rank inferior to that of Charge Officer. 

4. To provide for the admission in future of deserving persons belonging to the 
listed villages who are not on the work at the time of the enquiry, the Charge Officer or an 
officer of superior rank should visit the locality every 8 or 10 days, sending notice before- 
hand to the villages that persons wishing for admission should attend at a certain place and 
on a certain date. He will then go through them and distribute tickets exactly as in dealing 
with relief -workers. 

5. • When the Officer-in-charge is a man of experience and judgment, authority to 
distribute tickets to new-comers may be given to him. 

6. The difficulty will be to prevent non-ticket holders belonging to the listed 
villages from gaining admission by mis-stating their villages of residence. Mates should 
be made responsible for reporting any such cases, and I think that the services of the 
kotwars might be usefully enlisted, giving them a small fee in return. I believe, however, 
that when once the intention of Government is known, evasions of rule will be of rare 
occurrence. 



No. 22. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Commissioner, Nagpur Division, 
No. F. 1965, dated Nagpur the 3rd August, 1900. 

I am directed to address you with reference to the various famine matters 
which came under discussion with yourself and the local officers on the occasion 
of the Officiating Chief Commissioner's recent visit to the districts of your 
Division. 



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A. — Closing op Public Works Department Works. 

2. The progress made in getting the people off large Public Works 
Department Works in Chanda had not, up to the time of the Chief Commissioner's 

"visit, been very great. A scheme for doubling up the various charges and 
drafting labourers so as to impose a better distance-test was then and there 
drawn up in consultation with the Superintendent of Works. The necessary 
instructions have already been issued by that officer, and it is unnecessary to 
repeat the details here. The camps of Armori and Brahmapuri, which have 
always been unduly popular, require to be broken up by drafting. The present 
wage-basis of 9 seers against an actual price of 7 \ seers is high enough ; but it 
will be unnecessary for the present to give a minimum wage on rainy days. It 
will be expedient to close to fresh admissions all works except the regular 
monsoon camps, and one or two others which the Deputy Commissioner may 
select. If the monsoon camps show signs of being overcrowded by persons 
from the immediate neighbourhood, while agricultural employment is readily 
available, some selection may prove advisable on the system indicated for trial 
under similar circumstances in Chhattisgarh. 

3. In Wardha the Kutki camp is being absorbed into Hinganghat. 
Elikeli should now be amalgamated with Selu, and Rohna and Telegaon should 
be joined up with Khupgaon, at which place a monsoon camp can be maintained.- 
About a fortnight later it should be found possible to close Neri and Pulgaon. 
In every case arrangements must be made for drafting the labourers. Those 
really in need of employment will move on to the permanent camps, the rest 
returning to their villages directly the distance-test comes into operation. It is 
understood that Beraris, as well as some residents of Bhandara and Balaghat, 
are to be found in the camps near the Berar border. These should all be 
returned to their homes. 

4. In Bhandara there are still nine camps open, and now that transplant- 
ation and weeding will soon give general employment, the amalgamation should 
proceed as follows : — 

(1) Saongi to Sakoli. 

(2) Khairlanji to Biharia. 

(3) Dongri to Mohari. 

(4) Sakoli to Lakhni. 

(5) Mohari to Biharia. 

The four camps ultimately remaining will thus be Biharia, Lakhni, Ambora, 
and Adyar. The first three of these moves should be carried out quickly ; the 
last two depend on them, and must follow as soon as circumstances permit. 
Shelter will have to be provided at Lakhni, which is now for the first time 
added to the list of permanent camps. 

5. In Balaghat the numbers in the camps are decreasing considerably ; 
four camps — Lamta, Kirnapur, Waraseoni, and Katangi — were fixed on as 
monsoon camps. Besides these, Piparia and Dhapewara are still open. The 
former, which is the only camp in the Behir Tahsil, and in which plenty of 
useful work is available, may be kept open for some time longer, shelter being 
provided ; but the latter should be closed as soon as possible. The small 
numbers now on it will be provided for by the Deputy Commissioner in the 
village-relief arrangements. 

6. In Nagpur, the Telinkheri camp has been closed, and the Juma Talao 
and Ambajheri works are about to follow. A new camp at Borgaon has been 
established, which will provide for labourers of the city unable to find employ- 
ment. The Thana camp has been shifted to Panchgaon, and the Bhiwapur 
camp should be closed as soon as possible. The Wakori camp will remain open 
so long as the work available lasts ; and i* is desirable that the road from 
Patansaongi to Khapa should be completed. 



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7. The progress actually attained up to the last week for which detailed 
returns are available may be seen from the following statement : — 





Week ending June 2nd. 


Week ending July 21st. 


Distriot. 


No. of 
Camps. 


Workers and 
Dependants. 


No. of 
Camps. 


Workers and 
Dependants. 


Wardha 


10 


En goo 


10 


36,728 


Nagpnr 


7 


27,520 


5 


10,453 


Chanda 


16 


68,325 


16 


52,069 


Bhandara 


11 


56,878 


11 


39,119 


Balaghat 


9 


47,420 


7 


15,564 


Total 


53 


259,476 


49 


153,933 



8. From the above figures it will be seen that the numbers on Public 
Works Department relief works have decreased by 105,543, of whom 14,507 
represent dependants. During the same period of seven weeks the numbers 
employed on Village Works have fallen from 57,246 to 14,335, a decrease of 
42,911. This has added altogether 148,454 to the number of those hitherto on 
work relief who have to be provided for in their villages, whether by private 
employment or on village relief. 

B. — Relief in Villages. 

9. During the same period the numbers in receipt of relief in their 
villages have increased as follows : — 



District. 


Week ending June 2nd. 


Week ending July 21st 


Increase. 


Kitohens. 


Cash. 


Total. 


Kitchens. 


Cash. 


Total 


Wardha 


14,666 


3,303 


17,969 


61,298 


5,434 


66,732 


48,763 


Nagpur 


8,798 


1,771 


10,569 


40,910 


6,642 


47,552 


36,983 


Chanda 


42,786 


16,332 


59,118 


122,211 


21,890 


144,101 


84,983 


Bhandara ... 


30,238 


11,584 


41,822 


60,759 


22,685 


83,444 


41,622 


Balaghat 


29,435 


12,507 


41,942 


68,993 


14,510 


83,503 


41,561 


Total ... 


125,923 


45,497 


171,420 


354,171 


71,161 


425,332 


253,912 



The increase on gratuitous relief has thus more than counter-balanced the 
falling-off of workers, and it is apparent, therefore, that a number of people 
(some 100,000 in the whole division) have now come on to relief for the first 
time. Enquiries made from Charge Officers show that these chiefly consist of 
petty cultivators and artizans who have exhausted their resources. Most of 
the new applicants for relief have been accommodated at the kitchens. But it 
has been found necessary to increase the number of recipients of the village 
cash-dole (A list) in the case of classes who still hold out against the acceptance 
of cooked food. This reluctance appears to have very largely broken down, 
but it appears to be more marked in Bhandara than elsewhere. 



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10. The distribution of the kitchen population has varied as follows 
during the period examined : — 





On June 2nd. 


On July 21st. 


X/iouiiuu 


No. of 
Kitchens. 


Men. 


Women. 


Chil- 
dren. 


Total. 


No. of 
Kitohens. 


Men. 


Women. 


Chil- 
dren. 


Total. 


Wardha 


101 


8,999 


1,345 


9,322 


14,666 


135 


11,585 


19,213 


30,500 


61,298 


Nagpor 


58 


1,037 


1,750 


6,0U 


8,798 


150 


7,920 


12,131 


20,859 


40,910 


Chanda 


187 


5,467 


11,486 


25,888 


42,786 


202 


20,661 


36,965 


64,585 


122,211 


Bhandara 


21S 


2,837 


4,130 


23,771 


30,238 


244 


6,304 


11,557 


42,898 


60,759 


Balaghat 


HI 


1,692 


8,242 


24,501 


29,485 


225 


7,569 


15,717 


45,707 


68,993 


Total 


652 


14,632 


21,903 


89,488 


125,923 


956 


54,039 


95,583 


204,649 


354,171 



So far as children and weakly persons are concerned there is nothing to 
object to in these figures. It was fully contemplated that the great majority 
of the smaller cultivators and labourers would be unable to support their 
children and aged or infirm dependants. It was, however, believed that few 
able-bodied persons would resort to kitchens so long as they could find 
agricultural employment on reasonable wages. The very large number of 
adults now attending kitchens, amongst whom women largely preponderate, 
would appear to show either that there is an extraordinary.. lack of properly 
paid employment available, or that a large number of people prefer kitchen 
meals and idleness to field work and cash wages. 

11. It was to clearing up this question that the Officiating Chief 
Commissioner's special attention was directed, and he questioned a number of 
charge officers, tahsildars, and malguzars on the point. The results of these 
enquiries has been to show : — 

(a) that owing to the late commencement of the rains the amount of 

field work has hitherto been less than usual at this period of 
the year ; 

(b) that owing to the considerable substitution of broadcast for 

transplanted rice, the amount of work available in the rice 
districts is considerably curtailed ; 

(c) that in consequence of the impoverished condition of the smaller 

cultivators more cultivators will manage to supply their own 
labour from the members of their own families ; 

(d) that the wages offered are sometimes even less and very rarely, 

if ever, more than usual, while they have only half the usual 
purchasing power ; and 

(e) that though some of the lower castes are likely to be demoralised 

by kitchen relief and to prefer it to honest work, a great 
number of the able-bodied now attending kitchens, would 
gladly avail themselves of employment if assured of sufficient 
wages. 

12. Many and various suggestions have been offered to meet the 
difficulties of the situation, but none of the responsible officers would go the 
length of absolutely closing kitchens to able-bodied persons altogether. It is 
evident, therefore, that what is required is to exclude the able-bodied, for 
whom paid employment in the fields is available, and, as far as possible, to take 
some work from those for whom there is none. In order to attain these 
objects the following procedure should be adopted as circumstances may 
dictate : — 

(1.) Malguzars and substantial cultivators should be invited to apply 
for labourers at kitchens, men or women ; and all able-bodied 

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labourers for whom they will guarantee a week's employment 
on a reasonable wage should be struck off the kitchen list and 
handed over to them. The dependants of these persons will 
be fed as before, being sent, if necessary, to their own village. 
The arrangements to be made are contained in a: memorandum 
drawn up for the guidance of charge officer^ in Wardha, 
appended to this letter, which may be generally followed in 
other districts also. t 

(2.) There will be many cultivators and some malguzars who either 
cannot afford to pay the full number of field-labourers they 
require or cannot pay them sufficient wages. In order to 
supply the deficiency a certain number of the kitchen able- 
bodied can be placed on the B list and handed over to them. 

Example. — The mukaddam requires 25 labourers ; he can only 
afford to pay them 4 pice a day. He may be given 
5 labourers on the B list, on condition that he pays the 
other 20 men 5 pice a day. 

The sums mentioned in the above example are merely illustrations. 
The rates to be paid by the mukaddam, or by cultivators 
under his guarantee, may be in cash or grain, but they must 
suffice for the support of the actual labourers, it being under- 
stood that their dependants will continue to be supported at 
kitchens. Great care will be necessary that persons who can 
afford to pay proper wages to their labourers do not escape. 
There will be a great many malguzars who can obviously pay, 
and must do so. 

(3.) Even after the immediate demand for field labour is satisfied, 
there may remain able-bodied persons on the kitchens. Some 
of these may be employed on work connected with the kitchen, 
such as conveyance of grain from a main kitchen to its 
branches, improvement of the kitchen site or water-supply, 
erection or repair of shelters, and so forth. Where such work 
.s available, the meal will be refused to any able-bodied 
persons who decline to do it. 

(4) It is on the whole less demoralizing to able-bodied persons on 

kitchens, for whom field employment is not available, to do 
some work for cash than to be fed for doing nothing ; and if 
the Charge Officer can arrange with the mukaddam to give 
work of petty village improvement, clearing of insanitary 
ground, improvement of village roads, repair of field bunds, 
and the like, men for whom work of this kind can be found 
may be struck off the kitchen register and placed on the B 
list, the mukaddam distributing the daily cash dole and being 
responsible for taking work from them. 

(5) In addition to these measures for eliminating the able-bodied 

from kitchens, they may be refused admission altogether at 
kitchens situated within five miles of a permanent Public 
Works Department monsoon camp. It is necessary that the 
Deputy Commissioner should clearly define by name to each 
Charge Officer the camps to which this rule will apply. It 
is not desired to send persons to camps which it is the 
recognized policy to close. 

13. Owing to the rapidity with which the situation change*., and the. 
extent to which the demand for labour varies in different localities at different 
times, and the delay and difficulty involved in getting orders communicated to 
and understood by the subordinate agency on which reliance has to be placed, 
every kind of procedure indicated in the last paragraph may not be found 
necessary everywhere. Circumstances may have begun to change by the time 
that the arrangements can be completed, and it may yet be found that the pressure 



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is relieved' spontaneously as soon as labour is more generally in demand. But, 
so long as the pressure of the able-bodied on kitchens continues, the above are 
the measures which the Officiating Chief Commissioner desires should be tried 
. to relieve it. 

14. Another matter to which I am to draw your attention is the small 
extent to which resort has yet been had to the B list prescribed in Famine 
Circular 49. It has been brought into force with judgment and intelligence in 
Balaghat, and it has now started in parts of Nagpur and Bhandara. In Wardha 
it was not previously sanctioned ; and in Chanda more should have been done 
to introduce this form of relief. This class which our relief arrangements at 
present reach least are the petty cultivators who are reluctant to accept cooked 
food, or whose agricultural work would be unduly delayed if they were obliged 
to resort to a kitchen for their food. In this class would fall many of those who 
received takavi or grants sufficient to sow their land, but not sufficient to give 
them subsistence until their crops are ripe. Persons of this kind, limited to an 
absolute maximum of 10 per cent, of the cultivators in any charge, may be put 
on the B list, but this procedure should only be introduced in tracts specified by 
the Deputy Commissioner. For instance, in the Wardha District, the Sarwahi 
and Karinja circles of the Arvi Tahsil, the Grirur and Kora circles of Hinganghat, 
and parts of the Sindi circle in the Wardha Tahsil would certainly be excluded 
from such a scheme. Similarly, the Katol Tahsil and parts of the Ramtek or 
Nagpur Tahsils in Nagpur, part of the Warora Tahsil in Chanda, and possibly 
a few areas in Bhandara, might safely be excluded from the benefits of this 
procedure. 

15. Another matter to which Deputy Commissioners must pay strict 
attention is the prevention of abuses, by which certain persons are able to 
obtain double relief. Kitchen meals should be distributed everywhere at a 
fixed time, and special care should be taken at Civil kitchens situated near 
Public Works Department camps to prevent persons claiming a meal at 
both places. 

It will also be necessary to guard against people borne on the B list also 
attending kitchens. Vigilance on the part of the kitchen manager will partly 
secure this, but the assistance of kotwars and kitchen warders should be freely 
enlisted. It is reported that in Balaghat kotwars have been very ready to expose 
attempts on the part of paupers to obtain double relief. 

16. It must, however, be distinctly borne in mind that in any action taken 
to get rid of able-bodied persons from kitchens, no misunderstanding should be 
allowed by which dependants of such persons, or weakly wanderers, are 
excluded from the benefits of kitchen-relief ; and above all it is essential that all 
children, whether their parents are on the B list, or have been handed over to 
mukaddams, or are supporting themselves, should be freely admitted. Such a 
warning is only necessary because of the extraordinary misunderstandings 
which occur in the minds of the subordinate relief establishment in spite of the 
plainest instructions. 

17. In conclusion, I am to refer to one or two matters which specially 
arose for discussion in Chanda. The difficulty of supplying his kitchens with 
grain has caused the Deputy Commissioner of Chanda much anxiety. Authority 
had already been given him in several cases to make advances to banias under- 
taking to keep the kitchens supplied. But even with these advances the 
Deputy Commissioner is apprehensive that the banias may fail him. After 
discussing the matter fully with yourself and the Deputy Commissioner, the 
Officiating Chief Commissioner has decided that it is better for the Deputy 
Commissioner to purchase the grain as he requires it in the open market and 
forward it, as far as possible by famine labour supplied from the camps, to the 
Charge Officers. For those charges, such as Chimur, Talodhi, Chamursi and 
Dhanora, in which local arrangements cannot be made, this plan should be 
adopted. The Charge Officer can arrange for the distribution of the grain 
among the various kitchens of his charge by utilizing the services of the able- 
bodied at his kitchen in the manner indicated in clause (3) of paragraph 12 

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above.. Advances already made to banias should be recouped gradually, and no 
more advances should be given. 

18. In some of the remoter Zamindaris the Deputy Commissioner of 
Chanda had proposed to give advances to the Zamindars for the' payment of 
labourers who would have been fit to be placed on the B list but for the 
difficulty of proper supervision in the large and remote charges in which these 
Zamindaris are comprised. Few of the Zamindars are, however, sufficiently 
educated or intelligent to carry out such arrangements satisfactorily, and the 
easiest way of overcoming the difficulties of supervision is to appoint assistant 
Charge Officers in these charges. The Deputy Commissioner agrees that this 
course will meet his difficulties, and has withdrawn his proposal to make 
advances to the Zamindars. The necessary appointments should be made 
without delay. 



No. F " 1966 



F-1967 

Nagpur, the 3rd August 1900. 
Copy forwarded to the fa^^n^moTw^faN Central Provinces, for information. 



XT F-1968 
No. 



F-1969 

Nagpur, the Zrd August 1900. 

Copy forwarded to the Commissioner, &rbujdT Division, for information. 
Special attention is invited to paragraphs 12, 14, and 15. 



F-1970. 
Nagpur, the 3rd August 1900. 

Copy forwarded to the Commissioner, Chhattisgarh Division, for information 
and guidance. Special attention is invited to paragraphs 12, 14, and 15. 



Enclosure in No. 22. 



Attendance ok the Able-bodied on Kitchens in Wabdha. 

[ Vide PARAGRAPH 12 (1)]. 

I. — It is stated that able-bodied labourers (chiefly women) are crowding on 
to kitchens, while, on the other hand, malguzars ■ and tenants com- 
plain that they cannot obtain labourers for field work. 

II. — If all these able-bodied persons were summarily turned out of the 
kitchens there would be risk of their suffering. All might not 
obtain employment, many might be underpaid. 

III. — If labourers are allowed, while working for a low wage, to take food at 

kitchens, there would be difficulty about exacting work, while many 
malguzars and better-to-do cultivators, well able to afford proper 
wages, will throw their burdens upon Government. 

IV. — To obviate this difficulty the following procedure should. be. adopted :— 

(1) All mukaddams should be invited to apply to kitchens for able- 
bodied labourers, men and women, belonging to their 'own 
villages. They should state the number of persons required, 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 119 

and guarantee to them a week's employment and wages at a 
reasonable rate, to be fixed by the Charge 0 nicer under the 
orders of the Deputy Commissioner. 

(2) Upon these guarantees being given the persons selected would 

be handed over to the mukaddam and struck off the kitchen 
list Their refusal to go would be punished by immediate 
exclusion from the kitchen. 

(3) The dependants of all such persons, including children under 

14, and aged persons or other persons unfit for work, must 
accompany the workers to their village, and the mukaddams 
must agree to feed them with cooked food in the village for 
the week, being supplied with grain for the purpose. The 
mukaddam will have to open a branch kitchen, at which Will 
be fed — 

(i.) all the dependants aforesaid ; 

(ii.) any other residents of the village whom the 
manager of the main kitchen may send under the 
orders of the Charge or Circle Officer. 

(4) The lisif of persons to be fed at a branch kitchen will be revised 

every week and the necessary food despatched. There will 
be no direct admission at a branch kitchen, but the mukaddam 
may give a meal to wanderers in reduced condition, and pass 
them on (if fit to travel) to the main kitchen. 

(5) At the end of the week the labourers handed over to the 

mukaddam will be re-admitted only if enquiry shows that 
agricultural employment is not generally available. Their 
dependants will continue to be fed at the branch kitchen. 



No. 23. 

Letter from A. D. Younqhusband, Esq., I.C.S., Commissioner, Chhattisgarh 
Division, to the Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, Central 
Provinces, No. 7232, dated Raipur, the bth August, 1900. 

In continuation of my letter No. 7,221, dated the 4th August, 1900, with 
which was forwarded a copy of my remarks on the last weekly famine report of 
the Raipur District, I have the honour to submit for approval a draft memoran- 
dum of instructions which I propose to issue, with a view to checking the still- 
increasing rush to kitchens in that district, and at the same time of exacting 
some work in return for the free meals which the able-bodied are receiving. 

2. These instructions have been drafted by me in consultation with the 
Deputy Commissioner. I think that they in no way go beyond what the Chief 
Commissioner has contemplated as likely to be eventually needed ; and the 
only question seems to be whether the time has yet come when such restrictions 
can safely be introduced. I think that it has, although detailed reports have 
not yet come in from all parts of the district, I think it may be said in general 
terms that the recent copious and general rain has sufficiently assured the 
second stage of the season's agriculture, and that the safety of the coming 
harvest now depends only on the last stage of the rains. Moreover, the 
numbers of the population relieved in kitchens is rapidly approaching the 
highest figure ever previously reached for the total on all forms of relief. 

3. The present figures seem clearly to indicate that the Raipur population 
is quite capable of being relieved by means of kitchens alone. The fashion of 
resorting to kitchens has now become universal ; and caste scruples in this 
connection appear to be altogether a thing of the past. From no single charge 
has it been represented that there is any class of persons requiring relief who 
fail to obtain it under the kitchen system. There is, of course, a small number 
of persons in receipt of cash doles," (A list) vvho have never yet resorted to 



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kitchens, and who, as long as the option of a cash dole is open to them, wilt 
naturally prefer it. I personally believe that it would now be safe to stop cash 
doles altogether ; but the numbers in receipt of them are very limited, and I do- 
not think that the question need be raised at the present stage. 

4. I am, however, very strongly of opinion that we have found an efficient 
and satisfactory substitute for the B list system ; and, in the instructions now 
drafted, I have aimed at preserving the most important features of this system ; 
while I submit that some of its drawbacks have been avoided. As regards the 
form of relief given, I think that a daily meal will be admitted to be preferable 
to a monthly cash dole. The form of work to be exacted, and the arrangements 
for exacting it, are identical under the two systems, while the desired object of 
giving relief to the able-bodied poor only during such period as it may prove 
to be really necessary can, I think, be even better secured under the elastic 
arrangements which I propose.- Some degree of discretion must under any 
system be left to the man actually on the spot, and our Charge Officers have- 
shown themselves thoroughly deserving of confidence. I submit that an 
arrangement under which the Charge Officer (or his assistant, who is always a 



local circumstances, has advantages over one under which relief for an entire 
month is given wholesale, by order of the Commissioner, to all whose names 
are entered in a previously prepared list. 

5. I take it that, under the rule excluding from cash relief those who 
have once accepted food at a kitchen, the B lists in most villages in Raipur 
must by this time be blank, or fast becoming so. I am having this verified. 

6. I would invite attention to Rule 5 in my draft instructions, which 
gives effect, in somewhat different language, to a suggestion put forward some 
time ago by the Deputy Commissioner, Raipur, in one of his weekly reports. 
I should be sorry to give colour to any sort of suggestion that I was seeking to 
drive people away from kitchens by making their remaining there conditional 
on their breaking caste. But, as I have already observed, caste scruples in thia 
connection seem to have been now generally abandoned ; and I doubt indeed 
whether the scruples of the Chamar have ever been deserving of very much 
respect. In some charges Chamar cooks have never been employed ; but the 
kitchens are nevertheless frequented by Chamars, and it does not appear that a 
single really distressed Chamar has ever been deterred from attending on this 
account. They naturally prefer their own people as cooks ; but I think this 
may now be regarded as a pure luxury, calculated to add to the attractions of 
the kitchens, which is no longer our object. The point is, however, one which 
it seems right to refer for orders. 

7. If my instructions for Raipur are approved, I would ask to be allowed 
discretion to apply any such portions of them as may from time to time appear 
desirable to the Bilaspur aud Sambalpur Districts also. The difference between 
Raipur and Bilaspur in the matter of popularity of kitchens, particularly with 
the Chamar community, is a problem to which it is not very easy to give a 
satisfactory answer. 1 have lately discussed it with Mr. Low, without much 
result. In the first place, I think, it must be allowed that distress has through- 
out been less acute in Bilaspur than Raipur. Apart from this attendance at 
kitchens appears to have become a fashion in Raipur. The example having 
once been set, other persons have in increasing numbers followed the lead of 
their neighbours. Great pressure was used in this district, in the early months 
of the year, to an extent which at the time 1 considered somewhat dangerous,, 
in the way of forcing the infirm population into kitchens by refusing them any 
other form of relief. But the rush of the able-bodied during the last few weeks, 
since kitchens have been thrown open to them, has been altogether spontaneous. 
I have no doubt that kitchen relief has now been extended to many who might 
well do without it. At the same time I concur with the Deputy Commissioner, 
and all Charge Officers with whom I have had opportunities of discussion, that 
it amply meets all requirements of the present situation. 




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Enclosure in No. 23. 
Draft Memorandum of Instructions. 

The following instructions for further regulating admissions to kitchens in 
the Raipur District, and for exacting work from the inmates, are issued with the 
approval of the Chief Commissioner. 

2. No person, unless in a state of emaciation, may henceforth be admitted 
to any kitchen (subject to the temporary exception mentioned in Rule 3 below) 
without a ticket from the Charge Officer or Assistant Charge Officer. The first 
step is for Charge Officers and their assistants to visit all kitchens and carefully 
sort out all the existing inmates giving tickets to those whom on inspection and 
enquiry they find to be deserving of them, and turning out the remainder. 
They should at the same time, by proclamation throughout the charge, invite 
applications for tickets from persons not already attending kitchens, and will see 
by careful inspection of the people in the course of their tours that no deserving 
cases escape relief. 

3. Tickets will of course be given to all who really are infirm paupers. In 
other cases, people may be regarded as fill ling under one or other of three 
classes: — 

(a) able-bodied persons who are so distressed as to require relief for 
themselves as well as for their dependants ; 

(6) such persons as can fairly be expected to maintain themselves but 
not their dependants as well ; 

(c) persons so well to do as to be capable of supporting their families 
as well as themselves. 

Notb. — The varying con- Tickets should be given to persons of class 

ditions of the season must be r a \ an( j to tne non . WO rking dependants of both 

Ssssrs-fftrsss i-> .,-»* <*t i» w tv° — »*. *• 

many persons will fall nnder family should be admitted. In cases of doubt, it 

<jlass (6) who, when the demand may be found advisable to admit a limited number 

foragricnlturallabourslackens, G f tne family. The local officer must use his 

would come mto class (a), fla^^ in eacn case. Charge Officers should 

and should then get tickets for , , , 7 . _> . . , . , . 

themselves. check the work 01 their Assistants in this respect 

by all means in their power. The existing lists 
of" well-to-do persons " will of course be utilized. Appearance will often be a 
useful guide, and doubtful cases may well be kept under special observation. 

4. As a temporary measure, until the Charge Officer and his assistants 
have had time to thoroughly inspect the whole charge for the purpose of issuing 
tickets, free admission may be allowed to continue at a few selected kitchens in 
central localities. Those new admissions will be kept separately until they can 
be dealt with by the Charge Officer or Assistant Charge Officer on his 
next visit. 

5. Work must now be systematically exacted from all able-bodied kitchen 
inmates, on the lines which have been approved in connection with the B list 
system, as a condition of their receiving relief. Persons actually engaged in 
field labour should be regarded as satisfactorily fulfilling this condition. But 
for the remainder some form of work should be provided, the mukaddams being 
instructed to see that they perform it. 

6. Experience has now shown that Chamars when really distressed will 
readily accept cooked food from the hands of Hindus, and that the maintenance 
in some charges of an additional staff of Chamar cooks has merely resulted in 
attracting well-to-do Chamars who are in no sense distressed. 

This separate establishment of Chamar cooks appears to be a needless 
extravagance, and should be discontinued. 

7. The effect of these instructions should be specially noticed by Charge 
Officers in their diaries. 



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No. 24. 

Letter from A. D. Younghusband, Esq., I.C.S., Commissioner, Chkattisgark 
Division, to The Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, Central 
Provinces, No. 7355, dated Raipur, the 8th August, 1900. 

I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your endorsement No. F. 1970 
dated the 3rd instant, forwarding for my information and guidance a copy of 
your letter No. F. 1965 of the same to the address of the Commissioner, Nagpur 
Division. 

2. As regards the application specially to the Raipur District of the 
instructions issued to the Nagpur Division, I would respectfully invite a 
reference to my letter No. 7232, dated the 5th instant, orders on which are 
awaited. According to all the information I have been able to gather, the state 
of things in Raipur differs materially in certain essential particulars from that 
which appears to exist in the districts of the Nagpur Division, and some differ- 
entiation of treatment seems to be called for. 

3. In the first place I venture to assert that it is not generally the case in 
Raipur that the people are being fed for doing nothing, or that it is a question 
of their preferring kitchen meals and idleness to field work and cash wages. I 
have within the last few days been able to obtain the - special testimony of several 
of the most experienced Charge Officers to the fact that the persons in their 
charges who resort to kitchens are for the most part employed in field labour, 
either in their own fields or in those of private employers. There are no com- 

glaints that kitchens are interfering with the supply of field labour. Those 
barge Officers who formerly prophesied that this would result have now to 
admit that their forebodings have not been realised. The general testimony is 
that the kitchens are crowded both with petty cultivators who till their own 
fields, and with labourers who, having their food thus assured, are glad to work 
for private employers for the most trifling wage. I am not prepared to deny 
that there may be far too many such persons ; that some at least of them stand 
in no real need of relief, except possibly for their dependants, and that we may 
be going too for in subsidizing private employers by enabling them to secure for 
a purely nominal wage the services of persons on relief. That is a question I 
will come to later in this report. My respectful contention for the moment is 
simply that, whether over-lavish or not, kitchen relief in Raipur is not 
demoralising in the sense of encouraging the people to live in idleness or 
prejudicial to the agricultural operations of the season. 

4. In some charges, where field labour is less in demand, work on the 
analogy of B list relief is, on the authority of paragraph 6 of your letter F. 1805, 
dated the 11th July 1900, being exacted from able-bodied persons attending 
kitchens. Detailed reports of the results are not before me ; but I understand 
that generally the experiments have proved successful, and that no difficulties 
have been experienced. 

5. In paragraph 14 of the letter to the Commissioner of Nagpur, it is 
stated that " the class which our present relief arrangements reach least are the 
petty cultivators who are reluctant to accept cooked food, or whose agricultural 
work would be unduly delayed if they were obliged to resort to a kitchen for 
their food," Here again, I submit that the case is otherwise in Raipur. The 
officers I have referred to above are unanimous in the opinion that no such class 
is now to be found. That is to say, the reluctance to accept cooked food, 
though it of course in a measure exists, is no longer strong enough to induce 
these persons to submit to privation rather than resort to a kitchen. And, with 
a kitchen, so to speak, at every man's door (the number in the district is 
rapidly approaching 2,000), there is no reason why resort to them should 
seriously delay agricultural operations. 

6. It is further reported by these officers that the great majority, if not 
all, of those whose names were entered on the B lists, have now resorted to 



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kitchens. On the principle (which I submit is an essentially sound one) tliat 
those who have once accepted kitchen relief should thenceforward be ineligible 
for cash doles, the B lists in most villages should now be blank. 

7. Paragraph 12 (4) of No. F. 1965 directs that persons are under certain 
circumstances to be struck off the Kitchen Register and placed on the B list 
with cash doles, the object of the orders clearly being to transfer people from a 
state of idleness to one of work. But for the sake of attaining this object, I 
think it would be admitted to be a retrograde step to revert to a' system of cash 
doles for the relief of people vr ho have already shown their willingness to accept 
cooked food. I subscribe unreservedly to the proposition that " it is on the 
whole less demoralizing to able-bodied persons on kitchens, for whom field 
employment is not available, to do some work for, cash than to be fed for doing 
nothing." But it is not, I think, more demoralising to do work, in return for 
food than to do it for a cash wage. A ad where, as in Raipur, it is found 
possible to arrange for this, I submit that it is the most satisfactory of all forma 
of relief yet devised. 

8. I need not repeat all the maii v admitted advantages of giving relief in 
the form of cooked food. Perhaps • the most obvious advantage is that relief 
given in this form is of necessity wholly expended on its professed object, the 
maintenance in health and strength of the individual recipient, while cash relief 
is always liable to be abused and diverted to other objects. A further advantage 
which seems worth special mention in the present connection, is that, where all 
relief is given in kitchens the danger of double relief, to which attention is 
called in the loth paragraph of your No. F. 1965, is reduced to a minimum. 
There may no doubt be some clanger of people getting fed at more than one 
kitchen, and Charge Officers have already been warned, and will again be 
warned, to take special precautions against this. But there is after all a limit 
to the capacity of the human stomach, and the already well-fed man is scarcely 
under the same temptation to seek an unlawful and fraudulent free meal else- 
where as he who, in lieu of the original meal, was given its price, which he 
prefers to spend otherwise or to hoard. 

9. I trust I have succeeded in showing that existing arrangements in 
Raipur are fully adequate to secure the primary object of all famine relief, the 
prevention of starvation or suffering from hunger among all classes of the 
people. I think the only criticism which can possibly be brought against them 
is that they go beyond what is necessary for this purpose ; that, in relieving 
persons not actually in need of it, they involve a waste of public money ; and 
that they tend to the demoralization of the people. I do not believe, on the 
information before me, that the actual facts would justify such criticism to any 
great extent. But 1 am fully alive to the dangers suggested, and it was in order 
to guard against them that I drafted the instructions recently submitted for 
approval,, for selection of .the persons admitted to relief, and for the due exaction 
of work. These instructions, I may observe, merely systematize and reduce to 
rule arrangements on which individual officers have already been experimenting 
for themselves. Amplified, as they well may be, in the light of the Chief 
Commissioner's orders to the Nagpur Division, I submit that they should 
remove all grounds for adverse criticism of the kitchen system. 

10. I would then earnestly recommend the final abandonment as regards 
the Raipur District, not by any means of the essential principles of the B list 
system, but of that particular feature of it which prescribes the giving of cash 
doles, and would ask permission to continue to rely mainly on kitchens for such 
relief as is still needed to the able-bodied as well as to the children, the old, and 
the weakly. I think, however, that the time has come when for statistical 
purposes the two classes should be discriminated. I would in future returns 
divide kitchen inmates into workers and dependants. The former class might 
be returned as " relieved in return for work on the analogy of the B list." 

11. Subject to these remarks, I think that the provisions of paragraph 12 
of your letter No. F. 1,965 might be generally applied, mutatis mutandis, to the 
Raipur District.- They should rectify wlat, I think, is a matter which might 
Be adversely criticised at the present moment, the excessive subsidization of 

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private employers by the provision of free meals at Government expense for 



seems unnecessary (in view of the large number of branch kitchens already open 
in Raipur) is No. IV. (3). In paragraph 12 (2) I would omit the words 
" placed on the B list and," and in the example for " labourers on the B list " I 
would substitute " labourers attending the kitchen." Clause (4) I have already 
discussed. I think that my draft instructions practically meet the essential 
requirements of both this and (3). I should prefer not to adopt clause (5). If 
our kitchens have the effect of employing a Public Works Department work, I 
think the latter can safely and advantageously be closed. 

12. I trust that the spirit of paragraph 16 has been sufficiently kept in 
my draft instructions. 1 have carefully provided for the class requiring reliet 
for their dependants though not for themselves individually. I have, however, 
recognized the existence of a more prosperous class, requiring no relief even for 
their dependants. There can be no doubt that many persons, who are in no 
sense famine- stricken and who would not dream of coming on relief themselves, 
have no scruples about sending their children to the kitchen for free meals ; and 
it is this class which I intended to exclude. But paragraph 16 seems open to 
the interpretation that all children are to be admitted to kitchens without 
question, and perhaps the Chief Commissioner may be of opinion that this is the 
only safe rule. If so, my instructions will require amendment. 



Letter from E. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, to the Commissioner, Chhattisgarh 
Division, Raipur, No. F. 2,035 dated Nagpur, the 14<A August, 19(.)0. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters, Nos. 7,232 
and 7,355, of the 5th and 8th instant, respectively. 

2. In Famine Circular, No. 53,* of this date, you will find general in- 
structions on the restriction of kitchen relief which will take the place of the 
temporary measures laid down for the Nagpur districts, so far as these have not 
already had the desired effect. You will observe from the Circular in question 
that the orders now issued include and go further than the plan advocated in 
your draft rules, with the general principles of which the Officiating Chief 
Commissioner fully agrees. 

3. The question before the Officiating Chief Commissioner in connection 
with the Raipur relief system is not whether it has been successful in keeping 
the people relieved in health and strength (of this there can be no doubt), but 
whether it has not gone much further than was necessary to secure from serious 
privation those who were in real need. The manner in which the numbers 
relieved at kitchens has risen week by week, by leaps and bounds, although 
there should have been an increase of field employment available, seems to show 
that the burden of paying for agricultural operations has been shifted from the 
shoulders of the employer to those of the Government. 

4. The advantage of the B list system of cash doles to poor labourers in 
return for work was that the persons relieved are arrived at by selection, and 
limited to a certain number, being employed for the most part on work which 
could not otherwise be paid for. The rest of the able-bodied were expected to 
shift for themselves, the permission to receive cooked food at a kitchen being a 
safeguard against possible injury to such people due to failure to appreciate their 
necessity. This was the theory of the rains programme, to supplement, not to 
supply, the employment and wages of the country. But the idea was to sup- 
plement it, not by adding to the earnings of those employed, but by reducing 
the number to share the available employment and earnings. 



their employes. 




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No. 25. 



• No. 26. 



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5. Had this theory been fully realised- in fact it would probably have met 
all necessities. But two causes contributed to prevent its effective realisation — 
the delay in the rains, and the unexpected readiness of the poorer classes to 
accept cooked food. These two factors in the situation encouraged the Deputy 
Commissioner of Raipur to place almost his sole reliance upon kitchen relief. 
The result has been to invert the theory of the rains relief arrangements. 
Instead of Government supplementing the deficiencies of the demand of private 
employers, the private employers have supplemented Government reHef t>y the 
grant of only so much as was necessary to induce a kitchen-fed labourer to do a 
Uttle work in the fields. In fact, the labour market has become disorganised. 

6. A fear that this might result from a widespread extension of kitchen 
relief to persons engaged on agricultural work was expressed at the Raipur 
Conference, but it was then too early to define accurately the limits of kitchen 
relief when employment should become available. While the Officiating Chief 
Commissioner fully recognises the great efforts made by the Deputy Commis- 
sioner and his subordinates to extend the benefits of kitchen relief on a scale 
hitherto quite unprecedented, he feels that the time has come to impose some 
restrictions upon resort to this form of relief. It is quite certain that so long as 
labour is available to well-to-do malguzars and cultivators for a trifling sum, the 
efforts of any labourer to subsist by field work without resort to a kitchen must 
be quite fruitless. 

7. There is no objection to a certain proportion of the kitchen fed, who 
would otherwise have been placed upon the B list, being employed under the 
direction of the mukaddam upon petty village work or field labour ; but the 
work they are employed on must be work which either would not otherwise 
have been available or could not have been paid for. It is this distinction 
between the Raipur system and the B list method which you do not seem to 
have quite fully appreciated. 

8. The Officiating Chief Commissioner desires, therefore, that you will 
carry out the measures laid down in Famine Circular, No. 53, of this date, for 
exclusion of the able-bodied in addition to the exclusion of the well-to-do and 
their dependants which your own proposals contemplate. In making the 
selection for exclusion care must be taken that so far as possible the able-bodied 
remaining are employed on work which could not be paid for, whether in their 
own fielc Is or in those of petty cultivators. 

9. These measures must be carried out without delay. You will observe 
that, if necessary, they may be gradually introduced [paragraph 7 (ii) of the 
circular] ; but the beginning must at once be made, as directed, throughout the 
Division. If, however, there are any special and limited areas in which you 
think the risk too great, the Officiating Chief Commissioner will be prepared to 
permit the postponement in these areas of the expulsion of able-bodied labourers 
from kitchens, on good cause being shown. The other measures will, of course, 
be introduced even in these tracts. You and all local officers will carefully 
watch the effect of these measures. 



No. 26. 

Famine Circular from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, to all Commissioners and. Deputy 
Commissioners, Central Provinces, No. 53, dated Naqpur, the 14$ August, 
1900. 

I am directed to address you on the subject of the restriction of kitchen 
relief. 

2. The policy of free admission to kitchens, as laid down originally in 
Famine Circular No. 49 contemplated — 

(a.) That all dependants of labourers and cultivators unable to support 
them should be relieved. 

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(b.) That able-bodied persons unable to find work, who were not 
provided for by cash doles on the B lists, should have a safe- 
guard against risk of starvation. 

It was believed that, as a rule, anyone who could secure a cash wage for his 
labour in the field would prefer this to the acceptance of cooked food in a 
Government kitchen ; but that the existence of these institutions, scattered 
broadcast over the country, would prove a most valuable and necessary 
safeguard at a time when employment was slack and wages possessed only half 
their usual purchasing power. 

3. The resort to kitchens has far exceeded expectation. The principal 
cause for this was the delay in the rains. The first falls of rain in every district, 
except Raipur and Sambalpur. were extremely light, and were succeeded by a 
long period of hot weather conditions, broken only by a few scattered showers. 
Even where these foils eventually turned out to have been sufficient to keep alive 
the earliest sown seedlings, the confidence of the people, weakened by a long 
series of disappointments and losses, was too much shaken to admit of their 
trusting their scanty seed to the risk of early failure, and the area sown early 
was thus far below normal. It was not until the close of the first week in J uly 
that the monsoon was really established, and agricultural operations were tardily 
started on their full scale. 

4. This delay has been doubly disastrous. It has retarded by nearly a 
month the weeding and transplanting operations upon which the agricultural 
classes rely for their employment ; and by its effect on' the morale of the people, 
it has driven hundreds to resort to relief who would otherwise have shifted for 
themselves. The numbers of people who returned from the large works to their 
villages, or whom the completion of the village works left without occupation, 
alarmed by the rising prices and the threatening of future failure, were obliged 
to overcome their natural reluctance to accept cooked food in the publicity of a 
kitchen. That this was so during the period of uncertainty and inaction which 
preceded the establishment of the rains, is a matter wholly for congratulation. 
In no other way could relief have reached the crowds who sorely needed it, 
except at the expense of once more driving them from their villages, 
overcrowding and disorganizing works, and upsetting the plans laid for bringing 
the people back to their homes by the time that their presence was required 
there. There would have been a period of hesitation which would have had a 
most injurious effect on the physical condition of the labouring population, 

5. While, however, the provision of cooked meals, almost at their door, 
has thus been wholly successfnl in preserving in good condition the classes that 
would otherwise have suffered, it has now become open to serious abuses, which 
require to be checked by very early measures. Circumstances have now changed ; 
labour is becoming available ; the necessity for relief is much diminished ; but 
the people in some districts cling to the kitchens. 

6. The Officiating Chief Commissioner has now visited every district of 
the two Southern Divisions, and has also met the Commissioners of the Nerbudda 
and Jubbulpore Divisions, and all the Deputy Commissioners of the former, in 
conference at Hoshangabad. Orders were issued as the result of the conference 
in the Chhattisgarh and Nagpur Divisions which were suitable to the 
requirements of these tracts at the time of issue. But the agricultural situation 
so rapidly changes at this season from week to week, and almost from day to 
day, that orders which were adequate a week or two ago do not go far enough 
now. Thus in Raipur, which was the district first visited at the beginning of 
July, field labour was then so scanty that any restriction of kitchen relief was 
impossible ; all that could be done was to watch the situation, and experiment 
in the direction of taking work from the kitchen-fed as a means of discouraging 
any one who might resort to kitchen meals out of sheer idleness. By the time 
that Mr. Fraser visited the Nagpur districts, it was evident that employment 
was increasing to an extent which warranted the expulsion from kitchens of 
those for whom work could with certainty be provided in the fields. The 
Nagpur rules contemplated that those thus got rid of would not be re-admitted, 
if, after the period for which the wages were guaranteed, general employment 



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became available. By the time that the present orders issue, such general 
employment will be available ; and we shall now soon be in sight of the harvest 
of maize and early millets which are of so much assistance until the major crops 
ripen. 

7. The information gained at the Hoshangabad conference shows most 
clearly that very large restrictions on kitchen relief are now possible in the two 
Northern Divisions, while in the south the conditions must by this time be very 
similar. The following measures were accordingly decided upon and must now 
be given effect to : — 

(i.) To exclude at once from kitchens all well-to-do persons and their 
dependants. — Some cases have been met with of individuals who, 
though possessed of resources, cash, ornaments, cattle or other 
property, have yet resorted to kitchen relief. And some such 
persons, though unwilling to come themselves, are ready to 
send their children and aged dependants whom they are 
perfectly capable of supporting. Though these may not 
constitute any large percentage of those on kitchen relief, they 
are persons who are not fit recipients of relief, and they must 
be at once excluded. This work must be at once undertaken 
by Charge Officers, Assistant Charge Officers, and Circle 
Officers. Now that fodder is generally available the value of 
cattle has recovered, and surplus cattle have become an asset, 
which disentitles the owner to State relief. 

(ii.) The exclusion of the able-bodied from kitchens. — This is a measure 
which cannot at once be carried out fully in some parts, but 
which must now be at least gradually enforced in all. An 
exception can only be made in very special areas where either 
kharif cropping is insignificant, or the crops are unusually 
backward. In some parts of the Jubbulpore Division, for 
instance, and in Chhindwara, this policy has already been 
carried out successfully. It can now be vigorously carried out 
in Saugor, Damoh, Hoshangabad, Nimar, Wardha, and Nagpur, 
and, though perhaps more gradually, in the rice districts. The 
first step must be an order to Charge and Circle Officers to 
turn out of the kitchens a certain percentage, to be fixed by the 
Deputy Commissioner for each charge, but not less than 25 per 
cent., and generally 50 per cent., of the able-bodied adults, 
men and women, now on kitchens. The selection of the 
particular persons to be turned out must rest with each local 
officer, but they should generally first turn out the strongest. 
This must be followed in a fortnight's time by an order to 
exclude at least half the remainder ; the rest, if any remain, 
being eliminated after a further similar period. By the time 
that the final exclusion is made it will be the middle of 
September, when the earliest crops will be coming into the 
market, and arrangements for winding up famine relief 
altogether will be well in sight. 

(iii.) Closure of kitchen relief to new applicants, except (1) children of 
the poor, (2) emaciated persons, or (3) persons who have been 
given tickets by Charge Officers. — It is practically certain that 
all able-bodied persons who really need relief have already 
applied for it. Only wanderers have to be considered. There 
are still in every district works open to which these can be 
directed, while any such who show physical signs of want of 
food may, even under this rule, be admitted. 

8. The effect of the action taken under these rules must be most carefully 
supervised, and the intelligence with which it has been carried out by 
subordinate officers watched and noted in the weekly reports. It is, indeea, 
desirable that a certain amount of this elimination work should be undertaken. 



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by Deputy Commissioners and the superior Inspecting Officers, in order that its 
feasibility and the best means of carrying it out may be demonstrated to and 
understood by the less experienced relief officials. 



No. 27. 

Famine Circular from if. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Famine Secretary to the 
. Chief Commissioner ; Central Provinces, to all Commissioners and Deputy 
Commissioners, Central Provinces, No. 56, dated Nagpur, the 19di 
September, 1900. 



I am directed to address you regarding the contraction of famine relief 
■which the early harvested crops and the prospects of the main kharif crops 
render expedient and safe. 

2. The experience of the last famine has shown that it is desirable that 
the curtailment of relief should be carried out with discrimination during 
September ; and this caution has been more than ever necessary this year as the 
crops are in many places decidedly backward, and maize and the early millets 
are likely to come into market later than usual. But while the extensive 
curtailment of relief may not be everywhere possible in September, there are 
particular districts, or tracts in districts, in which, owing to local circumstances, 
it is possible to cut down relief with safety earlier than in other districts or in 
other parts of the same districts. For example, the Deputy Commissioner, 
Nimar, is excluding from kitchens able-bodied children from 10 to 14, who are 
in good health, with effect from the 1 5th of this month ; and in Seoni the 
Deputy Commissioner has been able to close some kitchens in tracts least 
distressed, giving 15 days' dole to the few incapable paupers who would other- 
wise be dependent on village charity. 

3. Famine Circular, No. 53, directed the gradual exclusion from kitchens 
of the able-bodied ; and this was followed up in the case of Chhattisgarh by an 
order for the closure of the branch kitchens which have been so much 
extended in that Division. The branch kitchen system has not, the Officiating 
Chief Commissioner believes, been much resorted to outside Chhattisgarh ; but 
in all localities where kitchens are more numerous than to give one kitchen for a 
three miles radius, or 27 square miles area, which Famine Circular, No. 49, laid 
down as a minimum, reduction of kitchens down to that proportion has now 
become safe. When any superfluous kitchen is closed, the paupers, incapable of 
walking to the nearest open kitchen for their meals, can be put temporarily on 
village relief ; while for the remainder a distance test is imposed sufficient to 
deter those who can provide for themselves, but not severe enough to deny 
relief to those really distressed. This step should, therefore, be undertaken at 
once, except where the Deputy Commissioner, with the concurrence of the 
Commissioner, thinks if unsafe to do so. The exclusion of able-bodied children 
of 10 and over which has come into force in Nimar from the 15th September, 
may also be extended to any tracts in any Division in which the Commissioner 
may regard as ripe for this measure. 

4. The rate at which further curtailment ending in the total closure of 
all famine relief shall proceed, is largely dependent both on the character of the 
weather during this critical month of September and on the conditions 
of each tract. The procedure to be followed should be everywhere the same, 
but the date at which a commencement is made and the rapidity with which 
restrictions are extended must vary according to local needs. But it must be 
accepted as a principle that relief must now be refused to anyone who has 
gathered a crop of maize, millet, or early rice. The general procedure to be 
adopted i:» respect of the various measures of relief is described in the 
following paragraphs. 



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A. — Work Relief. 

I. — Public Works Department Relief. 

5. Many of our Public Works Department camps are now very sparsely 
attended, and though it is expedient to keep a few open here and there so as to 
provide for the able-bodied who, after being turned out of kitchens, are unable 
to find employment, it will be apparent before very long where and how far 
this precaution is necessary. 

The general procedure of closing camps at which attendance has fallen off 
and drafting the remnant to the nearest open camp if they wish to go, may be 
followed during this month. But by the end of September it should be 

riible to close almost all Public Works Department camps ; and none should 
open after October 15th. In 1897, Public Works Department works 
continued open for a longer period than this ; but in this famine, owing to the 
extension of kitchen relief, the numbers on Public Works Department works at 
the end of August, 1900, were less than the numbers on such works on the 
15th October, 1897. 

6. When any camp is going to be finally broken up without drafts being 
made to another, due notice should be given to the workers a week before- 
hand ; and no new admissions should be allowed except of persons requiring 
medical treatment. The Charge Officer should be present in order to take over 
the infirm dependents whom he may either transfer to the kitchens nearest 
their homes, or present with a cash dole to cover such period as the Deputy 
Commissioner may direct. 

The camp kitchen may be kept open for a few days while such arrange- 
ments are being made. The sick in hospital will remain on in charge of the 
Hospital Assistant until the Civil Surgeon's orders can be received regarding 
their disposal. The convalescent can oe sent home with doles to be given by 
the Charge Officer, and those fit to be moved can be sent to the nearest dispen- 
sary able to accommodate them, or to the poor-house or pauper ward if any 
exists in the district. 

7. In the case of workers, a dole of three days' minimum wage should be 
allowed to those who come from a distance, and to others if the Deputy Com- 
missioner so directs. Orders regarding the latter will be issued by the Deputy 
Commissioner when the camp is ordered to be closed ; and the grant or refusal 
of the parting dole will depend on the date on which the camp is closed and 
the circumstances of the tract it serves. 

II. — Village Works. ■ 

8. Village works are already on a very small scale. If they have not died 
a] natural death meanwhile they should be closed by the end of September. The 

rial works carried out in Betul under the dep6t system, and in Mandla on 
B list systom, may continue for a week or two longer if the Commissioners 
of the Divisions concerned consider this necessary. 

III. — Forest Works. 

9. Except for road-works in Chanda, there is practically no forest work 
carried out as a measure of famine relief. The Chanda works should be 
governed by the same rules as apply to Public Works Department works. 

IV. — Weaver Relief. 

10. Weaver relief is extensive only in the chief towns of Nagpur and in 
Burhanpur. The time for stopping this relief depends on the course of pricen. 



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in Nimar and Nagpur in 1897 prices began to fell in October, but the drop was 
only substantial when November began. The final payments might, however, 
be so adjusted as to carry the weaving families up to me 15th October. 



V. — B List Relief. 

11. This special form of relief has been most largely extended to petty 
cultivators. In the great majority of cases the doles already given will expire 
some time in the current month. Such persons as grow early millets and maize 
will be independent of relief before the end of the month, and doles to cover the 
whole of the month should rarely be given. October 15th should be the latest 
date up to which a dole should run, and this only in exceptional tracts, where 
there are only late crops and harvesting will not have begun by that date. 



B. — Gratuitous Relief. 

12. Of the various heads of gratuitous relief, that to be given to " depen- 
dants " is disposed of under the orders relating to Public Works Department 
works (paragraph 6 above). Three remain to be considered, viz. : — 

I. — Poor-houses. 

II. — Kitchens. 

III. — Village relief. 



I. — Poor-houses. 
13. There are very few poor-houses in the Provinces, namely — 



Raipur, 
Dhamtari, 
Bilaspur, 
Sambalpur, 



Khandwa, 
Burhanpur, 
Harsud, 
Saugor. 



But there are also pauper wards attached to several dispensaries which take the 
place of poor-house hospitals. To judge from the experience of the last famine, 
these institutions are likely to be the last to be closed. They afford a shelter 
for the waifs and strays who have no belongings ; their inmates are the last 
people who can be thrown on to private charity. The system of regular drafting 
which has been followed throughout where poor-houses are established must of 
course continue, but in the closing of relief generally they may receive some 
accessions from the interior who cannot easily be provided for. Orders 
regarding these will issue later when it is known how many remain on the 
hands of Government. 



II. — Kitchens. 

14. The further steps to be taken at once towards the reduction of kitchen 
relief have been indicated in paragraph 3 above. Directly September is over a 
large number of kitchens should be closed, the process of closing continuing 
during October. As soon as prices have fallen, or harvesting begins in earnest, 
the earnings of the labourer will become sufficient for the support of his 
family. Kitchens can, therefore, be closed more rapidly where prices fall most, 
or where the crops are most forward. The possibility of reducing kitchen relief 
will be judged of by intelligent inspection. If the number of kitchens is 
reduced, the condition of the children in a village in which a kitchen has been 
abolished for some time will be the best index as to the advisability of further 



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closing. But before a kitchen can be safely closed altogether, considerable 
elimination preparatory to closure will be possible and necessary. Persons in 
good condition, who are not of the lowest class, which may be judged by their 
appearance, dress, utensils and so forth, may be excluded as a first step, and fat 
and robust children may also be turned off wherever the circumstances of the 
tract indicate early reduction of kitchen relief. As soon as by voluntary 
departure or elimination the numbers at a kitchen have been reduced to 20 or 
-less, the kitchen may be closed. In the last famine kitchen relief reached its 
maximum only on the 30th September, and was not finally closed until 
December. In the present year the condition of the people warrants its 
discontinuance, save in a few exceptional cases, at a much earlier date. In 
Mr. Fraser's opinion all kitchens should be closed by the 15th November : 
and none should be kept open after the end of October except for special 
reasons. At least three days' notice should be given to the people when a 
kitchen is about to be closed. In the case of kitchens closed in September or 
the first half of October, it will generally be necessary to put incapable, sick or 
infirm people on village relief temporarily. The period for which a dole is given 
then will vary with the date of closure and the proximity of the harvests. 



III.— Village Relief {A List). 

15. As stated in the last paragraph the village relief list will receive a 
temporary increase as kitchens are closed. Apart from this the changes should 
be in the direction of reduction. In the last famine the numbers on this relief 
only reached their maximum on the 15th of October, and there were still a 
large number borne on the lists at the end of November. Here again the better 
condition of the people should permit an earlier reduction, the period for which 
relief is continued varying with the circumstances of the tract and the condition 
of the relieved. The doles for instance to those who are not able-bodied, but 
are capable of earning wages by harvesting may terminate by the 1st or 15th 
October or the 1st November according to the state of the harvest. 

Those who are infirm and incapable of any work, but who have relatives to 
support them, may be continued on the list for a week or fortnight longer ; 
while those who are in normal times dependent on village charity may receive 
doles up to the 1st December, or as an extreme maximum the loth December. 
But such cases should be very few, and by the 15th November the A list of 
village relief should be a very small one. 

1 6. Whenever relief of any kind is being stopped or much reduced, it is of 
great importance that the attention of the people should be drawn to the 
responsibility of the village for the support of its own paupers. This responsi- 
bility must be enforced through the mukaddam, who should be warned of his 
obligation under Rule VI. (t) (iiL) framed under Section 141 (1) of the Central 
Provinces Land Revenue Act. W herever the final dole is given to a person 
who will ultimately be dependent on village charity, the mukaddam should be 
informed that it is the final dole, and that he must arrange on the expiry of the 
period which it covers for the support of the pauper by village charity. 

17. In conclusion I am to ask that there shall be attached to the monthly 
reports for September a concise account of the orders issued in each district to- 
carry out the instructions of this Circular. 

18. For facility of reference a table is appended showing the earliest and 
normal dates on which the harvesting of the principal crops begins in each 
district. 



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Enclosure in No. 27. 



Dat«8 when harvesting begins of the principal Kharif Crops. 

E = Earliest. 
N = Normal. 



Maize. 



N. 



Early MUlets. 



E. N. 



Rice. 
E. I N. 



Cotton. 



Jute. 

E. N. 



Early urad 
and mans. 



N 



Saugor .. 
Damoh .. 
Jubbulpore 
Mandla .. 
Seoni 

Narsinghpur .. 
Hoshangabad . . 
Nimar .. 
Betut 

Ohhindwara .. 
Wardha.. 
Nagpur .. 
Chan da .. 
Bhandara 
Balaghat 
Balpur .. 
BUaipur.. .. 
Sambalpur 



Aug. 
10th. 



Aug. 

lotfi. 



Aug. 
20th. 



Aug 

20th 



Aug. 
26th. 

Sept. 
5th. 

Oct. 
10th. 

Nov. 
16th. 

mS; 

Aug. 
15th. 

Aug. 
25th. 

Sept. 
5th. 

Aug. 
25th. 

Aug. 
15th. 



Aug. 
16th. 



Oct 
8th. 



Aug. 
15th. 



Sept. 
10th. 

8ept. 
15th. 

Oct. 
25th. 

Nov. 
30th. 

Aug. 
20th. 

Sept. 
1st. 



Sept 
20th. 

Sept 
1st 

Aug. 
25th. 



Aug. 
25th. 



Nov. 
15th. 

Aug. 
31at 



Oct. 
1st. 

Sept 
5th. 

Sept 
25th. 

Nov. 

l8t 

Sept 
15th. 

Sept. 
25th. 

Sept 
5th. 



Sept. 
loth. 



Oct 
1st 



Oct 
10th. 



Oct. 
1st 



Oct 
5th. 

Oct. 
9th. 

Oct 
1st 

Aug. 
20th. 



Oct 
20th. 

Sept 
20th. 

Oct. 
10th. 

Nov. 
15th. 

Oct 
15th. 

Oct 
1st 

Oct 
5th. 

Oct. 
10th. 

Oct 
15th. 



Oct 
25th. 

Nov. 
5th. 

Oot 
15th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Oct. 
20th. 



Oct 
10th. 



Nov. 
1st 



Oct 
25th. 



Nov. 
1st 

Nov. 
20th. 

Nov. 
11th. 



Nov. 
1st 



Nov. 
20th. 



Oct 
4th. 



Nov. 
10th. 



Nov. 
1st 



Nov. 
10th. 



Oct. 
15th. 



Oct. 
31st 



Nov. 
20th. 



Dec. 
10th. 



Oct 
20th. 



Nov. 
20th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Nov. 
25th. 



Nov. 
1st 



Nov. 
10th. 



Nov. 
1st. 



Nov. 
10th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Nov. 
20th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Oct. 
15th. 



Nov. 
1st. 



Nov. 
8th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Dec. 
1st 



Dee. 
6th. 



Dec. 
1st 



Nov. 
25th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Nov. 
10th. 



Nov. 
15th. 



Nov. 
30th. 



Dec. 
15th. 



Dec 
12th. 



Dec 
10th. 



Sept. 
1st 



Sept 
15th. 



Nov. 
3rd. 



Sept 
10th. 



Oct 
1st 



Nov. 
7th. 



FAMINE EXPENDITURE— ADDITIONAL GRANT. 

No. 28. 

Letter from R. H. Craddock, Esq., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief Com- 
missioner, Central Provinces, to the Secretary to the Government of India, 
Revenue and Agriculture Department, Simla, No. F-1SQ5, dated Nagpur, 
the \%th July, 1900. 

I am directed to address you with reference to the necessity for an additional 
grant for famine expenditure. The Officiating Chief Commissioner very much 
regrets that it should be necessary to make this application, but there is 
unfortunately no other course open to him. 

2. In Mr. Fox-Strangways' letter No., 533 of the 18th January last, 
submitting the Budget Estimates for the year 1900-1901 to the Finance and 
Commerce Department, the famine expenditure for the year was estimated at 
200 lakhs, of which 120 were put down against civil expenditure and 80 against 
Public Works Department. In the Budget sanctioned by the Government of 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



133 



India- the total estimate was lowered to 180 lakhs ; and the distribution was 
altered to Civil 75 and PubHc Works Department 105. The reason fof these 
alterations was not stated. 

3. At the time that the Budget Estimates were submitted, stress was laid 
on the fact that successive estimates of the numbers likely to come on relief 
had proved too low, and that if the rise in numbers which was then becoming so . 
marked should contiuue, even the estimate submitted must prove inadequate. . 
The estimate of 200 lakhs, which had been drawn up some considerable time . 
before the issue of the letter submitting the Budget, proceeded on the assumption 
that the numbers on relief in April, May and June would be about a million and 
a half, that they would drop in J uly to a million, and that thereafter there would 
be a continued fall. 

4. By the time, however, that the above-mentioned letter actually issued 
in print, a further estimate of the numbers likely to be relieved in April, May, 
June had issued in the Famine Department (No. F-83 of the 13th January 1900, 
reply to Revenue and Agriculture Department's letter No. 2-49 — 41 -F, of the 
19th December 1899). In this letter the numbers on relief in the three montha 
in question were estimated as follows : — - 





Month. 


Number. 






April 

May ... ... ' ■•• 

■jinim _ .. « • ««. . . « » 


1,750,000 
1,900,000 
1,250,000 




The actual figures have been : — 




Month. 


Number. 






April ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Af&y ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Juno ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 


1,769,000 
1,956,000 
1,913,000 





The estimates for April and May have turned out to be fairly accurate ; but 
the falling-off expected in June has not occurred, owing to the great delay in 
the establishment of the monsoon. The returns for the first week of July show 
a further rise, and the effect of the delay in the rains will be felt for a long time to 
come. The early millets and maize, which can generally be relied on to replenish 
the food-supply of the poorest classes at the end of August, will be a month late. 
The delay has also had effect on the condition of the people by causing alarm, 
raising prices, protracting the conditions of bad water-supply and consequent 
cholera, and postponing the employment which sowing operations afford. All 
these disadvantageous results, direct and indirect, of the delay in the rains have 
prolonged the transition period required for the movement of the people from 
large works to their villages, and have thus rendered necessary an increase of 
famine expenditure. 

5. The sum of 200 lakhs first estimated would not in any case have been 
sufficient on the figures adopted in my letter of the 13th January last, but under ' 
the circumstances described in the last paragraph, it will be necessary to increase 
very substantially the reduced grant of ISO lakhs made by the Government of 
India. * ' ••' 

10566 Ji 2 



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The credits already issued by the Public Works Department absorb nearly 
the whole of the 105 lakhs assigned to Public Works Department expenditure, 
.and that Department estimates for an additional expenditure over and above the 
grant of 15 lakhs to carry them over the rains. On the other hand, the grant 
of 75 lakhs (as against 120 asked for) for Civil expenditure has proved quite 
inadequate. The credits covering expenditure up to the end of July have already 
reached 81 lakhs, of which 21 lakhs constitute the estimated expenditure of that 
month. As the bulk of the famine relief expenditure is likely to be incurred to 
an increasing degree in the Civil Department as the rains advance, the monthly 
expenditure is not likely to any very large decrease for some time to come. The 
following estimate is the best which it is possible to make under present 
circumstances : — 





R*. 






Incurred up to the end of July 


81,00,000 






August 


24,00,000 




September 


18,00,000 | 


October 


15,00,000 1 

i 


November 


5,00,000 




Total 


1,43,00,000 




6. The further sum required will, therefore, be as 


follows : — 






Lakhs. 






Estimated Civil expenditure 


143 






Estimated Public Works Department expenditure 


120 






Add for unforeseen expenditure in winding up 
the famine 


2 






Total 


265 






Deduct grant already made 


180 






Balance now asked for 


85 





7. The" excellent rain which has fallen throughout the Province during the 
last week, by improving prospects and stimulating agricultural operations, will, 
it is hoped, materially improve the situation ; and when weeding operations 
start next month, the decline in the number relieved may be larger than it is 
now anticipated. In that case, it may not prove necessary to expend the whole 
of the additional grant now asked for. No one would welcome such a con- 
tingency more than Mr. Fraser ; but at present it would be unsafe to pitch the 
estimate of additional expenditure at a lower figure than the 85 lakhs as 
calculated above. I am accordingly to ask that the Government of India may 
be pleased to allot an additional grant of 85 lakhs. 



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CENTRAL PROVINCES. 



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No. 29. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of India, 
Department of Revenue and. Agriculture, to the Honourable the Chief 
Commissioner, Central Provinces, No. 1637,-F., dated Simla, the 27th July, 
1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of Mr. Craddock's letter No. 
1865.-F., dated 16th July, 1900, submitting a revised estimate of expenditure on 
famine relief in the Central Provinces during the current financial year. The 
provision made in the budget sanctioned by the Government of India was 
180 lakhs. Your revised estimate of expenditure amounts to 265 lakhs, and 
you apply for an additional allotment of 85 lakhs to cover the difference between 
the sanctioned and revised estimates. 

2. The Governor General in Council is pleased to sanction an additional 
allotment of 85 lakhs, but hopes that the possibility of the whole amount not 
being needed, which is mentioned in the last paragraph of your Secretary's letter, 
may, if circumstances continue favourable, be realised. 



MORTALITY IN NIMAR DISTRICT. 

No. 30. 

Letter from Colonel A. Scott-Reid, I.M.S., Administrative Medical Officer, 
Central Provinces, to the Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, 
Central Provinces, No. 4445-84 dated Nagpur, the 9th August, 1900. 

With reference to your letter No. F-1882, dated the 18th July, 1900, 
inviting my attention to the review by the Civil Surgeon of the vital statistics 
of the Nimar District for the month of June, 1900, and requesting me to make 
an enquiry into the causes of the excessive mortality, reporting the result for 
the information of the Chief Commissioner, I have the honour to submit the 
following. 

From investigations made during my recent short stay at Khandwa, the 
chief reasons for the apparent high ratios which have been quoted appear to me 
to be : — 

1. — Increase in the resident population from immigration. 
II. — The influx of large number of foreigners. 

III. — General unhealthy character of the season. 

IV. — The prevalence in the district, for the first time, of famine in a 

severe form. 

I shall now deal briefly with these points. 

2. As regards I., the exact result cannot of course be ascertained without 
a general census of the district, but 1 think that the following facts and 
inferences indicate, if they do not prove, that the resident population has 
increased considerably in recent years, and that the ratio of mortality is not as 
great as it seems. 

(1) Birth-rate. 

Subjoined is a tabular statement showing the birth and death rates in the 
Nimar District according to the deduced populations (that is the figures arrived 
at by adding the births to, and subtracting the deaths from, the census number 



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CEfliFRAL PB0YIN0KS. 



started with) from 1891 to 1899, and, for the ..first six months of the current 
year : — ,v- / 1 



year. ' 


Deduced 
Population. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Total' 
Births. 


J Birth-rate 
| per 
M 8ns6m. 


| Birth-rate 
I per 
Annum. 


Total 
Deaths. 


Death- 
rate per 
Mensem. 


Death- 
rate per 


1891... -' ... - ... 


9RR A19* 


11,402 


3-31 


39-78 


9,428 


2-74 


«. 32-89 


1892 


*•• ■■• 


98fi 191 
£oO,421 


10,403 


3-02 


36-32 


9,013 


2-62 


31-47" 


1893 


••■ ■■■ ... 


9Q1 Uf\ 


11,453 


3-27 


39-31 


7,909 


2-26 


27-15 


1894 






9,079 


2-60 


31-22 


11,361 


3-25 


39-06 , 


1895 





9Qft 1 9ft 


10,395 


2-98 


35-83 


12,746 


3-66 


43-93 


1896 


*a ■ • • ' ■ • * 


985 a«o 


11,015 


321 


38-53 


12,324 


3-59 


43-11 


1897 




285,801 


12,731 


3-71 


44-54 


17,030 


4-96 


59-5d : 


1898 




98fl 713 
30U,<40 


12,374 


367 


4407 


9,777 


2-90 


34-82 


1899 




985 Q3Q 


ic sen 


J.-Q1 


58-Qfi 

- i)0 JO 


1 O AJ.0 


O 40 


41 4U 




'January 


287,766 


1,110 


3-86 


46-29 


1,726 


6-00 


72-00 




February ... 


287,387 


1,056 


367 


4409 


1,435 


- 4-99 


59-92 




March 


286,693 


1,405 


4-90 


5880 


2,099 


7-32 


87-85 


1900- 
















April 


285,903 


1,306 


4-57 


54-82 


2,096 


7-33 


87-97 




'May 


284,711 


1,185 


416 


4994 


2.377 


8-35 


10019 




. June 


281,730 


1,042 


369 


44-38 


4,023 


14-28 


171-35 



* This figure has been arrived at by adding the births up to the end of June to, and subtracting the 
deaths during that period from, the oansua population, ( 

Gceleris paribus, the number of births ought to bear a fairly constant 
relation to the population, and conversely ; yet we find that,, at the end pf 1899, „ 
the former had increased by nearly a half, while the latter is shown as having. ' 
actually decreased. In the absence of any special circumstances influencing . 
the procreativeness of the Nimaris, I can only conclude that their number has ' 
been largely added to by immigration, and, that at the end of the 1 period 
quoted, it really stood at something like 423,632 instead of 285,939. Assuming 
the former figure to be the more correct, and using it in the calculation of the 
death-rate for June, it would reduce the ratio from J.71'35 ,to 113*95 per 
mille per annum, or, excluding deaths from epidemic disease, to 79-96. The 
latter is still a high figure, but it must be remembered that the influx of 
foreigners, which I consider a more potent factor, has been left out in the 
calculation. 

The following table shows the birth-rates of the different Provinces of 
India for 1899 :— 



Province. 


Birth-rate. 


Province. 


Birth-rate. 


Punjab 


48-40 


Central ProYinces (including 


47-25 




Chhattisgarh Zamindarie). 


31-30 


Bengal 


42-96 


Madras 


N.-W.P. and Oudh ... 


33-19 


Bombay 


36-42 


Aes&a;...., ... 


35-45 


Hyderabad Assigned Districts 


5Q-50 



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CENTRA*, PROVINCES. 



187 



The rate, for the Nimar District was 58*96. " 

•It is true that sinee then the- figure has fallen- to 44*38 in June, 1900, the 
■ time at which, the effects of the famine, and in .no other direction are they 
usually more apparent, would, in the course of nature, commence to be felt. 
Still 44*38 is a high ratio for even a prosperous year, — in such a season as this 
phenomenally so.-— and I cannot believe that it has been .calculated on anything 
like a correct basis. 

(2) Death-bate. 

A similar deduction may be drawn from the death-rates. That in Nimar 
for 1 898, an exceptionally healthy season, was 34*82 (calculated on the deduced 
population), that is to say, 9*38 above the provincial rate '(excluding 
Zamindaris), 25*44, for the same year, although, on other grounds, the district 
is known to be one of the healthiest in the Central Provinces. However, it 
seems unnecessary to pursue this argument further. 

(3) Colonisation. 

Since last census, a number of new villages have been opened up in the 
Nimar District, which must have undoubtedly encouraged immigration, but I 
do not possess sufficient knowledge on this subject to do more than allude to it. 
I was informed by the Deputy Commissioner that the village of Bhorekheda, 
near Singaji Station, was reckoned as having a population of 100, while, early in 
October last, there were over that number of residents on relief in it. 

3. As regards II., the district has a border line with Holkar's State, 
extending to some 150 miles, and also marches with Khandesh and Berar. 
From these tracts hordes of outsiders appear to have swarmed into Nimar, 
doubtless attracted by the liberal measures of relief offered, especially that in 
the form of free kitchens, and, from their wretched condition, causing a 
mortality, although not a birth-rate, out of all proportion to their actual 
numbers. What the latter are, it is at present impossible to form even an 
approximate estimate, nor, if all goes well, will the fact appear in the coming 
census. As diffused among the general population, it is difficult to 
discriminate foreigners from permanent residents, the former concealing their 
domicile from fear of deportation, and it is only by cross-questioning and 
catching them out in their statements that the truth is occasionally ascertained. 
In eommt wfciies undef- immcd iate- o ontJol and the -task, however, 

becomes easier, and the following instances may serve to demonstrate the 
proposition : — 

(a.) When I inspected the District Jail on the 28th July, out of 226 
prisoners 107 were foreigners. 

(6.) On the same date in the Khandwa poor-house only 10 of 68 inmates 
were Nimaris. 

(e.) In the relief kitchen half of the 1,800 recipients were believed to be 
foreigners. 

(</.) In the Burhanpur poor-house on the preceding day 268 out of 314 
were outsiders, and in June, 13 of the 16 deaths were in the same 
category. 

(«.) In the Harsud poor-house 21 out of 47 were foreigners. 

Famine Relief Works. 

' (/.) Renka — 948 out of 2,634 known to be foreigners. 
(g.) Jaiswari — No returns. 

(A.) Manjrod — 74 per cent, reported to be foreigners. (Deaths during 
June 32, out of 44, foreigners.) 

(i.) Kalimachak, 28th July, 1900— 184 out of 331 found to be foreigners 
on closing the camp. 



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KlTCHEN8 REPORTED ON BY HOSPITAL ASSISTANTS. 

(_;'.) Mundi Circle, said to have no foreigners, and yet when the Deputy 
Commissioner recently checked the deaths in two villages of this 
Circle, he elicited the following results : — 

Village Mundi. — Nominal population 2,121, June, 1900 



Domicile. 


Cholera. 


Other 
Diseases. 


Total. 


Mnndi Khas 


8 


7 


15 


Apparently Nimaris 


14 


24 


:t8 


Apparently outsiders (non-Nimaris) 


26 


23 


49 


Total .-. 


48 


54 


102 


i.e., 49 foreigners out ol a total of 102. The Police had returned 
7 out of 103 (1 more than the Deputy Commissioner's verified 
number). 


Village Si w aria. 






Domicile. 


Cholera. 


Other 
Diseases. 


Total. 


Siwaria Khas 


4 


5 


9 


Outsiders (non-Nimaris) 




11 


11 


Total 


4 


16 


20 



i.e., 1 1 foreigners out of 20, the Police having returned none out of 
19 deaths (1 less than the Deputy Commissioner's number). 

The same villages for 18 days of July, as verified by the Deputy 
Commissioner show — 

Mundi. 



Domicile. 


Cholera. 


Other 
Diseases. 


Total. 


Mundi Khas 




3 


:\ 


Apparently Nimaris 




17 


17 


Apparently outsiders (non-Nimaris) 


1 


16 


17 


Total 


1 


36 


37 



i.e., 17 foreigners out of 37 deaths. 



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SlWABIA. 



Domicile. 


Oholer*. 


Other 
Diseuea. 


Total, 


Siwaria Khas 

Outsiders (non-Nimaris) 

Total 


1 
4 


3 
1 


4 

5 


5 


4 


9 



i.e.. 5 foreigners out of 9 deaths. 

The police returns for the same period showed no foreign deaths in 
the whole of the Mundi Circle out of their total of 1 56, and yet 
the Deputy Commissioner ascertained, by personal verification, 
that in two villages alone, 22 deaths out of 46 were in this 
category. Can there be any doubt that if the same test were 
applied to a larger area, similar results would be obtained ? To 
my mind there is none. 

(k.) Pandhana — 101 admitted foreigners out of 2,035. 

(I.) Further, Mr. Pasley, Extra-Assistant Commissioner, reports that 
20 per cent, of persons fed at kitchens in his circle (Khandwa) 
are foreigners, and that in checking returns in villages, he finds 
that out of every three or four deaths, two are non-Nimaris ; and 
yet for the past two months the Police have shown only 7 per cent, 
of the total mortality as foreign. I am convinced that .the truth is- 
nearer 30. 

(to.) Harsud, which is known to be the most distressed tahsil in the 
district, but in which there are few foreigners, gives only the 
average mortality of Nimar. 

(n.) Some indication, too, of the presence of foreigners is seen in the 
comparatively low percentage of mortality of children under five 
years of age. Although the district is severely distressed, the 
percentage of deaths of children within this age-limit has mostly 
been under the average of the eight previous years, e.g., only 
30'47 in June and 42*lo in May, against a previous eight years'' 
average of 48*14. This must, I think, be ascribed to the com- 
parative preponderance among wanderers of adults and older 
children. Otherwise, the reverse result should have been obtained, 
for experience elsewhere has shown that famine tells most severely 
on young children. 

(o.) Finally, under this heading, I would point out that there are at 
present in the Nimar District some 86,000 persons on relief, which, 
on the deduced population, gives a percentage of over 30. As the 
census percentage of field and general labourers, the class that 
would be principally affected, is only 18*7, it is difficult to account 
for such an enormous proportion, unless on the supposition of a 
great increment to the population from immigration and the influx 
of foreigners, in my opinion especially the latter. 

4. Passing to point III. — the general unhealthy character of the season 
a* contributing to the high mortality. This appears to me to require little or 
no demonstration, and the subject has been alluded to in several of the printed 
famine monthly reports. Last year's rainfall in the Nimar District was both 
absolutely and relatively the shortest in the Province, and, as one of the 

10666 t 



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results, the scarcity of water alone was sufficient to lay the foundation of an 
abnormal amount of sickness. The influence of this cause has lately been 
shown in a striking manner by the immunity from cholera which the workers 
at the relief camps, where a tight hold was kept over the water-supply, 
enjoyed compared with the residents of the surrounding villages. But it is 
not with regard to this disease only that the importance of a pure supply is 
recognised. Where the people are compelled, as many were, to drink from any 
available source, however foul, the prevalence of other affections, and especially 
bowel-complaints, is inevitable. 

5. Point IV. — the prevalence of famine in the district. This has of 
course been the fons et ongo mali, for without famine, or the conditions which 
produced it, the causes which I have alluded to under II. would certainly, and 
those under III. probably, not have -arisen. .Relief measures, have been 
instituted on a most generous scale, and I believe that, at this moment, a 
hungry man need hardly go two miles for a good meal. Although no doubt 
thousands of lives have thus been saved, the result, as affecting the death-rate, 
has, if my deductions are correct, to some extent been counterbalanced by the 
crowds of foreign starving wanderers whom they have attracted. The Deputy 
Commissioner writes that " no general deterioration in the physical condition 
of the people has been noticed," and this statement accords with my own 
observation of several thousands whom I saw attending a fair during my visit 
to Khandwa. 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



MONTHLY REPORTS. 

No. 31. 

Summary for the Jive weeks ending Slst March 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — The several private charitable institutions mentioned 
in the previous months' reports continued their operations. One cheap grain 
shop was opened at Poona during the month under report. In several districts, 
relief was given to deserving persons out of private charity funds raised locally ; 
7,462 persons were thus relieved in the Surat District, 200 in the Poona 
District and 698 in the Thar and Parkar District. The districts of Panch Mahal&j 
Ahmednagar and Sholapur received during the month under report grants of 
Rs. 500, Ks. 12,000 and Rs. 10,000, respectively, from the Bombay Presidency 
Famine Relief Fund, which were mainly devoted to providing clothes for such 
of the relief workers, inmates - - of- poor- htrases- -and-iitchens and recipients of 
village doles as were in need of them, to relieving respectable destitute persons, 
and to supplementing hospital comforts at relief camp hospitals. Similar relief 
wa« also given in the Ahmedabad and Kaira Districts out of the grants received 
from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief Fund. 

(b) Village and poor-home relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 371 villages in Ahmedabad, 530 in Kaira, 115 in the 
Panch Mahals, 412 in Broach. 343 in Surat, 10 in Thana, 1,848 in Khandesh, 
670'in Nasik, 1,274 in Ahmednagar, 1,619 in Poona, 704 in Sholapur and 4 in, 
Thar and Parkar. Two poor-houses were opened during the month ,unde» 
report in the Poona District, and one was started at Surat by the Municipality 
of that town. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during the 
month under report 209 relief works under the Public Works Agency, besides 
three Local Fund and Municipal works and seven test works. The works 
were of the same character as reported in the preceding month. Useful works, 
consisting of tank excavation, road construction or earth-work for railways, 
are being substituted wherever possible for metal-breaking works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — The condition of people on relief 
works and of the children in kitchens was generally good, but there were out- 
breaks of cholera in several camps in Nasik and Khandesh. The condition of 
the people in the villages was on the whole fairly good. Deterioration is how- 
ever reported among the aboriginal tribes in Northern Gujarat and Khandesh, 
whom it is very difficult to induce to resort to relief works in spite of specially 
lenient treatment. Special measures on the lines indicated by the Famine 
Commission have been taken for the relief of these classes. Since the close of 
the month under report severe outbreaks of cholera have been reported from the 
districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira and the Panch Mahals. ' " 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — Attention is requested to the 
accompanying special death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner 
for the Government of Bombay. Further inquiry is being made regarding the 
high mortality in the Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach, Panch Mahals, Surat, 
Khandesh and Ahmednagar Districts and about the deaths attributed tc 
starvation in those districts and in Thana and Nasik, and the result will be 
separately reported. 

10566 12 



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(f) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues on a large scale. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. -The numbers on 
relief largely increased during the month under report. The daily average in 
the last week of the month was l,30- s ,843, as compared with 1,167,177 in 
the corresponding week of the p-eceding month. The arrangements for relief 
have been made as efficient as possible, but the gravity of the situation is greatly 
enhanced by the increasing scarcity of water and spread of cholera. The 
mortality among cattle is estimated to be from 50 to 60 per cent, in Kaira, and 
only about 20 or 30 per cent, are expected to survive the hot season. In 
Northern Gujarat and Khandesh as a whole the proportion of survivals may be 
below this estimate. Measures have been taken to assist the cultivators as far 
as possible by means of takavi advances or from Charitable Funds to purchase 
cattle required for tillage, and to keep them informed of the places where plough 
bullocks are available for purchase. Experiments have been recently made by 
the Deputy Director of Agriculture in this Presidency to adapt bullock power 
tillage implements for use by manual labour, and the instructions drawn up by 
him on the subject have been widely circulated among landholders. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. 



No. 32. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 28th April, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from private charity funds raised locally was 
continued in several districts during the month under report. The following 
allotments to the districts named were made from the Bombay Presidency 
Famine Relief Fund : — 



District. 


Rupees. 


Panch Mahals 


1,000 


Broach 


5,000 


Khandesh 


90,980 


Nasik 


35,000 


Ahmednagar 


37,000 


Sholapur 


76,000 


Satara ... 


10,500 



The Ahmedabad and Kaira Districts also received grants from the Fund. 
Arrangements have been made to provide out of these grants seed, bullocks, 
and cheap fodder for the poorer agriculturists. In the Kaira District a large 
quantity of Government gTass was sold to cultivators at the rate of Rs. 2 per 
1,000 lbs., the difference between this amount and the price of Rs. 10 charged 
by Government being made up from the Famine Relief Fund. Mr. Ratansi 
Mulji and certain otter gentlemen of Bombay supplied food for a poor-house at 
Pokhran, near Thana, which was specially opened for such of the famine-stricken 



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immigrants from Gujarat and Kathiawar into Bombay as were incapable of 
work, the able-bodied being employed on two works opened in the vicinity. 
One poor-house under private agency was also opened in Broach. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 311 villages in Ahmedabad, 547 in Kaira, 180 in the 
Panch Mahals, 413 in Broach, 549 in Surat, 26 in Thana, 1,445 in Khandesh, 
416 in Nasik, 1,233 in Ahmednagar, 1,982 in Poona, 702 in Sholapur, 143 in 
Satara, 670 in Bijapur, and 3 in Thar and Parkar. More poor-houses were 
opened in the districts of Kaira, Broach, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Khandesh, and 
Sholapur. 

(c) General chara»:ter of relief works. — Besides works of the character 
described in previous reports, ballast collection for railways is being undertaken 
wherever possible. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — There were outbreaks of cholera in 
all districts of Gujarat and the Deccan except Poona, both in relief camps and 
poor-houses and in villages. The physical condition of the people was generally 
good. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — Attention is requested to the 
accompanying special death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner 
for the Government of Bombay. Further inquiry is being made regarding the 
high mortality in the Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach, ranch Mahals, Surat, 
Ahmednagar, Khandesh, Nasik, and Sholapur Districts, and about the deaths 
attributed to starvation in the Ahmedabad, Panch Mahals, Surat, Thana, and 
Nasik Districts, and the result will be separately reported. It will be observed 
that the death-rate was higher than in March in all the Gujarat districts except 
Broach. The decrease in that district was probably due to the departure of 
immigrants owing to the temporary reduction of wages. 

(f) Food stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues on a large scale. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The daily average 
numbers on relief rose from 1,308,843 in the last week of March to 1,352,163 
in the corresponding week of April. The situation became considerably -more 
serious during the month under report owing to violent outbreaks of cholera, 
especially in Gujarat, Khandesh, and Nasik. The supervising staff of the 
affected districts, both medical and other, has been largely increased to assist in 
checking the spread of the disease, and to deal with those people who have fled 
from the works on account of it. Village and poor-house relief is being at the 
same time largely extended. Steps have been taken to prepare suitable 
programmes of works for the rains, so as to admit of the concentration of 
famine labour on large relief works, and also of the provision of work as far as 
practicable nearer the homes of the agricultural population to afford them 
facilities to resume tilling operations. 

(i) Rates of Wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. 



No. 33. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 26th. May^ 1900. 

(a.) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund and from other private funds was continued in the several districts during 



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the' month imder report. The following additional allotments from Idle Bombay 
Presidency Relief Fund are reported from the districts named : — ■ 1 ■ 



District. 



Punch Mahals ■ 
Nasik ... 
Sholapur 
Satara ... 



Bapeea. 



17,500 
20,000 
50,000 
12,000 



Additional allotments were also made in the Broach, Khandesh and 
Ahmednagar Districts, which brought the total amounts received from the 
Fund in those districts to Rs. 81,000, Ks. 2,37,000 and Rs. 2,02,000, 
respectively. In the Ahmedabad District during the month of April last 
Rs. 7,030 were spent from charitable funds in assisting 11,762 persons by gifts 
of clothing or blankets or in other ways. In the Nasik District the expenditure 
from such funds during the month under report amounted to Rs. 5,374, of 
which Rs. 3,641 were for purchasing seed and bullocks for the poorer 
agriculturists. Relief was also given by Missionary institutions in the Kaira 
and Nasik Districts. 

(b.) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 529 villages in Ahmedabad, 553 in Kaira, 197 in ranch 
Mahals, 416 in Broach, 581 in Surat, 75 in Thana, 1,075 in Khandesh, 497 in 
Nasik, 1,357 in Ahmednagar, 1,066 in Poona, 718 in Sholapur, 315 in Satara, 
1,015 in Bijapur and 4 in Thar and Parkar. Nine additional poor-houses were 
opened in the Khandesh district, and one in each of the districts of Surat. 
Poona, Nasik and Bijapur. There was a large increase in the number of 
recipients of village and poor-hou?e relief, the daily average number in the last 
week of May being 154,576 as compared with 111,705 in the corresponding 
week of April. 

(c.) General character of relief works. — The general character of the relief 
works in progress during the month under report was the same as that described 
in previous reports ; 188 relief works under the Public Works Agency were in 
progress during the month, and 28 under Civil Agency or local bodies. 

(d.) Physical condition of the people. — Cholera in an epidemic form 
prevailed during the month throughout Gujarat and in several of the Decoan 
Districts, and accounted for a considerable part of the enormous mortality in 
several districts. Owing to the outbreak of this disease large numbers of 
people fled from the works and poor-houses in a panic. Probably many deatht 
amongst them which were really due to cholera have not been attributed to that 
cause. The Medical Staff and supervising establishments were largely increased, 
and search parties were organized to pick up the incapable and send them to 
poor-houses or put them on dole. By the end of the month the epidemic had 
been brought under control and the mortality from it had greatly diminished. 
The inquiry by the Sanitary Department regarding the causes of the high 
mortality has not yet been completed. 

(e.) Deaths (if any) -from ~8tarva4ion. — Th ee o -are shown in the accom- 
panying special death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for 
the Government of Bombay. Further inquiry is being made about the deaths 
attributed to starvation in the Panoh Mahate and Surat Districts. The deaths 
in the Ahmedabad City attributed to starvation are almost invariably those of 
wanderers, and the antecedent circumstances are not known. 

(f.) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of i/ram.- 1 — Importation of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues on a large scale. 



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(h) General, condition and prospects, of affected arai.-r-Owing to the 
cholera scare the numbers on relief works decreased from a daily average 
1,240,458 in the last week of April to 1,035,910 in the last week of May. Oa 
that account gratuitous relief was gradually expanded. Since the close of the. 
month confidence has been restored, and people have begun to return to the 
works in large numbers. Otherwise the general situation has not up to date 
much improved. Some rain has fallen in the affected districts of the Deccan 
and Karnatak, which has had the effect of drawing away some people from, the 
relief works for resumption of agricultural operations. The almost total absence 
of rain in Gujarat, however, is causing grave anxiety, and the numbers on relief 
in that Province are largely increasing. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. 



No. 34. 

Summary for the jive weeks ending 30$ June, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund and from other private funds was continued in the several districts during 
the month under report. The following additional allotments from the Bombay 
Presidency Famine Relief Fund are reported from the districts named : — 





District. 


Rupees. 






Panch Mahals 


1,15,300 






Surat ... ... ... ... ... ... 


10,000 






Khandeah 


2,26,147 






^JcLSxIc • ■ t ••• ••• ••• ••• 


1,15,000 






Sholapur , 


45,000 






Sclt*t r& a * s « as • ■ • ••■ • * • 


60,000 





Additional allotments were also made in the Broach and Ahmednagar 
districts, which brought the total amounts received from the fund in those 
districts to Rs. 1,46,250 and Rs. 3,70,000, respectively. In the Nasik district 
the expenditure from charitable funds during the month under report amounted 
U> Rs. 32,213, of which Rs. 26,268 were for purchasing seed and bullocks for 
the poorer agriculturists. " In the Ahraedabad district during the month of May 
last Rs. 2,650 were spent from charitable funds in assisting 3,463 persons by 

S'fts of clothing and blankets, or in other ways. Relief was also given by 
issionary institutions in the Eaira, Panch Mahals, and Ahmednagar districts. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 683 villages in Ahmedabad, 564 in Kaira, 566 in ranch 
Mahals, 414 in Broach, 618 in Surat, 1,444 in Khandesh, 511 in Nasik, 
1,359 in Ahmednagar, 1,109 in Poona, 707 in Sholapur, 554 in Satara, 1,186 
in Bijapur and 14 in Thar and Parkar. Two additional poor-houses were 
opened in the Nasik district, and one in each of the districts of Thana, Poona, 
Satara, and Bijapur. There was a considerable increase in the number of 
recipients of village and poor-house relief, the daily average number in the last 
week of June being 270,102 as compared with 154,576 in the corresponding 
week of May. Several village kitchens have been opened in Broach, Nasik, 
and Ahmednagar. 



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(c) General character of relief works. — The general character of the 
relief works in progress during the month under report was the same as that 
described in previous reports. There were in progress during the month 208 
relief works under the public works agency and 66 under civil agency or 
local bodies. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — During the month under report 
cholera prevailed with more or less virulence in the affected districts and 
contributed largely to the high mortality. The continued absence of rain is 
pressing very hardly on the people of Northern Gujarat, and the numbers on 
relief works and gratuitous relief are fast increasing. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying special death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for 
the Government of Bombay. Further inquiry has been made about the deaths 
attributed to starvation in the Khandesh and Nasik districts. 

(f) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues on a large scale. 

(h) ( General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers in 
receipt of relief of all kinds largely increased during the month, the daily average 
number during the last week of June being 1,416,036, as compared with 
1,190,486 in the corresponding week of May. The rainfall up to date has been 
generally sufficient for agricultural purposes throughout the Deccan and 
Rarnatak and in Khandesh and Surat, and the present prospects in these tracts 
are fair or good. In the affected districts of Northern Gujarat the situation has 
become intensely grave, as the rainfall which only began in the second week of 
July in a few places did not continue or extend to other parts. Ploughing and 
Bowing operations are at a stand-still, and if rain holds off for another fortnight 
there will be no kharif crop. Even fairly well to-do cultivators are reported to 
be at the end of their resources, and the cattle which were saved with difficulty, 
and newly imported bullocks, are perishing. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. 



No. 35. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 28/A July, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund, and from other private funds, was continued in the several districts during 
the month under report. The following additional allotments from the Bombay 
Presidency Famine Relief Fund are reported from the districts named : — 



District. 



Panch Mahals ... 

Broach 

Surat 

Khandesh 

Nasik 

Ahmednagar ... 
Bholapnr 
Satara . . 



Rupees. 



18,000 
30,000 
15,000 
59,008 
78,100 
45,000 
32,000 
2,500 



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In the Nasik District the expenditure from charitable funds during the 
month under report amounted to lis. 76,433, of which Rs. 74,829 were for the 
purchase of seed and bullocks for the poorer agriculturists. Relief was also 

S'ven by Missionary Institutions in the Panch Mahals and Ahmednagar 
istricts. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief.- Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 776 villages in Ahmedabad, 569 in Kaira, 597 in the 
Panch Mahals, 415 in Broach, 643 in Surat, 118 in Thana, 1,404 in Khandesh, 
749 in Nasik, 1,362 in Ahmednagar, 1,125 in Poona, 713 in Sholapur, 743 in 
Satara, 76 in Belgaum, 777 in Bijapur, and 16 in Thar and Parkar. One 
additional poor-house was opened during the month under report in the Thana 
District, two in each of the districts of Nasik and Satara, and three in Bijapur. 
Considerable increase occurred in the number of recipients of village and poor- 
house relief, the daily average number in the last week of July being 469,078, 
against 270,102 in the corresponding week of June. Several village kitchens 
w*»re opened in the Kaira District during the month. 

(c) General character of relief works. — The general character of the relief 
works in progress during the month under report was the same as that described 
in previous reports, except that several of the tank works had to be closed owing 
to the rise of water in the tank beds caused by more or less heavy rain. There 
were during the month in all 288 relief works in progress, of which 196 were 
under the Public Works Agency, and 92 under Civil Agency or local bodies. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — During the month under report 
cholera was prevalent in all the affected districts, and in most of them the total 
death-rate was higher than in the previous month. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying special death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for 
the Government of Bombay, 

(f) Food-stocks. — Generally sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues on a large scale. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — There was con- 
siderable increase in the numbers in receipt of relief of all kinds during the month 
under report, the daily average number during the last week of July being 
1,611,420, as compared with 1,416,036 in the corresponding week of June. The 
increase was especially large in the districts of Northern Gujarat, where rain 
continued to hold off till the last week of the month. Since then there has 
been ample rain, and the general situation has materially improved. Agricul- 
tural operations, which were at a standstill, have now been far advanced in those 
districts, and the prospects of the kharif crop will be assured if there is another- 
good fall of rain in a week or two. The kharif crops in the rest of the affected 
area are in excellent condition except in some tracts of Bijapur, where more 
rain is urgently needed. The difficulty as to the supply of water, both for man 
and beast, has ceased altogether throughout the affected area.' Green grass is 
now available almost everywhere, and the condition of cattle is improving. 
Large amounts, both from takavi allotments and from charitable funds, have 
been advanced to cultivators for plough-cattle and seed, and for subsistence 
while engaged in cultivation, and every other practicable measure is being taken 
to enable them to resume their usual occupations. 

(i) Hates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. 



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No. 36. 

Summary for the four iceeks ending 2oth August, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund and from other private funds was continued in the several districts during 
the month under report. The following additional allotments from the Bombay 
Presidency Famine Relief Fund are reported from the districts named : — 



District. 



Panch Mahals ... 

Broach 

Sorat 

Khandesh 

Nasik 

Ahinednagar ... 
Sholapur 

Safcira 

Belgaum 



Rapeee. 

36,500 
40,000 
15,000 
12,000 
9,000 
12,000 
29,000 
9,000 
3,300 



In the Nasak District the expenditure from charitable funds during the 
month under report amounted to Rs. 83,321, of which Rs. 65,068 were for the 
purchase of seed and bullocks for the poorer cultivators. Rs. 62,021 out 
of the same funds were similarly disbursed in the Poona District. In the 
Ahmedabad District during the month of June last Rs. 40,802 were spent from 
the charitable funds in assisting 6,367 persons by gifts of clothing or in other 
ways. An amount of Rs. 5,000 was received from the Americo- Indian Relief 
Fund in aid of the scheme of relief to distressed weavers in Sholdpur. Relief 
was also given by Missionary Institutions in the Ahmedabad, Kaira, Panch 
Mahals, Ahmednagar, and Poona Districts. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 761 villages in Ahmedabad, 570 in Kaira, 598 in the 
Panch Mahals, 315 in Broach, 642 in Surat, 114 in Thana, 1,641 in Khandesh, 
1,032 in Nasik, 1,362 in Ahmednagar, 1,095 in Poona, 714 in Sholapur, 956 in 
Satara, 774 in Bijapur, 80 in Belgaum, and 15 in Thar and Parkar. Two 
poor-houses were closed in the Ahmedabad District during the month under 
report ; one additional poor-house was opened in Kaira, two in Khandesh, and 
fifteen in Bijapur. There was a further increase in the number of recipients of 
village and poor-house relief, the daily average number in the last week of 
August being 553,338 against 469,078 in the corresponding week of July. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There is no material change in 
the general character of relief works in progress. In the Broach District several 
minor road works have been substituted for tanks and other large works, which 
it is not found possible to carry on in that district during the rainy season. 
Twenty-two small works under Civil Agency for the employment of cultivators 
near their homes were started in the several affected districts during the month 
under report. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — Cholera accounted for fewer deaths 
in the month under report, . $}&q.. during, the previous month, but the general 
death-rate continued high in all districts, and in the Panch Mahals, Khandesh, 
and Poona, it was higher than in July. 



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(e) Deaths {if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by, the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) Food-stocks. — Generally sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains continues on a 
fairly large scale in the affected districts. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The general 
condition of the affected area materially improved during the month under 
report. The rainfall in Northern Gujarat, although late in the season, was in 
excess of the average, and generally well distributed, thus enabling kharif 
sowings to be pushed on • vigorously. The standing crops are flourishing 
throughout the affected area, except in the eastern tracts of the Deccan and 
Karnatak, where the prolonged break in the rains since the middle of August 
proved injurious to the crops, especially in light soils. Good rain has, however, 
been recently reported from several talukas where it was most wanted, and the 
prospects are a great deal better than they were at the end of the month under 
report. The numbers on relief ot all kinds fell from a daily average of 1,611,420 
in the last week of July to 1,282,192 in the corresponding week of August. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations in the prices of 
the staple food -grains or the rates of wages. The average rates of jowari and 
bajri for the affected districts during the month of August were 18 lbs. and 
15*6 lbs. to the rupee against 17*2 lbs. and 14*8 lbs. respectively in the month 
of July, which shows that the prices show a tendency to fall. 



No. 37. 

Summary for the five weeks ending 29$ September, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund and from other private funds was continued in the several districts during 
the month under report. The following additional allotments from the Bombay 
Presidency Famine Relief Fund are reported from the districts named : — 



District. 



Panch Mahals 
Broach ... 
Surat ... 
Khandesh 
Nasik ... 
Ahmednagar 



Belgaum 



Rupees. 



10,000 
10,000 

3,000 
71,000 

9,000 
17,000 
15,000 

1,000 



In the Nasik District the expenditure from charitable funds during the 
month under report amounted to Rs. 13,632, of which Rs. 7,912 were for the 
purchase of seed and bullocks for the poorer cultivators. Rs. 33,350 out of 
the same funds were disbursed in the Poona District. Relief was also given by 
Missionary Institutions in -the- Pa««h-Mah41sy - Ahna « dn agar and Poona Districts. 

10666 U S 



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(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
mouth under report in 670 villages in Ahmedabad, 567 in Kaira, 566 in the 
Panch Mahals, 415 in Broach, 540 in Surat, 147 in Thana, 2,0 1 5 in Khandesh, 
812 in Nasik, 1,361 in Ahmednagar, 1,155 in Pooua, 7 1 7 in Sholapur, 1,033 in 
Satara, 862 in Bijapur and 81 in JJelgaum. Three additional poor-houses were 
opened during the month under report in the Ahmedabad District, and one in 
each of the districts of Kaira, Khandesh and Bijapur. There was a decrease in 
the number of recipients of village and poor-house relief, the daily average 
number in the last week of September being 461,359 agAinst 553,338 in the 
corresponding week of August. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There is no material change in 
the general character of relief works in progress. Seventy-one small works 
under Civil Agency for the employment of cultivators near their homes were 
started in the several affected districts during the month under report. Four 
new large works were also opened, while forty-five such works were closed 
during the same period. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — Cholera was prevalent in all the 
affected districts during the month under report, though to a less extent than in 
the previous month. The general death-rate declined in all the districts, and in 
Sholapur, Satara and Bijapur it nearly approached the normal. As even in 
normal years fever is very prevalent in Gujarat in September and October, rural 
hospitals with travelling dispensaries attached to them were established during 
the month under report at convenient centres for the distribution of medicines 
as well as of milk and Mellin's food in the surrounding villages. 

(e) Deaths {if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 

-Government of Bombay. 

(f) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food -grains continues on a fairly 
large scale in the affected districts. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on 
relief ol all kinds fell from a daily average of l'.282,192 in the last week of 
August to 888,514 in the corresponding week of September. The rainfall in 

•Gujarat was generally sufficient for the xharif crops, which were doing well at 
the end of the month under report, but more rain was then required for maturing 
the crops, especially rice, bavto and kodra, and for rabi sowings, and very little 
has since fallen. In the Deccan and Karnatak generally the rainfall of the 
month was much below the average, and the standing kharif crops in inferior 
soils withered in consequence and rabi sowings were retarded. In the Karnatak, 
however, good or moderate rain has fallen in most talukas since the close of 
the month, reviving to some extent the withering crops and enabling some 
progress to be made with rabi sowings. The Deccan districts on the other 
.hand during the first three weeks of October have had little or no rain and good 
falls are urgently required, especially in Sholapur, the greater part of Ahmed - 
inagar, and in the eastern portions of Poona and .Satara. The present situation 
is becoming critical in the tracts of the Deccan mainly dependent on rabi crops ; 
.apprehensions have been expressed by the local officers that if sufficient rain 
does not fall at an early date there will be severe scarcity of water, especially in 
Sholapur and parts of Ahmednagar. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There were no material fluctuations- in the prices of 
the staple food-grains or the rates of wages. The tendency of prices to tall 
continues, but the decline is very slow. The average rates of jowari and bajri 
for the affected districts during the mouth ot September were 18*6 lbs. and 
16*7 lbs. to the rupee against 18 lbs. and 1 5*6 lbs., respectively, in the month 
of August. 



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No. 38. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 27 th October. 1900. 



(a) Frivate Belief. — The following additional allotments were received 
from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief Fund during the month under 
report in the districts named — 





District. 


Rupees. 






Panch Mahals 


40,000 






Broach 


50,000 






Khandesh 


12,228 






Ahmednagar 


12,000 






Sholapur ... 


14,000 






Satara ... ... .. ... .<■ ... 


14,000 





In the Ahmedabad District during the months of July, August and 
September last, Rs. 249,011 were spent from the charitable funds in assisting 
49,555 persons by gifts of clothing, grants of seed and cattle, or in other ways. 
In the Nasik District the expenditure from charitable funds during the month 
under report amounted to Ks. 14,566, of which Rs. 10,557 were devoted to 
providing the poorer cultivators with the means to cultivate their lands. Rs. 
16,600 out of the same funds were similarly disbursed in the Poona District. 
Missionary Institutions also afforded relief in the Ahmednagar, Poona and 
Sholapur Districts. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief.-- Village relief was largely contracted 
during the month under report in the Districts of Ahmedabad, Surat, Khandesh, 
Nasik, Poona, Satara and Bijapur, and to a less extent in Kaira, Panch Mahals 
and Thana. Two poor-houses were closed in each of the Districts of Ahmedabad, 
Thana and Poona, and one in each of the Districts of Kaira, Panch Mahals, Broach 
and Ahmednagar. The daily average number of persons relieved in poor-houses 
and in villages in the last week of October was 235,555 against 461,359 in the 
corresponding week of September. 

(c) General character of relief work*. — Fifty large works in charge of 
the Public Works Department were closed during the month under report, while 
11 small works under Civil Agency were opened in the several affected districts 
for the employment of cultivators near their homes. There were in progress 
during the last week of October 88 large works in charge of the Public Works 
Department, besides 41 small works under Civil Agency and one such work 
under Municipal Agency. Of the 88 large relief works, 2 were railway earth- 
works, 24 tank works, 6 works of excavation of canals, 30 works of construction 
of new or improvement of existing roads, and 26 metal collection works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — The physical condition of the people 
on relief works and in villages showed improvment in most districts. Cholera 
declined considerably and existed nowhere in an epidemic form, but fever largely 
prevailed in the Northern districts of Gujarat. Tne general death-rate fell in all 
the affected districts, except Ahmedabad and Broach. In Ahmednagar, Nasik, 
Poona, Belgaum and Bijapur it nearly approached the normal, while in Sholapur 
and Satara it was below the normal. 

(e) Deaths {if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accompanying 
death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the Government 
of Bombay. 

(f) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 



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(g) Importation of grain. — Importation, of food-grains into the affected 
districts continues as before. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — There was a 
considerable decrease in the numbers in receipt of relief of all kinds during the 
month under report, the daily average number during the last week of October 
being 407,883 as compared with 88K,514 in the corresponding Week' of 
September. There was no rain in Gujarat and the Northern Deccan during- the 
.month under report, while in the Southern Deccan light to fair showers fell in 
the lest week, which refreshed the withering crops to some extent. In the 
Karnatak the rainfall, though much below average, was sufficient in many 
places to revive the withering crops, and to allow of rabi sowings being 
continued. Since the close of the month moderate showers fell in parts of 
Sholapur, Satara, and Bijapur. The outturn of the early kharif crops, which 
are being harvested, is likely to l>e much below the average and previous 
expectations, while the late sown kharif and young rabi crops are already 
withering over a large part of the affected area. Sowings have been retarded 
for want of rain over more than half of the total rabi area in Gujarat and over 
one-third of the area in the Deccan and Karnatak. Unless the situation is 
relieved to some extent by unexpected rain, the prospects are not encouraging, 
and it is apprehended that relief operations will have to be continued on a more 
or less large scale in several of the affected districts. The numbers on relief 
have already begun to increase in some districts, and especially in Sholapur. 
'The apprehensions of water scarcity expressed by the District Officers in 

Sholapur and Ahmednagar are likely to be realised, but every endeavour is 
being made to husband the supply from existing sources, while old wells are 
being deepened and new wells constructed. 

(i) Hates of wages. — There was a material fall in the prices of the staple 
food-grains in Gujarat and the Deccan. while they rose slightly in Bijapur and 
Belgaum. The average rates for jowari and bajri for the affected districts fell 
from 18'6 lbs. and 16*7 lbs. per rupee in the month of September to 19*2 lbs., 
and 20 lbs. respectively. The prices of both these grains are however 
exceedingly high for the time of year. The wages on relief works were lowered 
in proportion to the fall in prices. 



No. 39. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 24th November, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fand was continued in the several districts during the monch under report. 
An additional allotment of Rs. 527 from the Fund was received in the Khandesh 
District. In the Nasik District the expenditure from charitable funds during 
the month amounted to Rs. 13,637, of which Rs. 8,325 were for the purchase 
of seed and bullocks for the poorer cultivators. Rs. 4,700 out of the same funds 
were disbursed in the Poona District. Relief was also given by Missionary 
Institutions in the Ahmednagar and Sholapur Districts. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 271 villages in Ahmedabad, 120 in Kaira, 569 in the ranch 
Mahals, 415 in Broach, 69 in Thana, 1,035 in Khandesh, 210 in Nasik, 1,168 in 
Ahmednagar, 408 in Poona, 719 in Sholapur, 357 in Satara, and 536 in Bijapur. 
Eleven poor-houses were closed in Khandesh, 5 in Nasik, 4 in Kaira, 3 in 
Satara, 2 in Broach and 1 in each of the Districts of Ahmedabad, Panch Mahals, 
Ahmednagar, Poona and Bijapur. There waB a decrease in the number of 
recipients of village and poor-house relief, the daily average number in the la*t 
week of November being 97,975 against 235,555 in the corresponding week of 
October. 



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(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during 
the last week of November 51 large works in charge of the Public Works 
Department, besides 18 small works under Civil Agency. Of the 51 large 
relief works, one was a railway earthwork, 19 tank works, 5 works of excavation 
of canals, 16 works of construction of new or improvement of existing roads, and 
10 metal collection works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — Cholera disappeared altogether 
from the affected districts except Bijapur, Belgaum, Poona and Sholapur, where 
a few sporadic cases occurred. The general death-rate declined in all the 
districts except Thana, where it was only a small fraction in excess of that of the 
preceding month. In Surat, Thana, Ahmednagar, Khandesh, and Belgaum it 
approached the normal, while in Nasik, Poona, Satara, Sholapur and Bijapur it 
was below the normal. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) Food stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains continues on a 
fairly large scale. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers 
on all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 407,883 in the last week of 
October to 240,466 in the corresponding week of November. There was no 
rain in Gujarat during the month under report, but light showers fell in parts 
of Sholapur and Satara in the Deccan and in a few places in the Karnatak. Late 
sown kharif crops have suffered greatly and the unirrigated rabi crops are 
withering almost everywhere in Gujarat and over the greater part of the Deccan 
and Karnatak, in several places of which deficiency of water is being already 
felt. It is now unfortunately certain that famine conditions will prevail to a 
greater or less extent in most of the affected districts for another season. Agri- 
cultural stock are for the present generally in good condition and the supply of 
fodder is sufficient. 

(i) Rates of wages. — There was a material fall in the prices of the staple 
food-grains in the affected districts except Sholapur, Satara and Bijapur, where 
the decline was not considerable. The average' rate9 for jowari and bajri for the 
affected districts during the month of November were 21 lbs. and 23*6 lbs. to 
the rupee against 19*2 lbs. and 20 lbs., respectively, in the month of October. 



No. 40. 

Summary for the five weeks ending 29th December, 1900. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund was continued in the several districts during the month under report. In 
the Nasik District the expenditure from charitable funds during the month 
amounted to Rs. 17,753, of which Rs. 12,411 were for the purchase of seed and 
bullocks for the poorer cultivators. Rs. 100 and Rs. 234 out of the same 
funds were spent in the Poona and Khandesh Districts respectively. Relief 
was also given by Missionary institutions in the Ahmednagar District. 

(b) Village and poor-house reliefi — Village relief was given during the 
month nnder report in 303 villages in Ahmedabad, 468 in the Panch Mahals, 
97 in Broach, 45 in Khandesh, 928 in Ahmednagar, 124 in Poona, 718 in 
Sholapur, 254 in Satara, and 657 in Bijapur. Three poor-houses were closed 
in Broach, two in each of the Districts of Ahmedabad and Bijapur, and one in 
the Panch Mahals. There was a large decrease in the number of recipients of 

B>or-house and village relief, the daily average number in the last week of 
ecember being 36,511, against 97,975 in the corresponding week of November. 
There were four village kitchens open in the Ahmednagar District. 



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(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during the 
last week of December 29 large works under the Public Works Department, 
besides 1 2 small works under Civil Agency. Of the large works, one was a 
railway earthwork, 12 tank works, four works of excavation of canals, four 
works of construction of new or improvement of existing roads, and eight metal 
collection works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — There was no cholera in the affected 
districts, except Poona and Bijapur, where a few sporadic cases occurred. The 
general death-rate declined in all the districts except Poona, where it was only 
a small fraction in excess of that of the preceding month and of the normal. In 
all other districts of the Deccan, and in Bijapur, it was below normal. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accompanying 
death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the Government 
of Bombay. 

(f) Food-stocks. — Sufficient. 

(g) Importation of grain. — Importation of food-grains to the required 
extent continues. 

(h) General condition and prospect)* of affected area. — There was a further 
decrease in the numbers on all kinds of relief, the daily average number in the 
last week of December being 187.568, against 240,466 in the corresponding 
week of November. Excepting a few insignificant showers in parts of 
Ahmedabad during the second week of December, there was no rain in any part 
of the Presidency. The ra.in which fell in most of the affected districts since 
the close of the month was beneficial to some extent to the late-sown rabi 
plants, but it proved injurious to the early-sown crops which had attained 
maturity. It was also not sufficient to improve the water supply to any 
material extent. Agricultural stock are generally in good condition, and the 
supply of fodder is sufficient. 

(i) Rates of loatjes. — The prices of staple food-grains declined considerably 
in Gujarat, where they were close to normal, and moderately in the Deccan and 
Karnatak. The rates of wages, which are regulated according to prices, 
decreased in proportion. 



No. 41. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 26th January, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund was given in the several districts during the month under report, though 
to a less extent than before. Rs. 1,600 and Rs. 168 were spent out of 
charitable funds in the Poona and Khandesh Districts, respectively. Missionary 
institutions continued to give relief in the Ahmednagar District. 

(b) Village and poor-house reliej. — Village relief was given during the 
month under report in 368 villages in Ahmedabad, 434 in the Panch Mahals, 
47 in Broach, 18 in Thana, 63 in Khandesh, 1,095 in Ahmednagar, 110 in 
Poona, 715 in Sholapur, 241 in Satara and 709 in Bijapur. One additional poor- 
house was opened in the Khandesh District, while one poor-house was closed in 
each of the districts of Ahmedabad and Bijapur. There was a slight increase in 
the number of recipients of poor-house and village relief, the daily average 
number in the last week of January, 1901, being 37,297 against 36,511 in the 
corresponding week of December, 1900. There were five village kitchens open 
in the Ahmednagar District. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during the 
last week of January 26 large works under the Public Works Department, of 
which one was a test work, besides 25 small works under Civil Agency. Of 



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the large works one was a railway earthwork, 15 tank works, 4 works of 
excavation of canals, 3 works of construction of new or improvement of existing 
roads, and ,3 metal-breaking works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — The physical condition of the people 
is reported to be fair to good generally. There was practically no cholera in 
the affected districts, except Belgaum, during the month under rejiort. The 
general death-rate declined in all the districts except Nasik, and considerably in 
tne Gujarat Districts. In the Panch Mahals, Broach, Surat, and Belgaum, it 
approached the normal, while it was below the normal in all the other affected 
districts, except Ahmedabad, where it was nearly 57 per cent, above the normal. 

(e) Deaths {if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food -stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

. (h) General condition and prospects of affected areas. — The numbers on 
all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 187,568 in the last week of 
December, 1900, to 181,531 in the corresponding week of January, 1901. 
There has been no material change in the general prospects. Moderate to light 
rain fell in the affected districts about the middle of the month under report, 
which partially improved the water supply in a few places, but was generally 
injurious to the ripening crops. The agricultural stock are in good condition 
and the supply of fodder is generally sufficient. 

(i) Rates of wages.— Prices have fallen to a more or less extent throughout 
the affected districts and the rates of wages on works have proportionately 
declined. 



No. 42. 

Summary for the four week s ending 23rd February, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund was given in the several districts during the month under report. 
Further allotments, amounting to Rs. 10,000 and Rs. 20,000, were received 
during the month in the Panch Mahals and Broach Districts, respectively. 
Rs. 2,136, Rs. 28 and Rs. 1,500 were spent out of charitable funds in the 
Broach, Khandesh and Poona Districts, respectively. Rs. 2,983 were also 
disbursed out of the same funds in the Broach District during the month of 
January, 1901.. In the Ahmedabad Districts during the months of October r 
November and December, 1900, Rs. 3,74,839 were spent from charitable funds- 
in assisting 72,561 persons by gifts of clothing, grants of seed and cattle or in 
other ways. Missionary institutions continued to give relief in the Ahmednagar 
District. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — Village relief was riven during the 
month under report in 360 villages in Ahmedabad, 8 in Kaira, 457 in the 
Panch Mahals, 20 in Broach, 57 in Khandesh, 1,057 in Ahmednagar, 196 in 
Poona, 618 in Sholapur, 251 in Satara, and 880 in Bijapur. One additional 
poor-house was opened in the Bijapur District, while two poor-houses were 
closed in the Khandesh District. There was no material variation in the 
number of recipients of poor-house and village relief, the daily average number 
in the last week oi February being 37,594 against 37,297 in the corresponding 
■week of January. There were seven village kitchens open in the Ahmednagar 
District. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during the 
last week of February 26 large works under the Public Works Department 
besides 23 small works under Civil Agency. Of the large works one was a 
railway earthwork, 18 tank works, 3 works of excavation of canals, 3 works of 
construction of new or improvement of existing roads, and 1 metal-breaking 
work. 

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(d) Physical condition of the people. —The physical condition of the people 
■lis reported to be fair to good generally. There was no cholera in the affected 
districts, except Belgaum, during the month under report. The general death- 
rate declined in all the districts, except Surat and Ahmednagar, where however 
the increase was not material. In Surat, Ahmednagar, Nasik, Poona and 
Belgaum it approached the normal, while it was below the normal in all the 
other affected districts, except Ahmedabad, where it was about 33 per cent, 
above the normal. 

(e) Deaths {if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food-stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient.* 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on all 
kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 181,531 in the last week of January 
to 176,773 in the corresponding week of February. But the numbers are 
expected to rise as the hot season advances. The general condition and 
prospects have improved owing to prices having fallen, to the outturn of crops 
being better and field employment more extensive in several districts than was 
at first anticipated. The agricultural stock are in good condition and the 
supply of fodder is generally sufficient. 

<•■ (\) Hates of wages. — Prices have further fallen throughout the affected 
districts and the rates of wages on works have proportionately declined. 



No. 43. 

Summary for the five weeks ending 30th March, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — Relief from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund was given in the several affected districts during the month under report. 
Further allotments, amounting to Rs. 40, Rs. 16,750, and Ks. 20,000, were 
received during the month in the Khandesh, Nasik, and Ahmednagar Districts 
•respectively. Rs. 4,680, Rs. 16,775, and Rs. 5<>0 were spent out of charitable 
funds in the several Districts of Khandesh, Nasik and Poona. Rs. 30,000 were 
also allotted in Broach for the purchase of bullocks for distribution among the 
poorer cultivators. In the Ahmedabad District during the month of January, 
1901, Rs. 5,525 were spent from charitable funds in assisting 818 persons by 
gifts of clothing, grants of seed and cattle, or in other ways. Missionary 

• institutions continued to give relief in the Ahmednagar District. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — During the month under report the 
; distribution of village dole was commenced in the Districts of Nasik, Belgaum 
and Dharwar, and was extended in Eaira, Panch Mahals, Broach, Khandesh, 
Ahmednagar, Poona, and Bijapur. In Sholapur and Satara the number of 
villages in which gratuitous relief was given was less than in the preceding 
month, .but in the former district the numbers on dole rose moderately and in 
the latter they were nearly doubled. In Ahmedabad there was a contraction in 
the numbers on dole as well as in the area of distribution, mainly owing to the 
extension of small village works easily accessible to all in need of relief. There 
were eleven village kitchens open in the Ahmednagar District, and several also 
in the Nasik District. Four additional poor-houses or kitchens were opened 
during the month in the Bijapur District, while one poor-house was closed in 
each of the districts of Ahmedabad and Khandesh. The numbers in poor-houses 
and on village dole rose from 37,594 in the last week of February to 48,582 in 
the corresponding week of March. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during 
the month under report 28 large works, one test-work, aiid four small works 
under the Public Works Department, besides nearly 60 small works under 
Civil Agency. Of the large works one was a railway earthwork, 19 tank works, 
four works of excavations of canals, and four road works. 



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(d) Physical condition of the people. — The physical condition .of the 
people is reported to be generally fair to good. During the month under 
report there was no' cholera in the affected districts, except Belgaum and 
Bijapur, but in Ahmedabad, Surat, Khandesh, Nasik, i'oona, Satara and 
Belgaum plague was more or less prevalent. In all the affected districts except 
the Panch Mahals the general death-rate showed a slight increase. In the 
latter district it was less than half the normal, and in Kaira, Broach, Khandesh, 
Satara, Sholapur, and Bijapur it was below the normal, while in Surat, 
Ahmednagar, Nasik, and Poona it but slightly exceeded the normal. In' 
Ahmedabad it exceeded the normal by about 30, and in Belgaum by 40 per 
cent., exclusive of plague. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom* 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food-st cks and Importation of grain.- — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on; 
all kinds of relief rose from a daily average of 176,773 in the last week of 
February to 208,178 in the corresponding week of March. The increase was 1 , 
neither as large nor as rapid as wa« anticipated, owing, probably, first • to a> 
considerable fall in prices, which still show throughout the affected area a 
tendency towards decline, and secondly to the existence in abnormally large 
quantities of grass seeds, roots, and other wild products on which the i poorer 
classes are able to subsist. It is, however, now expected that the exhaustion oi 
such resources as those mentioned above and the return of emigrants will have 
the effect of bringing people on relief in larger numbers. Agricultural stock 
are in good condition, and the supply of fodder is sufficient. The water supply 
still causes anxiety in some places, but on the whole the difficulty is being 
successfully overcome. 

(i) Rates of wages. — Owing to further fall in prices of staple food-grains, 
the rates of wages on works proportionately declined. 



No. 44. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 27 th April, 1901. i 

(a) Private relief.— -During' the month under report Rs. 3*5,529 were" 
spent out of Charitable Funds in Khandesh, Rs. 1<>5 in Nasik and Rs. 6,350 
in Poona. Rs. 4,898 were spent from the same source in the Ahmedabad 
District during the months of February and March in assisting 1,071 persons 
by gifts of clothing, by grants of seed and cattle, or in other ways. Missionary 
institutions continued to give relief in the Ahmednagar District. The districts 
of Sholapur and Ahmednagar received further allotments of Rs. 1,00,000 and 
"Rs. 85,000 respectively from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief Fund. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — During the month under report there 
"Was a general expansion of village gratuitous relief throughout the affected 
area, particularly in Kaira, Khandesh and Belgaum. One additional poor-house 
'was opened in Ahmedabad and one in Bijapur. There were twenty-six village 
kitchens open in Ahmednagar and four in Nasik. The daily average numbers 
in poor-houses and on. village dole in the last week of April were 64,347 against. 
48,582 in the corresponding week of March. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during the 
month under report 37 large works, three test- works and four small works 
under the Public Works Department, besides 133 small works under Civtt 
Agency and one under Municipal Agency. Of the large works one was a 
railway earthwork, 22 tank works. 6 works of excavation of canals, and 8 road" 
works. 

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(d) Physical condition of the people. — During the month under report 
cholera prevailed to a large extent in Dharwar and to a slight extent in Bijapur 
and Belgaum, and mainly accounted for the increase over normal mortality shown 
in those districts. In the districts of Gujarat and the Deccan the death-rate 
was below the normal and generally lower than that in the month of March. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accompanying 
death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the Government 
of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food-stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on all 
kinds of relief rose from a daily average of 208,178 in the last week of March to 
303,817 in the corresponding week of April. The increase, though not so large 
as was expected, indicates the increasing strain on the resources of those classes 
of people who ordinarily resort to State relief. Light scattered showers in the 
first week, and moderate to heavy rain in the last week, of April fell all over the 
affected area except Northern Gujarat. These and later falls have tended to 
allay the anxiety about water supply, which is now fairly sufficient over the 
greater part of the Deccan and Karnatak. Preparation of land for monsoon 
cultivation is progressing generally and sowing has been commenced in several 
places. Agricultural stock are in good condition and the supply of fodder is 
generally sufficient. Cattle are being purchased in large numbers out of takavi 
and Charitable Relief Funds and distributed to cultivators in the Gujarat 
Districts. 

(i) Rates of wages. — The prices of staple food-grains showed during the 
month a general tendency to decline. There were no important changes in the 
rates of wages. 



No. 45. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 2bth May, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — During the month under report Rs. 54,571 were spent 
out of charitable funds in Khandesh,' Rs. 2,295 in Nasik, and Rs. 954 in Poona. 
Missionary institutions continued to give relief in the Ahmednagar District. 
The following further allotments from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief 
Fund are reported to have been received in the districts named : — 



District. 



Panch Mahals. 
Broach ... 
Khandesh 
Nasik ... 
Ahmednagar . 
Satara ... 



Rupees. 



25,000 
15,000 
60,000 
17,500 
30,000 
20,000 



(b) Village and poor-house relief. — During the month under report there 
was a further expansion of village gratuitous relief in all the affected districts 
except Panch Mahals, Broach, and Dharwar. Two additional poor-houses were 
opened in Bijapur and one in Ahmedabad. There were 32 village kitchens 
open in the Ahmednagar District and four in Nasik. The daily average 
numbers in poor-houBes and on village dole in the last week of May were 
81.481 against 64,347 in the corresponding week of April. 



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.(c) General character of relief works. — During the month under report 
there were in progress 51 large works under the Public Works Department, 
besides 145 small works under civil agency. Of the large works, one was a 
railway earthwork, 25 tank works, 5 works of excavation of canals, 19 road 
works, and one work of metal collection. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — Cholera continued to prevail in 
Bijapur, Belgaum, and Dharwar, In all the affected districts the mortality was 
less than in April, and except in Belgaum and Dharwar it was also below 
normal. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f ) and (g) Food-stocks and Importation of grain* — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition ami prospects of affected area. — The numbers on all 
kinds of relief rose from a daily average of 303,817 in the last week of April 
to 38 1 ,881 in the corresponding week of May. During the month under report 
there was fair to heavy rain in the Deccan and Karnatak, except Khandesh, 
where it was light. Since the end of the month it has been light to moderate 
and partial until last week, when good rain was reported from several talukas. 
In Gujarat there was no rain during the month under report. But since 
then heavy rain lias fallen in the southern coast talukas of Surat, and during 
the last few days good falls have also been reported from the northern talukas 
of that district, and from several talukas of Kaira, Ahmedabad, and the Panch 
Mahals. Preparation of land for kharif crops is generally in progress, and 
sowing hss been commenced wherever moisture is sufficient. Locusts having 
appeared in parts of Sholapur and Bijapur, collectors of all districts have been 
instructed to be on the watch, and to lose no time in taking energetic action for 
their destruction. No serious injury has yet been caused by them. Agricultural 
stock are in good condition, and the supply of fodder is sufficient. The 
deficiency of stock in Gujarat and elsewhere is being supplied from takavi grants 
and charitable relief funds.. 

(i) Rates of wages. — During the month under report prices of staple food- 
grains have risen in all the affected districts except Khandesh, Nasik, and 
Belgaum, where they have slightly declined. There were no material changes 
in the rates of wages. 



No. 46. 





Summary for the jive weeks ending 29th June, 1901. 




(a) Private relief. — During the month under report Rs. 55,973 were spent 
out of charitable funds in Khandesh and Rs. 10,380 in Poona. Rs. 64,258 
were spent from the same source in the Ahmedabad District during the months 
of April and May, 1901. The following further allotments from the Bombay 
Presidency Famine Relief Fund were received in the districts named : — 




Distrust. 


Rupees. 






Panch Mahals 


43,000 






Broach 


40,000 






Khandesh ... ... ... ... ... 


45^30 






Ahmednagar 


75,000 






Sholapur ... ... ... 


50,000 






Belgaum ... 


12,000 





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(b) Village and poor-house relief . — During the month under report there 
was a further expansion of village gratuitous relief in all the affected districts, 
except the Panch Mahals and Dharwar. The increase was particularly notice- 
able' in the Khandesh District, where, owing to the exhaustion of grass seed, 
mhowra and other resources, a large number of Bhils had to be put on dole 
while engaged in cultivating their fields. Two additional poor-houses were 
opened in the Brjapur District and one in each of the districts of Nasik and 
Sdtara. Two poor-houses were closed in Khandesh. There were 38 village 
kitchens open in Ahmednagar and five in Nasik. The daily average numbers 
in poor-houses and on village dole in the last week of June were 119,071 against 
81,461 in the corresponding week of May. 

(c) General character of relief works. — During the month under report 
there has been no change in the general character of relief works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — In Belgaum and Dharwar the 
mortality was above normal, the increase being principally due to cholera and 
plague. In all the other affected districts the death-rate was below normal, and 
except in Khandesh it was lower than in May. The physical condition of the 
people as observed by the inspecting officers has been generally satisfactory. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on all 
kinds of relief rose from a daily average of 381,881 in the last week of May to 
477, 180 in the corresponding week of June. Except in the southern coast 
districts of Surat there was practically no rain throughout Gujarat till the 
25th June. After that date rain fell in all districts. The distribution, however, 
was irregular, the rain being plentiful in the south, moderate in the north-east, 
and deficient in the north-west. After a fortnight's break good falls have again 
been reported from all parts of Gujarat. During June the western hill tracts of 
the Deccan and Earnatak received good rain, w hich has since continued. In 
the eastern tracts of the Deccan and Karnatak the rainfall of June was deficient, 
but satisfactory falls occurred during the first half of July and enabled retarded 
sowings to be resumed. Since that time, however, the rainfall in these tracts 
has been very light and more is •wgently wanted te-save the young crops, which 
are reported to have commenced to wither in some places. Agricultural stock 
are in good condition and the supply of fodder is sufficient. The deficiency of 
stock in Gujarat and elsewhere has been supplied largely from takavi grants 
and charitable relief funds. 

(i) Rates of wages.— During the month under report prices of staple food- 
grains rose in all affected districts except Dharwar, where they slightly declined. 
There were no material changes in the rates of wages. 



No. 47. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 27th July, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — During the month under report Kb. 3j0,765 were 
spent out of charitable funds in Ahmedabad, Rs. 5,305 in Khandesh, Rs. 14,365 
in Nasik and Rs. 19*687 in Poona. An allotment of Rs. 20,520 was received 
from the Bombay Presidency Famine Relief Fund in Khandesh. The sum of 
Rs. 105 was collected by private subscriptions in Belgaum and was spent in 
purchasing clothes for the poor in the Athni Taluka. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — The numbers on this kind of relief 
increased from 119,071 in the last week of June to 156,715 in the last week of 
July. The districts of Ahmedabad, Panch Mahals, Khandesh, Sdtara, and 



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^lgaum mainly contributed to this increase. On the other, hand the numbers 
decreased in Kaira,; Broach, Surat> Poona, and ,I)harwar., ; There wer^, , during 
the month 40 village kitchens in Ahmednagar and seven in N&sik.. .1 , , 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress daring 
the month 56 works under Public Works Agency an4 92 works ,under Civil 
agency. There was no change in the character of the works- 

(d) Physical condition of th>: people.^-The death-rate was below normal 
in all districts of the Northern and Central Divisions and > in Bijapur. , In 
Belgaum and Dharwar the death-rate was above normal, mainly on account of 
plague. It was higher than in the previous month in Surat, Ahmednagar, 
Nasik, Poona, Satara, Sholapur, and Bijapur ; in other districts it was lower 
except in Khandesh, where it was the same as in June. The physical condition 
of the people was generally satisfactory. 

. (e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — There were no deaths from this 
cause during the month under report. 

(f) and (g) Food-Stocks and importation of grain. — Sufficient. , 

(h) General condition an i prospects of affected area.-~- The numbers' oh 
all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 477,480 in the last week of 
June to 460,478 in the corresponding week of July. The rainfall during the 
month under report and up to date has been generally satisfactory throughout 
(xujarat and Khandesh, and in the western hilly tracts of the Deccan and 
Karnatak. The crops in these tracts are flourishing, but some damage has been 
caused in a few places by rats, loeusts, or other insects. In eastern Deccan and 
Karnatak on the other hand the rainfall up to date has been below requirements 
except in a few talukas, and a part of the area usually devoted to kharif crops 
has remained unsown, and standing crops in some places have begun to wither. 
These tracts are, however, mainly dependent, on rabi crops. 

(i) Rates of wages. — The prices cf food grains rose in the Panch Mahals, 
Nasik, Belgaum, and Dharwar districts and fell in Kaira, Broach, and Khandesh 
during the month under reportr In other districts they were almost the same 
as in the previous month. There were corresponding variations in the rates 
of wages. 



No. 48. 

Summary for the five weeks ending 31st August, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — During the month under report Rs. 14,728 were 
spent out of charitable funds in Khandesh, Rs. 5,071 in Nasik and Ks. 8,690 
in Poona. Rs. 65,268 were spent from the same source in the Ahmedabad 
District during July, 1901. The following further allotments from the 
Bombay Presidency Famine Relief Fund were received in the districts 
named : — 





District. 


Rupees. 






Broach... ... ... ... ... 


5,000 






Khandesh 


182 






Belgaum 


20,000 





(6) Village and poor-house relief. — During the month under report 
there occurred a gradual contraction of this kind of relief. The numbers 
relieved in the last week of August were 120,480 against 156,715 in the 
corresponding week of July. There were during the month 42 village 
kitchens in Ahmednagar, and eight in Nasik. 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress during 
the month under report 49 works under Public Works Department, and 40 
works under Civil Agency. There was no change in the character of the 
works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — The physical condition of the 
people was generally satisfactory. The mortality in August was higher than 
that in July in all the affected districts, except Belgaum and Bijapur, but the 
general death-rate wan below normal, except in Belgaum and Dharwar. In 
these two districts the excess over normal was mainly due to plague. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — None. 

(f) and (g) Food-stocks and Importation of grain — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospect.' of affected area. — The numbers 
on all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 460,478 in the labt week of 
July to 375,930 in the corresponding week of August. The rainfall of the 
month was deficient in Surat, Broach and Western Kaira, and in the Eastern 
Deccan and the Karnatak. Elsewhere it was generally sufficient. Since the 
middle of September good and opportune rain has fallen throughout Eastern 
Deccan and the Karn&tak, and has revived the previously withering kharif 
crops and enabled rabi sowings to be commenced. In Gujarat, however, there 
has been practically no useful rain since the end of August, and the rice crop 
there is withering ; other kharif crops are in an unsatisfactory condition and 
rabi sowing has been delayed. Agricultural stock are in good condition and 
the supply of fodder is sufficient. 

(i) Rates of wages.- -During the month under report the prices of 
food-grains fell in all the affected districts, except Khdndesh and Ndsik, 
where they were stationary. There were corresponding variations in the rates 
of wages. 



No. 49. 

Summary for the four weeks ending 2Xth September, 1901. 

(a) Private relief. — During the month under report Rs. 1,401 were 
spent out of charitable funds in Ndsik and Rs. 5,552 in Poona ; Rs. 18,596 
were also spent from the same source in the Ahmedabad District during 
August, 1901. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — There occurred a further decline in the 
numbers on gratuitous relief except in Poona, Bijapur, and Belgaum. The 
numbers relieved in the last week of September were 77,381 against 120,4 s0 in 
the corresponding week of August. One additional village kitchen was opened 
in Ahmednagar, while six such kitchens were closed in Nasik. 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress 46 works 
under Public Works Department and 35 works under Civil Agency. The 
Baroda-Godhra Chord Railway earth-work was closed during the month. There 
was no change in the character of relief works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — In all the affected districts except 
Poona and Sholdpur the mortality in September was higher than in August. 
In Gujarat the high mortality is reported to have been mainly due to seasonal 
fever. In the Deccan and Karndtak the mortality was nowhere abnormal except 
in Sdtdra, Belgaum, and Dharwar, in which districts plague alone contributed 
no less than 58, 64, and 74 per cent., respectively, of the total number of deaths. 
The general death-rate, exclusive of plague, was below the decennial mean 
except in Broach, Kaira, Belgaum, and Dharwar, where it was higher. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accompamng 
death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the Government 
of Bombay. 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 163' L 

(f) and (g) Food-stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on 
all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 375,930 in the last week of August 
to 293,133 in the corresponding week of September. During the month under 
report the rainfall was exceedingly short of the average in Gujarat and generally 
deficient in the Deccan, but generally sufficient in the Karnatak. Since the 
close of the month good rain has Mien throughout the Deccan and Karnatak, 
and in Surat and parts of Broach, and has much improved the situation in 
those tracts. In other parts of Gujarat, owing to the almost total, failure 
of the late rains, the rice crop over large areas is entirely lost, the outturn 
of other kharif crops is expected to be poor, and there has been no. rabi 
sowing except on irrigated lands. Locusts have also caused serious damage to 
crops in the districts of Ahmedabad and Kaira. Scarcity of water is also 
apprehended in northern Gujarat,- and steps are being taken to improve the 
water-supply. Agricultural stock are in good condition and the supply of 
fodder is sufficient 

(i) Bates of wages. — During the month under report the prices of staple 
food-grains fell in Ahmednagar, Sholapur, Satara, and Bijapur ; were stationary 
in Broach, Nasik, Poona, and Belgaum ; and rose in other districts. There 
were corresponding variations in the rates of wages. 



No. 50. 

' Summary for the month of October^ 1901, 

(a) Private relief. — Rs. 12,618 were spent out of charitable funds in the 
Poona District. Rs. 1,570 were also spent from the same source in Ahmedabad 
in September. 

(b) Village and poor-house relief. — There was a further contraction of this 
kind Of relief in all the affected districts. The numbers relieved in the last 
week of October were 50,674, against 77,381 in the corresponding week of 
September. Three poor-houses in Ahmedabad and three village kitchens in 
Ahmednagar were closed. * 

(c) General character of relief works. — There were in progress 37 works 
under Public Works Department, and 13 works under Civil Agency. There 
was no change in the character of relief works. 

(d) Physical condition of the people. — In all the districts except Broach, 
Surat, Khandesh, Ahmednagar, and Sholapur, the mortality in October was higher 
than in September. Iu Kaira malarial fever, and in Satara, Belgaum, and 
Dharwar, plague mainly contributed to the high mortality, The general death- 
rate, exclusive of plague, was below the decennial mean except in Kaira, 
Bijapur, Belgaum, and Dharwar. 

(e) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f) and (g) Food -stocks and Importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h) General condition and prospects of affected area, — The numbers on 
all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 293,133 in the last week of 
September to 131,632 in the corresponding week of October. Excepting parts 
of Surat and Broach, which received good falls, there was no appreciable rain in 
Gujarat during the month of October. No rain has since fallen in any part of 
that Province, and rats also continue doing damage to crops. The situation 

10666 T 



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has, therefore, become critical, especially in the northern districts, where the 
numbers on relief have already commenced to rise. In the Deccan and 
Karnatak there was generally good rain in October, which benefited the late- 
sown kharif crops and enabled rabi sowings to be nearly completed in all 
■districts. There has, however, been no useful rain since the end of the month, 
and the outturn of rabi crops is not expected to be on the whole satisfactory, 
unless good showers are received within the next fortnight. Locusts appeared 
in parts of Poona, Satara, Bijapur, and Belgaum, and caused slight injury to 
•crops. Agricultural stock are in good condition, and the supply of fodder is 
sufficient. Special measures for the improvement of water supply in 
Northern Gujarat are being continued. 

(i) Rates of wages. — During the month under report the prices of staple 
food-grains declined in all the affected districts except Ahmedabad and the 
Panch Mahals, where they rose. There were corresponding variations in the rates 
■of wages. 



No. 61. 

Summary^ far Jthe month of November, 1901. 

(a.) Private relief. — Rs. 400 were spent out of charitable funds in the 
Poona District. 

(b.) Village and poor-house relief. — In Nasik, Poona and Satara all 
.gratuitous relief was stopped during the month under report. Two poor-houses 
in Sholapur and nineteen in Bijapur and twenty village kitchens in Ahmednagar 
were closed, while two poor-houses were opened in Ahmedabad. The total 
numbers relieved in the last week of November were 17,728 against 50,674 
in the corresponding week of October, but in the three Northern Gujarat 
districts alone the numbers increased from 3,376 to 4,969. 

(c.) General character of relief works. — There were in progress 16 works 
Tinder Public Works Department and 6 works under Civil Agency. There was 
no change in the character of relief works. 

(d.) Physical condition of the people. — In the districts of Ahmedabad, 
Broach, Surat, Khandesh, Nasik and Poona the total mortality in November 
was higher than in October, the excess being mainly due to plague. The 

fsneral death-rate exclusive of plague was below the decennial mean except in 
aira, Broach, Belgaum and Dharwar. 

(e.) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f.) and (g.) Food-stocks and importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h.) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers on 
all kinds of relief fell from a daily average of 131,632 in the last week of 
October to 42,335 in the corresponding week of November. Light to fair 
showers fell during the first week of November in the whole of Karnatak and 
in the South Deccaii districts, and proved useful for late kharif crops and for 
rabi sowing. But there has been no rain since in any district of the Deccan 
and Karnatak, and standing rabi crops are withering. Gujarat received no rain 
■either in November or since. Late-sown kharif crops which were withering at 
the end of October have been completely lost in most places, and no rabi crops 
are expected except in irrigated areas. Rats also have continued to do damage 
to standing crops. Another period of scarcity has in consequence commenced 
in Northern Gujarat, and the numbers on relief are increasing. Relief measures- 



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also continue in some parts of the Deccan and Earnatak, where the prospects 
are unsatisfactory. 

(i.) Hates of wages. — During the month under report the prices of staple 
food grains fell in all the affected districts except Kaira, where they rose. 
The rates of wages on works varied proportionately. 



No. 52. 

Summary for the month of December, 1901. 

(a.) Private relief. — Rs. 3,984 were spent out of charitable* funtfc in "the 
Ahmedabad District during October, 1901. 

(b.) Village and poor-house relief. — Eight village kitchens in Ahmed* 
nagar and five poor-houses in Bijapur were closed, while two poor-houses were 
opened in Thar and Parkar. The- total numbers relieved in the last week of 
December were 18,990 against 17,728 in the corresponding week of November. 
In the three Northern Gujarat Districts alone the number rose from 4,969 to 
8,934. 

(c.) General character of relief works. — There were in progress 24 worka 
under Public "Works Department and 25 works under Civil Agency. In the 
Panch Mahals the Baroda-Godhra Chord Railway earth-work was re-opened. 
There was no other change in the character of relief works. 

(d.) Physical condition of the people. — Except in the Districts of Ahmed- 
abad, Panch Mahals, Khandesh, Nasik and Poona, the total mortality in 
December was less than in November. In Ahmedabad seasonal fever and in 
Khandesh, Nasik and Poona plague mainly contributed to the high mortality. 
The general death-rate exclusive of plague was below the decennial mean in all 
Districts except Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach, Belgaum and Dharwar where it 
was in excess. 

. (e.) Deaths (if any) from starvation. — These are shown in the accom- 
panying death-rate return submitted by the Sanitary Commissioner for the 
Government of Bombay. 

(f.) and (g.) Food*8tocks and importation of grain. — Sufficient. 

(h.) General condition and prospects of affected area. — The numbers 
on all kinds of relief rose from a daily average of 42,335 in the last week of 
November to 81,768 in the corresponding week of December. There was 
no rain during the month in any of the affected Districts, but light scattered 
showers fell about the middle of January 1902 in parts of Gujarat and Ahmed- 
nagar. In Gujarat rats have continued to damage the crops on the ground, the 
area under well -irrigation has in consequence been greatly contracted and 
distress is likely to be far more intense than was at first anticipated. In 
Ahmedabad, Kaira and the Panch Mahals the numbers on relief are rapidly 
rising. In the Deccan and Karnatak also owing to the absence of the November- 
December showers the rabi outturn is expected to be poor and the demand for 
relief is likely to increase as the season progresses. Agricultural stock are in 
good condition and the supply of fodder is generally sufficient. 

(i.) Rates of wages. — During the month under report the prices of staple 
food-grains rose in all the affected districts except Ahmednagar, Sholapur 
and Bijapur, where they declined.. The. rates, of wagea varied proportionately. 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



FINES FOR SHORT WORK. 

No. 53. 

Abstract of Bombay Public Works Department Circular Memorandum 
JVo. 581 F., dated 9th March^[900. 

Requesting superintending engineers of divisions to direct all the executive 
engineers in charge of relief operations to enforce fines for short work as a 
general rule on certain scales given, the officers and subordinates in charge of 
relief work being, however, enjoined to so exercise their discretion as to fining, 
when labourers are working in gangs, as to prevent, so far as possible, honest 
workers suffering for the fault of others. 

Notb. — The text of the above circular has not been received in the India Office. 



No. 54. 

No. 2080, dated Bombay Casde, 23rd April, 1900. 

Letter from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 3327, dated 26th March, 1900 : — 

" I have the honour to submit one or two remarks on the Circular No. F.— 581 of 
9th instant, issued by the Public Works Department, graduating the fine for short 
work on relief operations. I trust to be absolved from any suspicion of wishing to 
cavil at orders, or of anything but a desire to bring to the notice of Government 
difficulties that occur in practical work. 

" 2. In most districts a problem of famine work is how to make people do real 
work with a system of minimum wage, how to stir up the lazy, and how to save the 
industrious from becoming lazy too. 

44 3. Now there are yet many honest workers in some districts, 50 per cent of the 
mass. They generally do from 90 to 110 per cent, of their task. To fine such people 
nearly 20 per cent, of their wages for 1, 2, or 5 per cent, short work must be 
demoralizing in effect For when they realize (as they speedily will) that they are 
fined the same amount for 99 as for 75 per cent, work they will naturally get slack, 
and as one of our ablest engineers lately put it, ' having once tasted the. sweete of 
laziness, there is no knowing when they will stop. They will soon drop to 50 per 
cent.' Thus the general rule will make way for popular deterioration — a peril to my 
mind more to be dreaded than starvation. 

" 4. Supposing the work done is 99 per cent., the wages will work out as follows 
on the basis of 18 lbs. for 1 per cent, of short work : — 



Claw. 


Code of Wages in 
Pioe per Day. 


Fine Pioe. 


Percentage of 
Fine to Wages. 


I. 


8 


U 


1» 


n. 


7 


1 


14 


in. 


6 


1 


90 



" 5. It may be thought that the measurer should give a ' grace mark,' and so 
prevent such an extreme case. But this is precisely, the latitude which a subordinate 
should not have, for he is sure to use it arbitrarily. I would rather suggest that a 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. ilfl7 

( ■ definite'margin should be left by the roles, say 90 per cent, and 70 per oent^, within 
which the fine should not be imposed at all. I am informed that a majority of good, 
willing, honest workers fall slightly below the 100 per cent, and this is also what one 
would expect. To discourage' them by a disproportionate fine will have the reverse 
effect of what is desired." 

■Letter from the Collector of Ahmedabad, No. F.— -1112, dated 22nd March, 
1900:— 

"I have the honour to refer to Government Circular memorandum No. F — 581, 
dated 9th March, 1900. 

"2 The way these fines work out with grain at 17 lbs. and 18 lbs. a rupee (the 
most common prices) is as follows :— 



Percentage of work done. 


Payments at 
171bs. 


Payments at 
18 lbs. •" 




Dinger* ... 


Bs. a. p. 

0 19- 


' Bs. a. p. 
0 1 6 


Between 76 and 100 per oeat. ■ 


Carriers ... ... ... ... 


0 16 


0 16 




Children 


0 1 0 


0 10 




Men ... ... ... ... 


0 16 


0 13 


Between 60 and 76 per cent. ... • 


Women ... ... ... ... 


0 1 6 


0 18 




Children... 


0 0 9 


0 0 9 




Men ... ... ... ... 


0 10 


0 10 


Below 60 per oent. ... ... ■ 


Women ... ... ... . ... 


0 10 


0 1 0 




.Children 


0 0 9 


0 0 9 



" 3. Thus a woman gets the same (with grain at 17 lbs. the rupee) if she does 
50 per cent, or 99 per cent, of the work, while generally men and women get the same 
and some of the wages are equal to, and others befow, the value of the poor-house 
ration. 

"4. Till now the Executive Engineer has had an excellent arrangement by 
which fines have been nicely proportioned to the amount by which work fell below 
the standard. If a gang found itself unable to do full work, it was still to their 
interest to do 90 per cent, rather than 80 per cent., 80 per cent, rather than 70 per 
cent., and so on, and the excellent work done by the workers which so far has 
resulted, I believe, in the accomplishment of work at a rate per hundred cubic feet, 
far below that usual in famines, has been due not only to the personal care of the 
Executive Engineer and his staff, and to frequent visiting by district and taluka 
officers, but to those orders issued by the Executive Engineer. 

' " 5. Even taking the orders of the Circular memorandum as they stand, I submit 

that it is unwise to make no distinction between a worker who does 75 per cent, and 
one who does 99 per cent of the work, but when the rates work out as I have shown, 
then I submit that their unsuitability appears still more marked." 

Memorandum from the Superintending Engineer, N. D., No. 2283, dated - 
March, 1900 

" Forwarded with compliments. 

" Hitherto on all works the scale of fining has been more nearly proportional to 
the work executed than now ordered by Government." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 3529, dated 30th March, 
1900 :— 

" Submitted to Government. 

" The undersigned has already ventured to represent his own view in his No. 3327, 
of 26th March, 1900." 

Resolution. — The course suggested by the Honourable Mr. Lely is 
entirely opposed to the repeated instructions of the Government of India, which 
have been cordially accepted by this Government, that full tasks should be 



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strictly enforced as a test of the need of relief. Moreover, it could have no- 
other effect than that of reducing the task. If a rule were passed that full 
payment, should be made for 90 per cent, of the task, precisely the same- 
considerations would affect payment for 89 per cent, as the Honourable Mr. 
Lely suggests with regard to 99 per cent. It is understood that such a rule- 
was in force in Ahmedabad and. Broach, and that full payment was often made 
when the deficiency was several degrees below the limit of 90 per. cent,, and 
this practice is probably among the reasons why the average cost of relief 
•in -these districts has been much in excess of that in other districts. It ia 
presumed that the wages due are determined by superior officers, or at least by 
subordinates of a comparatively high grade, and minute deficiencies may be 
discarded if the circumstances justify such course, but the principle that the full 
wage is due for performance only of full task must be enforced as far as possible, 
There is less risk of demoralization from excess of strictness than from excess of 
leniency. 

2, Government, while desirous that payment between the maximum and 
minimum should be in proportion to results, are of opinion that with the 
establishment available to deal with such large bodies of workers as are now 
employed it is not expedient to attempt more accurate measurements than are 
required for the scale of payments prescribed in Public Works Department 
Circular memorandum No. F.-581, dated 9th March, 1900. As the people to 
whom the scale is applied are paid weekly and not daily, the results mentioned 
in paragraph 3 of the letter of the Collector of Ahmedabad do not occur. It is- 
also to be observed that the object in view is not to get the work done at low 
rates, but to exclude people who will not prove their need of relief by doing a. 
fair task for a low wage. For that purpose the scale of payment referred to is 
not less efficacious than would be one with more gradations, 

(Signed) J. Monteath, 

Chief Secretary to Government. 



No. 55. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of India,, 
to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay (Famine)? 
No. 1108-28-15-2?'., dated Simla, the ZOth May, 1900. 

Public Works Department Circular The Governor General in Council 

M^bTSoO 11 N °' F '' dated haS read the ^ structions cited m the 

Famine ' Department Resolution mar gi n which have been issued by the 

No. 2080, dated 23rd April, 1900. Government of Bombay concerning the 

Famine Department Resolution tasking of famine relief workers and the- 

No. 2099, dated 25th April, 1900. reduction of wages for short work. 

2. In the Resolution, dated the 23rd April, " the repeated instructions of 
the Government of India " are given as one of the reasons which led the 
Government of Bombay to reject the proposal of the Commissioner of the 
Northern Division that a definite margin should be left by the rules within 
which a fine for short work should not be imposed. In making this proposal 
that officer went on to say that the majority of good, willing, honest workers 
often fail to exactly fulfil the prescribed task and that to discourage them by a 
disproportionate fine was impolitic. 

3. The Government of India think it necessary to point out that although 
in the early stage of the present famine, when the relief population was by all 
accounts in an exceptionally vigorous and robust condition, they approved and 
advised a policy of strictness in the matter of enforcing talks and directed that 



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•" persistent failure to perform the allotted task due to causes other than physical 
inability " should be rigorously dealt with, they have never rejected the 
•expedient of a margin, such as the Commissioner of the Northern Division has 
proposed. On the contrary, in paragraph 9 of their Circular Letter* 
No. 2-Famine, dated 27th December, 1899, they expressed approval of the rules 
in force in the North- Western Provinces with regard to the imposition of fines 
for short tasks, which distinctly provide a margin of the kind recommended 

by the Commissioner of Gujarat. The 
Code, Appendix D — XIV, Rule 45. margin in the North-Western Provinces 

Code is 12 J per cent. 

4. In the correspondence on the Broach case which gave rise to the 
Bombay Government's Resolution of the 25th April, 1900, the necessity for 
some definite rule of clemency to temper the ingrained rigidity of subordinate 
officials in the Public Works Department is very clearly brought out. And 
although the literal construction placed by that Department in the Broach 
district on the Public Works Department Circular of the 9th March has been 
over-ruled by the Resolution of the 25th April, and permission has been given 
to overlook " trifling deficiencies " in measurements, it seems to the Government 
of India doubtful whether this will prove a sufficient guide to the class of officers 
ordinarily placed in charge of relief works. 

5. The condition of the relief works population in the northern districts of 
the Bombay Presidency, the terribly high death-rates which are now being 
reported, and the marked decline during the last few weeks in the numbers on 
relief, give rise to some apprehension lest rigorous tasking may possibly be 
pushed too far by zealous subordinates. For this reason the Government of India 
desire to state that, instead of disapproving, they approve of the principle of a 
definite margin recommended by the Commissioner of the Northern Division. 



No. 56. 

Letter from J. Monteath, Esq., C.S.I., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay, to the Secretary of the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, No. 2554, dated Bombay Castle, loth June, 
1900. 

In acknowledging the receipt of your letter No. 1108-28 — 15 F., dated 
30th ultimo, I am directed to request that you will submit to His Excellency 
the Governor-General in Council the following explanation of the orders of this 
Government to which reference is made. 

2. The Government of India in their letter No. 3 F. — 77-1, dated 
24th December, 1896, called attention to "the importance of exacting a full 
task at all stages of relief operations." The tenour of your Circular letter 
No. 2-Fam., dated 27th December, 1899, was understood to emphasize that 
view, and in the final paragraph Local Governments were asked to consider 
whether greater strictness in enforcing the conditions of relief and tests of 
distress was not required. It appeared therefore to the Governor in Council 
that the Government of India had repeated instructions that full tasks should 
be strictly enforced as a test of the need of relief. It was not supposed that 
the marginal reference to paragraphs 45 — 47 at pages 131-132 of the North- 
Western Provinces Famine Code, 1899, was intended as a suggestion that the 
detailed method of tasking and fining therein prescribed should be generally 
adopted. 



• See page 439 of Command Paper 205, presented in 1900. 



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S. Reasons for the adoption of a penal minimum having been given in 
my letter No. 235, dated 15th January, 1900, it was stated in paragraph 3 of 
your letter No. 287—28-2 F., dated 8th February, 1900, that " the wish of the 
Bombay Government is, it is understood, to fix a fair task, the performance of 
which will entitle the workers to the prescribed wage of 19 chataks for the 
digger and 15 chataks for the carrier respectively, and to reduce the wage 
proportionally as the work done fells below the prescribed task down to a 
penal wage of 9 chataks. This proposal the Government of India consider 
reasonable, provided the tasks are fair, regard being had to the condition of the 
people." Instructions were issued accordingly, it being on several occasions 
explained that the object was to have payment by results as nearly as possible 
within the maximum and reduced minimum, but this Government have not 
ceased to enjoin that the tasks should be in proportion to the physical condition 
of the various classes of people, and that the deficiency cf work for which 
deduction may be made must be due to wilfulness and not to weakness. On 
some works there was prescribed a table under which the weekly wage might be 
varied according to every 10 per cent, of outturn, but the professional advisers 
of this Government considered it impracticable with the establishment available 
to attempt so much gradation, and the Public Works Department Circular 
No. F. — 581, dated 9th March, 1900, was accordingly issued. 

4. This Government have thus, as they understood, with the concurrence 
of the Government of India, adopted a system which differs from that prescribed 
in the North-Western Provinces Code. It was considered important that the 
full wage should be held to be due only for what might reasonably be regarded 
as the full task, but in Government Resolution No. 2080, dated 23rd April, 
1900, as well as in Government Resolution No. 2099, dated 25th idem, it 
was pointed out that minute deficiencies might be overlooked. . A practice which 
obtained in two districts of prescribing that the full wage should be given if 90 
per cent, of the task were done, and of giving the full wage if the outturn was 
even several degrees lower appeared to be precisely the relaxation of test against 
which the Government of India had given this Government a caution. The 
North-Western Provinces Government give the wage for an outturn which may 
either be some degrees above or below the prescribed task, but a definite rule 
that the wage should be given for 90 per cent, of the task would be nothing 
more nor less than a reduction of the task. In the case of metal-breaking, 
where the individual tasks can be stated in basketfuls, this would be obvious 
to every worker. 

5. I am to add that in the month of April in the district of Ahmedabad, 
in which the reduction in the number of workers has been greatest, the outturn 
was 37,329,206 as compared with 39,127,430 cubic feet of the total tasks set, 
and that the total fines were only about 2 per cent, of the wages earnable, the 
remainder of the deficiency in work being due to the fact that new-comers are 
not fined until they are accustomed to the work. These facts indicate in a 
very clear manner that there is nothing oppressive in either the tasks or in the 
manner ot enforcing them, and that notwithstanding the high mortality in the 
district, which cannot be in any way attributed to the labour conditions 
imposed on relief works, there has been no lack of vigour amongst the people 
employed on works. Similar information is not available for other districts, 
but the Collector of Kaira states in his last progress report, " On the whole the 
people in this district are now doing the task without difficulty and resort is 
had to penal fining in very few cases. On many works the full task is 
completed and there is no fining at all." The number of relief workers increased 
largely after effect was given to the Public Works Department Circular 
No. F. — 581, dated 9th March 1900, and the subsequent decrease was due 
entirely to cholera. Except in the case of Broach and only in the case of very 
few of the works in that district for two or three of the weeks when a reduced 
scale of wages was in force the reports of the medical and other inspecting 
officers on tile physical condition of people who have been for some time on the 
works have been uniformly favourable. The Government of India are aware 
that there was simultaneously in Broach a decrease in mortality. 



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6. I am to inquire whether in view of this explanation it is the desire of 
His Excellency the Governor General in Council that the orders passed by this 
Government in this matter should be cancelled or modified. 



No. 57. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of India, 
to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay (Famine), No. 1317 F. 
28-19, dated Simla, the 28tk June, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 2554, dated 
15th June, explaining the considerations which gave rise to the instructions as 
to the tasking of famine relief- workers, and the reduction of wages for short 
work, cited in paragraph 1 of my letter of the 30th May. It is asked whether 
in view of the explanations the Governor General in Council desires that the 
orders in question should be cancelled or modified. 

2. The main objection taken in your letter to the adoption of a rule pre- 
scribing for the guidance of subordinate relief officers a margin within which 
short work may be overlooked, is that it is likely to result in the virtual reduction 
of the nominal task. But a rule of a very similar character seems to have been 
actually in operation in the Ahmedabad district up to the end of March, and 

t *l xt iim j x j no a according to the collector of that district worked 
Letter No. 1112, dated 22nd ., 5 . . , .. .. ,,• 

March 1900. we "> an< * °-id not result in demoralisation. It 

seems to the Governor General in Council that if 
in any district less fortunately situated, or on any particular relief work, the 
workers are found deliberately to take improper advantage of the rule, the 
difficulty can readily be met by the temporary suspension of the rule by the 
controlling district authority, on the specific ground that contumacy and 
determined idleness have to be dealt with. All that the Governor General in 
Council had in view was the desirability of preventing misapprehensions on the 
part of subordinate relief officers similar to that reported in the Broach district, 
and of giving them a reasonably definite standard of allowances for short work 
in cases in which neither contumacy nor determined idleness exists. For this 
class of officers permission to overlook " minute deficiencies," and " variations of 
one per cent, in measurements," appeared to the Governor General in Council to 
be insufficiently precise, and is open to the further objection that it contravenes 
the principle that pay should be proportioned to work. For it is obvious that if 
a relief-worker is fined to the extent prescribed in the Public Works Circular of 
the 9th March, 1900, for failing to reach the full task by 2 per cent., the 
proportional principle to which the Government of India assented, and to- 
which the Government of Bombay rightly attach importance, is seriously 
violated. Even allowing that there are theoretical objections to the alternate 
expedient of a " margin," the Governor General in Council considers that 
in the late stage of a famine of exceptional intensity and destructiveness, 
and in view of what actually occurred in the Broach district, and of the 
high mortality prevailing throughout Gujarat, a marginal allowance is both 
reasonable and politic : and he would be glad to see it recognised as a rule of 
guidance by the Government of Bombay on their relief works. 

3. In conclusion I am directed to enclose copy of Madras Government 
Order No. 513, dated 25th May, 1900,* from which it will be observed that the 
Government of Madras have adopted the principle of a marginal allowance for 
short work. 



•See page 411 (Madras). 



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FAMINE FORECASTS FOR THE TEARS 1900-1901 

AND 1901-2. 

- ~—^o. 58. - " 

Letter from the Government of India to the Right Honourable Lord George F. 
Hamilton, His Majesty's Secretary of State for India, No, 4 {Revenue 
and Agriculture ), dated. Calcutta, the 2itk January, 1901. 

We have the honour to forward, for your Lordship's information, copy of a 
letter dated 7th January, 1901, from the Government of Bombay, reporting that 
famine conditions will certainly prevail to a greater or less extent for another 
season over a large part of the area affected in 1899-1900, and advising us that 
a direct expenditure on the relief of distress of over one crore of rupees will 
probably have to be incurred in the next financial year. 

2. We deeply regret the disheartening and unfortunate occurrence of a 
second sen son of privation and agricultural loss in Western India. The rainfall 
throughout Northern and Upper India, the Central Provinces, Rajputana and 
Central India during the last fortnight of December and the first half of January 
has been exceptionally abundant and widely distributed, and there is every 
anticipation that good harvests over an exceptionally large area of cultivation 
will be reaped this spring in the Punjab, the North- Western Provinces and 
Oudh, and in Behar, and that a surplus of food grains for the supply of less 
fortunate provinces will be secured. In the Central Provinces, Rajputana and 
Central India, the loss of stock and other agricultural capital has interfered with 
the ability of the cultivators to take full advantage of the favourable season : 
but except in a few localities of limited area no recrudescence of distress is 
anticipated in these regions. A portion of the Madras Presidency has been 
somewhat affected by the lightness of the north-east monsoon. But the earlier 
rains provided good irrigation from the tanks, and the general situation gives no 
cause for anxiety. Our information regarding the Nizam's Dominions is at 

S resent imperfect, but it is believed that the crop failure from which the Bombay 
)eccan is suffering extends to some of the Hyderabad districts. In Baroda the 
crops now on the ground are 50 per cent, below normal, and distress is antici- 
pated by that State until the next rains. 

3. We refrain from offering observations on the last paragraphs of the 
Bombay Government's letter in which that Government adheres to the view 
that in determining and apportioning revenue suspensions and remissions it is 
not advisable to adopt with equity any course other than that which has been 
hitherto followed in the Presidency, and that there are no practical difficulties 
in the way of giving satisfactory effect to this policy. The Famine Commission, 
which is at present engaged in taking evidence in Bombay, has been instructed 
to report on this subject, and we propose to await its recommendations. 

We have, &c, 
(Signed) CURZON. 

E. H. H. COLLEN. 
A. C. TREVOR. 
C. M. RIVAZ. 
T. RALEIGH. 
E. FG. LAW. 



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17* 



Enclosure in No! 58. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir- Mackenzie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary to. the Government 
of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, No. 54, dated Bombay 
Castle, 7th January, 1901. 

In the weekly telegrams and monthly famine reports submitted from this 
Department the Government of India have been kept informed of the general 
condition and prospects of the affected area in this Presidency. As it is now 
unfortunately certain that famine conditions will prevail to a greater or less 
extent for another season over a large part of the area affected in 1899-1900, 1 
am directed to submit a report on the situation and future requirements. 

2. I am to append a statement* of the rainfall of the season of 1900 as 
compared with the normal at the head-quarters and other selected stations of 
each of the districts likely to be affected, and to give below a description of the 
character of the season : — , 

Gujarat. 

The entire month of June was rainless with the exception of a few light 
showers in Surat in the last week and in the Panch Mahals in the second week. 
Sowings could only be partially commenced in those two districts. In July the 
total fall was everywhere much below the average except in the southern 
talukas of Surat. Rain fell mostly between the 12th and 15th, and kharif 
sowings were then generally commenced, but they were checked again by the 
subsequent break and could only be resumed at the close of the month when 
regular monsoon conditions set in throughout Gujarat. The rainfall in August 
was widely distributed, heavy and continuous, and improved the situation 
everywhere. The standing crops were thriving and sowings were in full 
progress at the end of the month, when a break was generally needed. The 
rainfall of September exceeded the average in Broach, the Panch Mahals, the 
eastern talukas of Surat and Kaira and the Gogha and Modasa Petas of 
Ahmedabad ; elsewhere it was below the average. At the end of the month the 
kharif crops were doing well, but more rain was required for maturing them, 
especially rice and the inferior millets bavto and kodra, and also for rabi sowing. 
During the month* of October, November and December there was no rain, and 
except in a few places during December the customary dews of the cold season 
also did not fall. The result has been that among the early-sown kharif crops 
in the three northern districts of Amhedabad, Kaira and the Panch Mahals bajri 
alone will yield a fairly good outturn, while rice and bavto have been almost 
total failures ; the late-sown kharif crops have partially withered and yielded 
but little grain ; they are expected however to produse a fair outturn of fodder. 
In Surat and Broach late-sown jowar and cotton crops will be poor. Rabi crops 
which have been sown over about 50 per cent, of the total area reserved for them 
are withering except in irrigated lands. 

Deccan and Karnatak. 

The rainfall in June exceeded the average in the greater part of Sholapur, 
Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Belgauni, the western talukas of Dharwar and the 
eastern talukas of Poona and Satara ; elsewhere it was much below the average. 
In J uly the fall was short of the average in Khandesh, Nasik and Dharwar, but 
in most talukas of the other districts it was above it. The rain was sufficient 
and useful for resumption of retarded sowings. These were nearly completed at 
the end of the month, when more rain was required in the eastern tracts of the 
Karnatak. The rainfall of August exceeded the average in Belgaum, the hilly 
tracts of the Deccau and the western portion of Dharwar, but in the whole of 
Bijapur and the eastern talukas of Dharwar and the Deccan it was light and 

• Printed at page 181. 

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deficient, and the crops, especially those on light soil in Shol&pur, Bijapur, 
Ahmednagar and the eastern part of Poona, began to suffer. In September the 
rain was much below the average except in the western hilly tracts of Poona and 
Satara. At the end of the month kharif crops were generally good in these tracts 
and the western'portions of Belgaum and Dharwar and in Khandesh and Nasik, 
but elsewhere they were withering, and rabi sowing was generally retarded. 
In October there was no rain in Khandesh and Nasik, while the districts of 
Sholdpur, Poona and Satara three talukas of Ahmednagar and the greater part 
of the Karnatak received light to fair showers, which refreshed the withering 
crops to some extent and enabled rabi sowings to be continued. Beyond light 
scattered showers between the 5th and 7th of November in some places in 
Sholapur, Satara and Bijapur there was practically no rain in November and 
December throughout the Deccan and Karnatak, with result that late-sown 
kharif crops have suffered greatly everywhere and unirrigated rabi crops are 
generally withering. 

3. It will thus be seen that the almost total failure of the late rains in 
Gujarat and their deficiency in the Deccan and Karnatak have blighted the hopes 
which were entertained in August last of a bumper kharif harvest, and have 
destroyed the chances of obtaining any rabi crops at all except in irrigated 
lands and a few other favoured tracts. 

4. The Commissioner, N., D., in a report dated 12th December, 1900, 
describes the situation in Gujarat in the following terms : — 

" There is reason to fear in many parts of this Division scarcity deepening as the 
season advances into famine among at least the lower classes. The situation has 
recently been somewhat improved by heavy dews and would be still further improved 
in the rabi areas by a fall of rain within this month. 

" Owing to the loss of plough cattle the area sown with kharif crops was much 
below the normal. The proportion sown with rabi is probably still less, owing to 
the failure of the later rain and to the enervation of the people by fever, dysentery 
and other diseases which have been remarkably rife. 

" Of the kharif crops rice has, with insignificant exceptions, totally failed. Bajri 
and jowar have done well or ill accoiding to whether the rain began earlier or later, 
and perhaps also according to the promptitude of the cultivator in getting the seed in. 
Generally it may be said that early-sown bajri has done well — in some tracts very 
well. Jowar not so well, the great bulk of this crop being nothing but fodder though 
looking well in the field to a superficial observer. The other kharif crops vary from 
about 8 annas in the best parts of Kaira District to nil in the worst parts of the same, 
in parts of the Panch Mahals and elsewhere. The outturn of cotton is conjectured at 
6 annas in Ahmedabad and 4 annas in Vagra and adjacent villages. Elsewhere in 
the affected areas mentioned below this crop is not grown. 

" Rabi would have been good if there had been an inch or two of rain in October 
or November, but it did not come. Heavy dews often make up for want of other 
moisture, but they too have been absent till recently. Hence not only is the area very 
small but except on wells the outturn as it appears at present will be poor. 

" The area of British territory in this Division likely to be affected may be thus 
described : — 

Ahmedabad District. — The whole except Daskroi Taluka and Gogha Mabil, parts 
of Sanand Taluka and other small portions where the kharif has been fair. 

Kaira District. — Matar, Thasra and Eapadvanj Talukas will be more or less 
distressed. 

Panch Mahals. — The whole district more or less. Probably least in Kalol and 
most in Jhalod. 

Broach. — A portion (say 30 villages) of Amod Tdluka, a portion (say <$0 villages) 
of Jambusar Taluka, 7 ' Bara ' villages of Broach Taluka and almost the whole 
of the Vagra TaMuka. 

Surat. — Western half of Olpad TaMuka, eastern half of Mandvi TaMuka, sea coast 
and south-east corner of Bulsar, east and south sides of Pardi. 

" Outside these areas there will be much scattered distress which will need limited 
measures of relief in the hot weather, partly because all over the country some crops 
have more or less failed, and partly because everywhere a large proportion of the 
normal area has been left unsown altogether. 

"The economic condition of the people throughout the four districts* and the 
affected parts of Surat is not encouraging. Last year's 
*£ h j ne<labftl1- famine acting upon a peasantry unused to privation has 

Panch M&hala them enfeebled and dispirited. Many have not had 

Broaob. " the cattle or else the energy to cultivate land at all. Again 

. the Collector of Ahmedabad writes demi-officially : ' The 
striking feature of this year's distress will be the large sums of money put into the 



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ground compared with the small returns.' The loss of the milch cattle has been a 
paralysing blow to people to whom milk in its various forms was the only animal food. 
In the better parts of Gu jarat it was the custom of the well-to-do cultivators to keep 
large herds of buffaloes and cows and to give the chds (whey > away among their poorer 
neighbours. No one went without. Now in the villages one constantly hears the 
piteous cry 4 when shall we get our chds. 1 Lastly a wave of sickness has lately passed 
over the country not sparing Europeans and the best fed native classes and still further 
depressing the general vitality. In my opinion the present condition of the agricul- 
tural classes is such as to call for very careful and considerate treatment, especially in 
those parts of the province detailed above." 

In a later special report regarding 108 " Bara " or sea-coast villages of 
Broach the Commissioner, N., D., states that nearly all the people (including 
some of the most respectable) are living at present on grass seed, especially an 
unwholesome variety called " Anchi-banchi," that no kharif crops are sown in 
this tract, that the prospects of the rabi crops are extremely poor, that the 
staple jowar has not yet germinated, and that owing to use of bad seed and 
ravages by insects only 10 per cent, of the sown crop is expected to yield about 
8 annas. In a report dated 15th December, 1900, the Collector of Ahmedabad 
gives the following account of the state of crops in that district : — 

" As the supply of grass seeds is failing, doles will have to be increased and works 
provided soon in the Bhal tracts of Dholka and Dhandhnka, where the one crop of the 
year, unirrigated wheat and gram, has practically failed. What little remains — roughly 
half the area sown — is still being eaten up by insects, and the damage already done 
and still continuing is enormous. The tracts adjoining the Sabarmati (Sanand, Dholka 
and Daskroi Talukas) are fairly covered with rabi crops, some of which look moderately 
healthy in their present stage. The rice crop has failed entirely in most places, but in 
a few Nalkantha and west Sanand villages there will be a little to harvest. In the 
Viramgam Chuval the kharif crop has been estimated at 6 to 8 annas, which is fortunate 
considering that this with the Bhal tract is generally the first to demand relief measures. 
Parantij will not, I learn, be disappointed of all harvest, but Modasa has not done 
very well so far. To sum up, the prospects vary very much from village to village, 
and while the Bhal and most rice villages have a total failure to face, in other parts the 
cultivators at ieast will be able to pull through, anl I do not anticipate any great 
demand for works till the hot weather, when all chance of field labour is over." 

In a later report the Collector of Ahmedabad estimates the average outturn 
of jowari at 5 annas and that of bajri at 6 annas for the entire district. 

In Kaira the rice crop is practically a failure as in other parts of Northern 
Gujarat, while the yield of bajri averages about 1 1 annas and that of other 
kharif crops about 4 annas. 

5. As regards the Deccan and Karnatak it appears that a continuation of 
relief measures will be necessary in the whole of Sholapur and Ahmednagar 
except the Akola Taluka of the latter district, in about three-fifths of Bijapur, 
the eastern talukas of Poona, Satara and Belgaum and parts of Khandesh and 
Nasik. The outturn of crops in these districts as estimated by the collectors is 
shown below : — 



District. 


Kharif. 


Babi. 


Sholapur... ... 


8 annas in 1 taluka, 4 to 6 annas 
in 3 talukas, and 2 to 3 annas 
in 3 talukas. Average for 
district 4 annas. 


4 to 6 annas in 1 taluka and 
portion of another. Almost none 
in other talukas. 


Ahmednagar 


9 annas in Akola. Average for 
the rest of the district 6 annas. 


None excepting a slight crop in a 
few scattered places. 


Poona 


4 to 6 annas in the affected parts 
of Indapur. Almost complete 
failure in the affected parts of 
Sirur, Purandhar, Bhimthadi, 
and Dhond. Harvest much 
below normal in the remaining 
parts of these talukas. Average 
outturn in the western portion 
of the district 10 annas. 


Total failure in the affected parts. 



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District. 



Satara 



Kbindeah 



Nasik 



Bijapur 



Belgaum 



Kharif. 

In Man, Khatav and Khanapur 
an average of 2 annas on high 
lands and of 4 annas on low 
lands. In Karad 6 annas and 
in Khan rial a 5 annas on the 
average. 

In the rest of the district which 
is not affected 6 to 10 annas in 
3 talnkas, 7 annas in 2, and 
8 to 12 annas in 1. 

Outturn expected to be fairly 
good in eastern Khandesh 
except in certain limited areas 
of poor soil. In western 
Khandesh, except Shahada and 
the Dangs, crops have suffered 
severely over most of the area 
and the outturn will be gener- 
ally poor. 

10 annas on the average in the 
western half and 6 to 8 annas 
in the eastern half of the 
district. 

Excepting 117 villages of Badami, 
87 of Bagalkot, 35 of Sindgi 
and 12 of Bijapur, where it 
varies from 7 to 12 annas, the 
outturn ranges between ^ anna 
and 5 annas. 

From fair to very good except in 
the extreme east, where crops 
have failed badly. The affected 
portion comprises parts of 
Athni, Gokak, and Parasgad 
Talnkas and Murgod Mahal. 



Babi. 



Entire failure in the affected 
parte except where irrigated. 
Fairly promising in the rest of 
the district. 



Almost total failure except on 
irrigated lands. 



Almost total failure except on 
irrigated lands. Irrigated crops 
will probably yield 12 annas in 
the western half and perhaps 
8 annas in the eastern half. 

From i anna to 4 annas except 
in 15 villages of Bagevadi 
where it is 6 annas, 58 of 
Bagalkot where it is from 6 to 
10 annas, and 117 of Badami 
where it is 5 annas. 

Rabi for most part not sown in 
the affected portion. 



It is to be observed that in all the affected tracts of the Deccan and 
Karnatak the rabi crops are far the more important, but in the current year the 
early rain induced the sowing of kharif crops in many places to a larger extent 
than usual. 

6. The fodder-supply is everywhere reported to be sufficient, and the 
quantity available will probably last throughout the season in most districts. ' 
On the other hand the water-supply is running short in many places, and as 
the season advances there is likely to be great scarcity of drinking water for 
man and beast over a wide area in the Deccan and Karnatak, and in some parts 
of Gujarat. The deficiency of water will also, it is apprehended, affect seriously 
the outturn of irrigated crops. In a letter dated 3 1st October, 1900, the 
Collector of Sholapur reported as follows : — 

"The depletion of the tanks and wells is everywhere causing anxiety. The 
Ekruk, Mhasvad, Ashti and Koregaon irrigation tanks are all unprecedently low, 
and irrigation from all of them has been partially stopped to prevent them from 
running quite dry. The level of the sub-soil water throughout the whole district is 
seriously reduced. At Akalkot last week I found the large well from which the 
town used principally to be supplied, and the bottom of which had not been seen 
before, quite dry except in one corner, where there were 15 inches of water ; 
there ought to be 25 feet. At Barsi I found the wells threatening to give out, and 
the big nala, whence water was fetched last year, nearly dry, which does not look 
. M „ well for the chance of getting much water from * hels '• 

u., temporary excavation... iQ u next hot weather- At B hamburdi one of the main 

wells which supply the camp is failing, and so it is throughout the district. The rain 
we have just had has been all absorbed by the parched surface soil and has not 
replenished the springs. In my opinion it is urgently necessary to do all in our 
power to improve the water-supply now by deepening as many village wells as 
possible. The prospect of a water-famine is alarming." 

Again, in a letter dated 1st December, 1900, he reports that the level of 
the sub-soil water has never been so low within living memory. Similar 
reports have been received from all- other districts of the Deccan and Karnatak, 



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and such expenditure as has been considered necessary for temporary improvement 
of the water-supply has been authorised in all districts. It is also probable (hat 
there will be a large demand for tagai for deepening wells, and some of the 
collectors have already asked for additional allotments. The total requirements 
are being ascertained from the Commissioners, and the Government of India 
will be separately addressed in the matter. 

7. The following statement shows the prices of the staple food-graini as 
they stood iu the several districts in the second week of December, 190©7 and 
in the corresponding week of 1899 : — 



District. 


Jowiri. 


Bajri. 


1900. 


1899. 


1900. 


1899. 




8. 


Ch. 


8. 


Ch. 


8. 


Oh. 


8. 


Oh. 


Ahmedabad 


15 


6 


9 


7 


14 


11 


8 


6 


Kaira 


14 


0 


9 


2| 


15 


8 


8 


H 


Panch Mahals 


15 


13* 


9 


H 


13 


12 


8 


4 


Broach 


13 


0 


8 




13 


2 


8 


4 


Surat 


11 ■ 


8 


9 


8 


12 


8 


8 


1 


Sholapur .... 


9 


10$ 


9 


10| 


11 


10f 


9 


6* 


Ahmednagar 


9 


8* 


8 


94 


12 


0 


8 


? 


Poona 


11 




9 


9 


11 


'!> 


8 




Khandesh 


13 


H 


8 


12 


12 




8 


8 


Nasik 


9 


m 


9 


3 


12 


10f 


8 


8 


Satara 


9 


13S 


8 


15 


10 


11* 


8 


15 


Belgaum 


11 


7 


11 


0 


10 


12 


9 


12 


Bijapur 


10 


1 


11 


4 


12 


5 


10 


5 


Dharwar 


11 


5 


13 


0 


12 


2 







It will be seen that both in Gujarat and in the Deccan prices are at present 
generally considerably lower than they were in the preceding year, but in 
some districts of the Deccan and Southern Maratha country the difference is 
not very wide. It is probable that they will again rise when the new grain 
in the market is exhausted, but they will presumably not reach the level of last 
year as the harvests in other parts of India have 'been good, and any deficiency 
of stock will, therefore, be more readily supplied than it was in that year. 

8. In Sholapur, where the demand for field labour has already slackened, 
people are rapidly returning to the relief works. Thousands of people from 
this district and from Ahmednagar and Bijapur are also reported to have 
emigrated to the neighbouring native states and the Berars in search of field 
work or other employment, but in a later report the Collector of Ahmednagar 
states that this emigration is now checked to some extent, and that many of 
the emigrants are returning disappointed. The Collector of Satara also reports 
that an unusually large number of people have left the Man Taluka of 
that district in search of work in Bombay, Khandesh and other places. This 
migration coupled with the fall in prices and the limited area of distress will, 
it is hoped, tend towards lessening the suffering of the people, but, as remarked 
by the Collector of Satara, "the famine of 1899-1900 has told severely on the 
pockets of nearly all clawses, and many persons who are ordinarily in fairly well- 
to-do circumstances will this year require relief, having last year parted with 
practically all their surplus wealth, both cattle, jewellery,, and cash. Sales of 
cattle for subsistence have already been reported from parts of Sholapur and 
Ahmednagar, and the collector of the former district states that in the 
Karmala and Malsiras Talukas cattle have been sold by thousands for a song, 
and in many villages there are hardly any left. 

9. The Commissioners have submitted estimates of tne numbers likely to 
require relief from January, 190L, onwards. - It k -anticipated that if the next 
monsoon is normal, relief measures will have to be carried on in the three 
northern Gujarat districts at least till the end of July, and in the other districts 
till the end of September or October, 1901. The following statement shows 
the estimates for each district reduced to units as compared with the numbers 
of units actually reUeved in the corresponding months of last year : — i 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 





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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



In view of the account given by the Commissioner, Northern Division, ot 
the crops and the comparatively low level of prices in Gujarat it would seem 
possible that the extent of relief likely to be needed there has been over- 
estimated, but the circumstances of Gujarat are so peculiar, the immigration 
from Native States in particular being an incalculable quantity, that it has not 
been deemed advisable to reduce the estimates of the local authorities. The 
Commissioner, Southern Division, considers that relief measures will also be 
necessary in portions of the Navalgund, Hubli, Kalghatgi and Bankapur Talukas 
of the Dharwar District, but as the estimates of outturn reported for these 
Talukas are nowhere below 5 annas on the average it seems to the Governor in 
Council improbable that need for relief will arise there. The Dharwar district 
has, therefore, been eliminated from the estimates. 

10. The price of the staple food-grains (bajri and jowari) in the famine 
districts averaged 17 lbs. per rupee during the 14 months ending October, 1900. 
As the area on which crops have now failed is not nearly so large as last year, 
and as crops are good in places both inside and outside the Presidency, the 
average price is not likely to exceed 20 lbs., and it is proposed to take this as the 
basis for calculating the future expenditure. On this basis the rate of expendi- 
ture may be taken to lie Rs. 91 per 1,000 units, and the result is shown 
below : — 

Estimated units to be relieved during January to March, 1901— 



! District. 

j Northern Division 

1 Central Division 

: Southern Division 

; Total 


Number 

8,704,000 
28,788,000 
3,042,000 




41,134,000 


The cost of the relief at Rs. 91 per 1,000 units will be Rs. 37,43,194, or 
say, Rs. 37,43,000. 

Estimated units to be relieved during Die year 1901-02 — 


District. 


Number. 




Northern Division 


25,065,000 




Central Division 


77,224,000 




Southern Division... 


14,380,000 




Total 


116,675,000 





The cost at Rs. 91 per 1,000 units will be Rs. 1,06,17,425, or say 
Rs. 1,06,17,000. 



11. The total expenditure under the major head "33 — Famine Relief ,r 
for the current year amounted to Rs. 2,52,55,000 till the end of October, 1900, 
Rs. 1,76,47,000 in the Public Works and Rs. 76,08,000 in the Civil Depart- 
ment. The expenditure in the Civil Department during the month of 
November, 1900, amounted to Rs. 5,92,Q00, and that during December is 
estimated at Rs. 3£ lakhs. The expenditure during November and December in 
the Public Works Department is expected to be about Rs. 10 lakhs. This will 
bring the total expenditure on famine relief in this Presidency up to end of 
December, 1900, to Rs. 2,71,97,000, and that for the months of January to 
March, 1901, is estimated above at Rs. 37,43,000, of which one-third is likely to 
be incurred in the Civil and two-thirds in the Public Works Department. The 
total actual and estimated expenditure for the year is thus estimated at 
10566 » A. 



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180 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



Rs. 3,09,40,000 (Rs. 97,98,000 in the Civil Department and Rs. 2,11,42,000 in 

the Public Works Department). This estimate 

• Rs. 92,64,000 in the Civil exceeds the grants (Rs. 2,72,92,000*) already 

Department. sanctioned by the Government of India by 

Rs. 1,80,28,000 m the Public „ „„ , 0 nftl / T ■,. . , . , . J 

Works Department. I*- 8 - 36,48,000. I am directed to request that you 

will be good enough to move the Government of 

India to sanction an additional grant of Rs. 36£ lakhs for expenditure during 

the current year on famine relief in this Presidency, viz., Rs. ,5,34,000 for 

expenditure in the Civil Department and Rs. 31,16,000 for that in the Public 

Works Department. As regards next year the Accountant General will be 

instructed to make the necessary provision in the Budget estimates. 

12. As regards suspensions and remissions of land revenue the Commis- 
sioners have not yet submitted any definite estimates. Their attention has been 
drawn to the orders on the subject conveyed in the Resolution of this Govern- 
ment, No. 3,265, dated 5th September, 1900, of which I am to append a copy 
for ready reference. At the close of paragraph 5 of this Resolution it is directed 
that in cases in which, owing to the small size of the holding or the poverty of 
the crop, the outturn is insufficient to leave any balance after discharging the 
year's assessment and supplying the means of subsistence until another year's 
harvest, the arrears may be at once remitted. The following supplementary 
instructions have now been issued : — 

" It .may D6 assumed (unless there is some special reason apparent) that arrears 
for years prior to 1899-1900 should be remitted at once, and in many cases it will be 
clear that arrears of that year should uot be recovered according to the principles 
which have been prescribed. As regards the current year's revenue, the grant of 
suspensions will be regulated on the same principles. Those cultivators, however, 
whose case is covered by the orders in paragraph 5 of Government Resolution, 
No. 3,265, dated 5th September, 1900, and whose crops for this year are insufficient 
to justify the levy of the revenue from them, should be granted a remission at 
once, intead of merely a suspension. In the case of other cultivators not so badly 
circumstanced, the question of converting suspensions into remissions must await 
decision until the prospects of the season 1901-1902 are known. Government desire 
that in dealing with cases of remissions of arrears for past years, the principles 
already laid down should be followed in a liberal spirit, and the benefit of every 
reasonable doubt should be given to the cultivator." 

13. This further extensive failure of crops will render necessary remis- 
sions and suspensions of the land revenue on an unusually large scale. Many 
occupants who have managed to pay their way so far will be able to do so no 
longer. Many who, with a good outturn might have paid part or whole of the 
*rrears of the past year, will not be able to do more than discharge the dues of 
the year. Thus the collection of much of the revenue of another year will have 
to be suspended, and the suspended revenue of the past year will have to be 
remitted to a larger extent than was anticipated. But for the determination of 
the concessions required it is not, in the opinion of the (iovernor in Council, 
advisable to adopt with equity any course other than that which has hitherto 
been followed. Undoubtedly it is a disadvantage of the rayatwari system that 
it makes the difficulty of granting this form of relief much greater than it is 
under a zamindari system. Under the latter the average crop of a tract can be 
estimated, and Zamindars or Malguzars can be trusted to distribute among the 
tenants relief to the extent to which they may be severally entitled to it. In 
this Presidency Government stand to the rayats in the relation of Zamindars to 
their tenants. The occupants have to be dealt with individually by Govern- 
ment officers. If a rough estimate of the outturn of a tract were adopted as the 
basis of the remission of a general proportion of the assessment, the necessity 
for discrimination of individual cases would be obviated only to the extent to 
which revenue is needlessly sacrificed. All who had any hope of showing that 
their outturn was below the assumed standard would apply for further 
remission, and some could no more pay a proportion of the assessment than 
they could, pay the whole. Even if the failure of crops were uniform over 
large tracts, suspension and remission could not equitably be granted in the 
same proportion to capitalists and to impoverished cultivators. But the failure 
except where it is absolute is never uniform, and in the current season the out- 
turn is said to vary in the same villages in Gujarat from 2 to 12 annas, while 
many fields have not been sown at all. It is the duty of the village officers to 
record annually the actual facts as regards each field and of Circle Inspectors 



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181 



and superior officers to test the record. Iu the circumstances, it is best when 
there is time to base the estimate of the extent to which remissions or suspen- 
sions should be granted on a consideration of the individual cases, but even if a 
preliminary estimate is based ou a conjecture of the average outturn, the actual 
relief to be jr'iven must depend on the circumstances of the individual occupants. 
It would get rid of no difficulty to "fix the amount of revenue to be remitted or 
suspended in the lump on an estimate of general outturn. The amount would 
probably be found either too large or too small, but in any case the relief would 
remain to be distributed according to the circumstances of individuals, and the 
distribution would have to be- supervised by superior officers ; if it were left to 
the discretion of village officers, there would be favouritism and fraud ; the 
most influential would benefit unduly and the most needy would suffer. 



Annex ure. 

Statement showing Rainfall of the season of 1900. 









June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


District. 




Station. 


Nor- 


1000. 


Nor- 


1900. 


Nor- 


1000. 


Nor- 


1900. 


Nor- 


1900. 


mat 


1900 






i 

Ahmedabad 

I 


5-24 




12-57 


4*73 


8'44 


7*96 


4*61 


3*53 


0-60 


*• 


0*3 




Ahmedabad 


-{ 


Dhandhuka 


477 




10-42 


472 


5*82 


14*15 


4*45 


3*23 


1*06 


•• 


0*43 


•• 






Dholka .. 


4 - 90 


0*03 


14-14 


0*91 


8*58 


12*21 


5*03 


1-43 


0*38 




076 


•• 






Kaira 


f>-56 


•* 


16-16 


'J*29 


9*31 


16*64 


4 - o9 


2*61 


0*86 




071 


** 


Kaira 


•i 


Matar 


5*22 




14-28 


375 


10'12 


16*00 


6*05 


212 


0*48 




0*67 


•• 






Thasra 


6*37 




1372 


2-18 


9'30 


14*9 


6*43 


4*64 


070 




0*38 






( 


Godhra 


6-82 


0*54 


1479 


5'32 


11*85 


16*4 


6*54 


10-19 


0*81 




0*38 




Panch Mahals 


I 

..< 


Hnlol 


572 


0*08 


18-35 


3*00 


1174 


17-29 


5*95 


8*06 


1*54 


•• 


0*28 






1. 


Jhalod 


5-87 


0*27 


10-20 


3'13 


8*72 


13*80 


5*12 


730 


0*82 


•• 


0*60 


*• 




( 


Broach 


9*69 




1772 


4*33 


8*17 


20*46 


5*29 


8*01 


1*44 


*• 


0*26 


•* 


Broach .. 


1 

✓ 


Viigra 


7'38 




13'81 


7*28 


6*21 


20*37 


471 


7*66 


1*32 




11*34 


** 




\ 


Jambosar 


7-18 




13-37 


•J-56 


7*9 


16 - 14 


4*37 


4*99 


1*17 




2*39 






( 


Surat .. .. 


9-58 


010 


21-04 


13*38 


?17 


17'84 


578 


277 


1*99 


•* 


0*30 




Surat - .. 


1 

..< 


•Olpad- 


746 




18*21 


8"29 


678 


14*88 


4*58 


2*32 


1*45 




0*18 






I 

l 


Pardi 


13-89 


215 


32-86 


32*38 


1678 


48-32 


11*27 


6*29 


1*40 


•• 


0'60 






j 


Dhulia 


t) - 30 


0*41 


677 


3*06 


3"86 


0"84 


6*19 


3*50 


1*24 




1*02 




Khandesh 


Jalgaon 


5H9 


31)3 


K-98 


9-63 


7*33 


10*34 


672 


2-36 


1*30 




0*62 


•» 




"1 


Bhusnval .. 


4-48 


m 


9*27 


8-08 


6*01 


717 


8*01 


2*15 


172 




6-48 


•« 






Niisik 


6-15 


3-36 


874 


9-43 


4*18 


10*36 


6-04 


8-51 


3*17 




0*58 




NAsik 


J 


i Miilegaon .. 


435 


217 


4-49 


370 


3*22 


323 


6-86 


3*70 


1-68 




0*61 






{ 


Teola 


4*29 


6*61 


5-10 


10-27 


2*85 


2*41 


7*50 


0*8.1 


2*17 




1*23 






i 

J 


Ahmednagar 


4-01 


e-io 


2*87 


5*21 


2*37 


271 


6*87 


3*77 


3-50 


0*01 


1-23 




Aumcdnagar 


, Shrigonda .. 


310 


4"29 


21)9 


3*78 


1*63 


2-19 


721 


0*17 


301 


0*30 


1-24 






V' Koporgaon.. 


4-07 


419 


.■'■66 


677 


• 2*39 


267 


5-99 


0-96 


1*82 




1*28 








Poona 


6-23 


V77 


898 


12-11 


*r»"i 


11*60 


• 5-88 


310 


6-06 


1*93 


1*47 




Poooa 


j 


Ghodnadi(Sirur).. 


4-24 


5-90 


2-JB 


6-89 


1*61 


1*61 


8*10 


1*10 


3*65 


0*91 


1*30 






i 

i 


Dhond 


5-38 


2-47 


3*16 


3*15 


1*73 


1-69 


6-82 


1*38 


3*45 


072 


0*94 








Sholapur .. 


377 


6-38 


3*88 


••05- 


4*53 


1*23 


8126 


4-18 


4*03 


1*69 


1*86 


0*05- 


Sholapur 


■( 


Karmala .. 


3*38 


470 


2-91 


6*50 


2-90 


3*01 


946 


0-41 


3-5* 


0*17 


117 








Sangola 


3-38 


6-44 


1*61 


362 


372 


0*79 


7*00 


1-43 


4*00 


311 


1*06 


OKI 




r 


Sntara 


7*69 


4-85 


H-88 


14-49 


7*83 


18*89 


415 


1*17 


j-60 


i*95 


0*94 


0*62 


Sitara .. 


■•< 


Khandala . . 


4*04 


177 


4*07 


974 


2*37 


4*38 


4*34 


1*29 


437 


0*22 


0*94 






i 


Dahivadi(Man) .. 


3-36 


?02 


2-04 


3-31 


176 


2*24 


6-05 


0-18 


5*41 


0*88 


1*49 


0*30 




r 


Bilapnr 


4D0 


3-97 


2*17 


4*50 


2-54 


0*53 


7*38 


1-34 


4*48 


1*04 


1*60 


0-41 


Bilapur ..- 


i 


1 Indi 


372 


6-67 


272 


3-35 


4*06 


0*68 


776 


2*88 


6*27 


1*05 


116 


0*86 






Muddebihal 


3-98 


5-97 


2*76 


1*97 


3«t 


1*67 


7*41 


3*16 


6*17 


3*08 


171 


0*20 






! Belgaum .. 


8-67 


10-82 


15*42 


20*29 


873 


2471 


478 


0*88 


6*51 


4*26 


176 


0*03 


Belgaum.. 




Athni 


2-87 


2-85 


2*31 


1-95 


2*37 


2-43 


5*34 


1*63 


470 


1*84 


1*25 








Murgod 


419 


278 


3*51 


474 


2*20 


5-84 


5*05 




6*30 


2*16 


1*46 





Note.— The rainfall shown under * Normal " is the average of eleven years— 1887 to 1897. 



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No. 59. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir- Mackenzie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government 
of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, No. 709, dated Bombay 
Castle, 22nd February, 1901. 

In "reply to your telegram No. 170, dated 16th January, 1901, and in 
continuation of the telegram from this Government No. 226, dated 18th idem, 
I am directed to state for the information of the Government of India that the 
Commissioners, Central and Southern Divisions, have reported that the recent 
rain has not improved the situation in any of the affected districts in their 
Divisions, and that consequently no modification can be made in the forecast of 
relief expenditure for those Divisions. 

2. The Commissioner, Northern Division, however, intimates that there 
is no ground for hoping that the forecast for that Division was unnecessarily 
high in all districts except Surat, and requests that the estimates of numbers on 
relief for the Ahmedabad, Panch Mahals, Kaira and Broach Districts, previously 
furnished by him, may be reduced by 23, 15, 50, and 50 per cent, respectively. 



3. These reductions necessitate the following modification in the forecast 
of famine expenditure in this Presidency, as reported in paragraph 1 1 of my 
letter No. 54, dated 7th January, 1901 : — 





Forecast as 
already Reported. 


Forecast as now 
Framed. 


Revised estimate for 1900-1901 :— 

Civil Department 


Rs. in 
Thousands. 
97,98 


Rs. in 
Thousands. 
97,98 


Public WorkB Department 


2,11,42 


2,09,07 


Total 


3,09,40 


3,07,05 


Budget estimate for 1891-1902:— 






Civil Department 


35,39 


33,28 


Public Works Department 


70,78 


66,56 


Total 


1,06,17 


99,84 



4. I am to request that you will be so good as to move the Government 
of India to make the requisite modifications in the estimates in accordance with 
the figures given in the foregoing paragraph. 



No. 60. 

Letter from the Government of Bombay to His Majesty's Principal Secretary 
of State for India in Council, No. 1,256, dated Bombay Castle, 19th April, 
1901. 

About the middle of November last, when, owing to the failure of the 
*utumnal rains, it became evident that this Presidency would be subjected to 
another season of scarcity, we directed the Commissioners of Divisions to submit 
reports on the situation with estimates of the extent to which relief would be 



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183 



required in their respective charges. On receipt of these estimates we addressed 

to the Government of India a consolidated report* 
• No. 54, dated ^th January, for the p res idency on the agricultural situation and 
' " J ' future requirements in respect of famine relief. We 

have the honour to enclose for your Lordship's information a copy of this report* 
and of a further letter, No. 709, dated 22nd February, I901,f to the Government 
of India, modifying the previous estimates in the case of Gujarat. 

2. We have now the honour to report for your Lordship's information 
that the actual numbers relieved during the last three months have fallen far 
short of the estimates. This result is mainly due to the crops having yielded 
a better out-turn in several districts, to prices having generally remained much 
lower than was originally anticipated, and to extensive emigration from the 
affected parts of the Deccan and Karnatak to more favoured tracts in British as 
well as Native States territory. In the circumstances it now seems to us 
improbable that so much relief as was anticipated will be needed in the current 
and subsequent months, but the local officers in Gujarat apprehend that the 
grass seed, on which large numbers of people have subsisted for some months, 
will soon be exhausted, and that distress will then be widespread. Although 
the low range of prices still prevailing does not seem to support the view of 
the local officers, it will, in our opinion, be safer not to reduce their estimates 
largely before the expiry of the time when the exhaustion of the grass seed 
was expected. We also consider it desirable to see how the situation will be 
affected by the completion of the rabi harvest. By the close of this month we 
expect to be in a position to revise, if necessary, our previous estimates of the 
numbers to be relieved, and of the relief expenditure for the current financial 
year. Wp shall report our proceedings in due course to the Government of 
India and to your Lordship. 

We have, &c, 

(Signed) NORTHCOTE, 

E. C. K. OLLIVANT, 
J. MONTEATH. 



No. 61. 

Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., CLE., Officiating Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, No. 1389 — 17-9, dated Simla, 
the 15th May, 1901. 

I am directed by the Governor General in Council to address you as follows 
in regard to the extent to which famine relief is being given in the Bombay 
Presidency. 

2. So far as appears from the latest information which has been received, 
the apprehensions entertained last January of a marked rise in prices have 
fortunately not been fulfilled. It was then feared that grain would rise to 20 
lbs. per rupee, and this rate was taken as the basis for estimating the probable 
famine expenditure. Grain is now obtainable in Guzarat at from 34 to 38 lbs. 
per rupee, a marked fall having occurred within the last four months. In the 
Deccan prices are higher, ranging from 25 lbs. per rupee in Bijapur and Satara 
to 27 lbs. in Ahmednagar and Sholapur. These rates represent a fall of from 
10 to 20 percent, on thpse which were current last January. They are lower 
than those current in some parts of the Central Provinces, and very much lower 
than those with which the people of those provinces were making shift six 
months ago. 

3. Of British districts relief is being given most largely in Sholapur and 
Ahmednagar, where between 8 and 9 per cent, of the population are dependent 

• See page 173. t See page 182. 



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on Government. The percentage is between 4 and 5 in Kaira and the Panch 
Mahals and between 2 and 3 in Ahmedabad, Poona and Bijapur. Elsewhere 
in British territory the amount of relief granted is not considerable. But in 
the Native State of Jath it is actually supporting 25 per cent, of the popula- 
tion. Numbers have fallen very largely in Sholapur since January last and 
there has been a considerable decrease in Poona. In other districts they have 
been rising more or less rapidly, the increase having been proportionately 
largest in Guzarat in spite of low prices. Taking all British districts together 
the numbers on relief have risen from 187 to 312 thousands within the last 
four months. 

4. The Government of India fully appreciate the danger cf relying too abso- 
lutely on prices as an indication of the condition of the lower classes. They 
realize that a calamity such as last year's famine cannot pass over the country 
without leaving in its track large numbers of destitute persons who can only 
find in prosperous seasons a chance of finding for themselves. In present 
circumstances the grant of gratuitous relief on a considerable scale is no 
doubt necessary if fresh suffering is to be prevented, and the Government of 
India have no wish to interfere with any measures which the Government of 
Bombay may consider necessary for affording such relief in the way either of 
cash doles or cooked food. But relief is now being given to the able-bodied to- 
a larger extent than the pitch of prices would prima facie justify, and care 
seems necessary to provide that it is really restricted to those who need it- 
Experience has shown that such work tests as can be enforced are not an entirely 
reliable means of discriminating between the deserving and the undeserving, 
especially in the case of those who live near the works, and I am to ask that 
measures may, if possible, be taken to scrutinize those who come to the works- 
from a distance of five miles or less and to eliminate by the personal discrimina- 
tion of enquiring officers those whose condition and apparent circumstances do- 
not entitle them to State charity. 



No. 62. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir- Mackenzie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government 
of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, No. 1507, dated Bombay 
Castle, 3rd June, 190l'. 

[Extract.] 

With reference to the last sentence of the despatch from this Government 
to His Majesty's Secretary of State for India, No. 1256, dated 19th April, 1901,* 
of which a copy was forwarded to the Government of India with my letter- 
No. 1262 of the 20th idem, I am directed to submit the further report promised 
regarding the estimates of numbers on relief and of expenditure. 

In paragraph 2 of the despatch referred to above it was remarked that the- 
actual numbers relieved during the months of January to March in this Presidency 
had fallen far short of the estimates. The following are figures for those months 
and the month of April and first fortnight of May : 



Month (1101). 


Estimated Belief 
Units. 


Actual Unite 
Believed. 


Percentage 
of Actuals to 
Estimates. 


January 


8,795,700 


5,280,000 


60 


February 


11,317,300 


4,972,080 


43-9 


March... ... ... ... ... ... 


18,434,600 


6,600,405 


35-8 


... ... ... ... ... ... 


21,518,718 


7,500,654 


34-8 


May (1st fortnight) 


11,819,797 


4,701,228 


39-7 



* See page 183. 



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185 



Taking Gujarat alone the proportion of actuals to estimate rose from 2.V5 per 
cent, in March to 46*3 per cent, in April, but in the Deccan and Karnatak on 
the other hand it declined from 38*2 to 32 per cent. The rate of increase in 
the numbers relieved from week to week during the month of April and the first 
two weeks of May is shown below : — 







TTnitj* T?p1ipv<¥? 


WapIcI v TrmrftnAp 






30th March 1901 










6th April, 1901 


1,619,996 


162,750 






13th „ 


1,781,346 


161,350 






20th „ ... 


1,970,493 


189,147 






27th „ 


2,128,819 


158,326 






4th May. 1901 


2.269,155 


140,336 






11th „ 


2,432,073 


162,918 ; 

! 

i 



It will thus be seen that there has not been that extensive development 
of distress or rapid rise in the numbers on relief which was expected to occur 
after the conclusion of the rabi harvest and the exhaustion of the grass seed, on 
which large numbers of people, especially in Gujarat, were reported to have 
subsisted during the earlier months of the year. This favourable result is mainly 
due to the low range of prices, which continued to decline till the end of April 
last, but have since assumed an upward tendency. In the following table are 
compared, for each district, the average prices of jowari and bajri as they stood 
in the first week of January with those in the last week of April and the first 
two weeks of May : — 



District. 


Week ending 
5th January, 1901. 


Week ending 
27th April, 1901. 


Week ending 
4th May, 1901. 


Week ending 
11th May, 1901. 




Jowari 


Bajri. 


Jowari 


Bajri. 


Jowari. 


Bajri 


Jowari 


Bajri. 


Ahmedabad 


Lbs. 

33J 


Lbs. 

30A 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 
34£ 


Lbs. 

35* 


Lbs. 

34 


Lbs. 
33J 


Lbs. 
3U 


Kaira 


33? 


32A 


38 


38£ 


38f 


38 


37£ 


34? 


Panch Mahals ... 
Broach 


m 

(maize). 

301 


32£ 
28| 


m 

(maize). 
371 


35f 
31 


32f 
(maize). 
36| 


36* 
31 


32§ 
(maize). 
36£ 


36 
31 


Surat 
Khandesh 


33 
29./ r 


23 

(rice). 
26 


32 

33 3 3 x 


13 

(rice). 
32 


32 

33 


32 


32 
32 


31 


Nasik 


20f$ 


2<">T5 


28A 


28^V 


26^ 


284J 




284 


Ahmednagar 


20^ 


24/ T 


26£ 


264 


25A 


25 T V 


261 


24J 


Poona 


23& 


m 


27* 


26ig 


27^ 


25^, 


26* 


»A 


Sholapur 


23^1) 


25A 


25fS 


26| 


25H 


26,% 


25A 


»S* 


Satara 


81« 


22 


24£» 


25^ 




24| 


23}* 


24A 


Bijapnr 


20* 




25J 




25 




24§ 




Belgaam ... 
Dharwar 


22 
22 to 28 


18 

(rice). 
16 to 22 
(rice). 


24 

26^ 


18 

(rice). 
20A 
(rice). 


25 




24 

264J 





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It is probable that the rise which has now commenced will continue till the 
prospects of next kharif season are assured. 

Looking to the rate of increase in numbers during April and the first half 
of May and the level of prices, the Governor in Council considers that it may be 
safely assumed that if next monsoon is favourable, the actual numbers on relief 
during the current year will not exceed 40 per cent, of the original estimates. 
The following revised estimates for May and subsequent months are accordingly 
proposed : — 



Month. 


Original Estimate 
of 
Units. 


Revised Estimate 
of 
Units. 


Percentage of 
Revised to Original 
Estimates. 


May 


23,639,000 


9,900,000 


41-8 


Juo& ••• ■•• ••* ••• 


22,983,000 


9,500,000 


41-3 


Jnly 


19,353,000 


7,500,000 


38-7 


August 


12,182,000 


4,500,000 


36-9 


September 


9,783,000 


. 3,500,000 


35-7 


October 


251,000 


251,000 


100 


Total 


88,191,000 


35,151,000 


39-8 



In paragraph 10 of my letter No. 54, dated 7th January last, the cost of 
relief was calculated at Rs. 91 for 1,000 units on a basis of 20 lbs. as average 
price. The actual cost during the months of January, February, and. March, 
works out to — 



1 

| Month. 


Rs. 






January ... 


115 per 1.000 unite. 






February 


92 ,, „ 






March .. 


83* 





* The rate for March is approximate, as the total actual expenditure for the month is not yet known. 



The expenditure for these three months taken together comes to Rs. 96 per 
1,000 units, while the prices of the staple food-grains have, during the same 
period, ranged between 27 and 29 lbs. on an average. The rate of expenditure 
is thus very high as compared with the range of prices, but this is mainly due 
to the fact that the cost of supervising small works is comparatively high, and 
to the necessity of maintaining large establishments to meet possible influxes 
on to works, and of ensuring effective supervision of subordinate officers 
employed on village inspection and relief. The duty last mentioned has been 
peculiarly difficult and important in parts of Gujarat, where it has been necessary 
to discriminate carefully between those persons who, though requiring relief, 
could not be persuaded to go to a distance for work, and those who, while able 
to make a livelihood, were only too eager to seize the opportunity of getting 
relief with little exertion at the expense of the State. The heavy expenditure 
on establishments has not, however, escaped the notice of this Government, and 
their officers are on the alert to keep it down. Figures of expenditure for the 
month of April are not yet available, but the rate per 1,000 units is likely to 
diminish with the increase in numbers. At the same time, as the prices already 
show a tendency to rise, it would not, in the opinion of the Governor in Council, 
be safe in calculating the expenditure for the current financial year, to assume 



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187 



a lower rate than Rs. 83 per 1,000 units. Although actuals may be less with 
increasing numbers during May, June, and possibly July, yet when numbers 
begin to fall the estimate will again, in the later months, very possibly be 
exceeded. Adding the actual numbers relieved in April to the revised estimate 
for subsequent months proposed in paragraph 3 above, the total comes to 
42,652,000 units, and the. cost of relieving this number at the proposed revised 
rate of Rs. 83 per 1,000 would be Rs. 35,40,000 in round figures. Assuming 
a normal monsoon the expenditure on famine relief in this Presidency during 
the current year is not likely to exceed this amount. 

In connection with the revised estimates proposed above, your letter 
(No. 1389 — 17), dated 15th May, 1901, regarding the extent to which famine 
relief is being given in this Presidency, has been considered by the Governor in 
Council, and I am desired to communicate the following observations. 

As already reported in my letter (No. 54) dated 7th January last, there 
was very extensive failure of crops in the last season in a large part of this 
Presidency, and it is not therefore the case, as would appear to be suggested in 
the letter under reply, that the effects of the famine of the previous year are all 
that have to be dealt with. In the letter referred to the estimates of outturn in 
the several districts were also reported, and it was shown that over large areas 
in the Deccan the crops had failed no less disastrously than in the previous year 
and in 1896-97. Reference was also made to the exceedingly patchy character 
of the crops in Gujarat, where the outturn varied from village to village in the 
same taluka, being as low as 2 annas in some and as high as 12 annas in others, 
and there was even noticed as much difference between one field and another in 
the same village. Communications are now so extensive that good crops in 
other parts of India keep prices low ; but the fact that prices are low does not 
dispense with the need for aiding those who have had no crops and who cannot 
get private employment. This Government has held the view that with cheap 
food distress was not likely to be so severe as the District Officers anticipated, 
and that the sudden exhaustion of grass seed in Gujarat which was expected by 
them was not probable, and that view has proved correct. But there is no 
indication that relief has been given unnecessarily for any length of time,, 
checks being constantly applied. The attention of the Commissioner, Northern 
Division, was directed by this Government, at the very commencement of this 
year, to the low level of prices in Gujarat, and the replies to this reference 
showed that relief was indispensable, but was being restricted within the 
narrowest limits compatible with safety. In Gujarat the total numbers on 
relief are, after all, insignificant, and the system adopted there is described in 
the report of the Commissioner, Northern Division, forwarded to the Govern- 
ment of India with my letter (No. M. — 444) of the 28th ultimo. This report 
shows that great care is taken to send on to large works any of the able-bodied 
class who are inclined to take unjustifiable advantage of the village works. In 
the Deccan there has been no change of the system carried out with success in 
previous years, and, in particular, no relaxation of tests. 

The numbers have been prevented from rising to a much higher level than 
'they have only by the subsistence in Gujarat of many persons on grass seed, the 
abundance of which is due probably to the unfortunately large area which has 
been left untilled in consequence of the disastrous mortality among the cattle. 
In the Deccan no such means of subsistence exists. Large numbers have 
emigrated, or, in those districts where the crop failure was only partial, have 
taken advantage of such opportunities of private employment as were available. 
In this part of the country the works have been few and large, and whenever 
any work has been found to become unduly popular as a source of employment 
to the immediate neighbourhood, the tendency has been corrected by drafting 
to more distant works. It has to be remembered that in Sholapur, Ahmednagar, 
and other severely distressed districts of the Deccan, the present is the third 
famine in five years. In such circumstances the conditions necessitating 
extensive State- relief cannot fail to arise at a much lower level of prices than 
when the failure of crops follows a series of prosperous years. In judging as to 
the extent to which relief is required, the Local Government has had to rely, 
and has relied with confidence, on the judgment of the district officers helped 

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by those of the Sanitary Department, as to the condition of the people. The 
danger of demoralization has, however, never been forgotten, and all 
classes of officers have been on their guard against the grant of relief without 
discrimination. 



No. 63. 

Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., C.I.E., Secretary to the Government of India, 
Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Secretary to the 
Government of Bombay, No. 3069 — 17-12, dated Simla, the ZOth July, 
1901. 

Now that prospects are more assured and labour is in demand for field 
work, I am djrected to suggest the expediency of giving; relief workers an 
effective stimulus to return to their ordinary avocations. The Government of 
India realize that it is owing to the uncertainty of prospects that the commence- 
ment of the Monsoon has had so little effect in decreasing the attendance at 
relief works, and they have noticed with satisfaction the reduction in numbers 
shown by the telegraphed returns for the 20th July. There are no doubt areas 
in which cultivation is still impeded by want of rain and where it would be 
hazardous to curtail relief very largely. But generally the rainfall of the 
Deccan districts is up to normal and the latest information available indicates 
that crops are flourishing. In Gujarat rain has been light and irregular. But 
good falls have been registered during the past week at Bhavnagar, 
Ahmedabad and Surat and prospects must have substantially improved. Prices 
in Gujarat are much below famine level, grain being obtainable at from 16 to 18 
seers per rupee. In the Deccan, prices are higher ranging from 11 to 13 seers 
per rupee, rates which are, however, easier than have of recent years been 
associated with severe famine. The condition of the people is reported to be 

fenerally satisfactory, save in some limited areas of Ahmednagar and Sholapur. 
'he death-rates of these two districts for June were under 2 per mille, and in 
only one of the affected districts (Ahmedabad) was the death-rate as high 
as 2 32. 

2. In these circumstances it appears to the Government of India to be 
very doubtful whether the State is justified in spending on famine relief about 
ten lakhs of rupees a month. The latest returns give the numbers on relief at 
half a million of whom nearly 3,50,000 are still employed on works. In Native 
States there has been a fall in numbers since the first week of June, but in 
British districts numbers are in spite of the recent reduction, still higher by 
15 per cent, than six weeks ago. The numbers on work relief show a small 
decrease, but those gratuitously relieved have increased by 50 per cent., owing 
in most part to a large extension of State charity in the Khandesh district, 
where numbers have risen from 10,000 to 40,000 though prices are easy and 
there is believed to be no distress in the adjacent districts of the Central 
Provinces and Berar. Labourers who have been maintained through the hot 
weather months in iair condition may of course be expected to take advantage 
of the demand for field labour which springs up with the rains. When, owing 
to high prices, the usual cash wages have lost in purchasing power, labourers of 
the poorest class may reasonably be assisted by the grant of gratuitous relief to 
their children, or to some of them, and it is in acknowledgment of this that 
gratuitous relief is ordinarily expanded during the rains. It may be urged that 
owing to a contraction in cultivation the demand for labour is short of the 
normal. But losses in population have very considerably reduced the numbers 
of labourers for employ. 

3. I am accordingly directed to commend to the consideration of the 
Government of Bombay the suggestion that the time has come for a very 
substantial reduction in the numbers of the able-bodied relief workers, to be 
brought about either by materially increasing the stringency of the terms of 
employment or by personal elimination of those who are in good physical 



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189 



condition. If the former course is adopted and the task is raised, care should 
be taken to exempt the weakly, who should be separately ganged, and tasked, 
if indeed this is not already the case. It is probable that the raising of the 
task can be advantageously combined with a certain amount of personal 
elimination as the officer introducing one measure can himself undertake the 
other. As already stated when field wages at present prices provide insufficient 
grain for the subsistence of labouring families, assistance may reasonably be 
given by the grant of doles to some at all events of the non-working members. 



No. 64. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir-Machemie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay , to the Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture (Famine). 
No. 819-P., dated Poona, the 9th August, 1901. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 3069 — 17-12, 
dated 30th July, 1901, suggesting the adoption of certain measures calculated 
to bring about a very substantial reduction in the numbers of the able-bodied 
relief workers in this Presidency, and in reply to state that the Commissioners 
of Divisions have been requested to report immediately to what extent they are 
in a position to give eifect to the suggestions of the Government of India. 

2. When your letter was written the latest figures which the Government 
of India had before them were those for the week ending 20th July, 1901. 
The daily average numbers of relief workers for that week are compared below 
with the numbers telegraphed for the week ending the 3rd instant — 





Week ending 
20th July, 1901. 


Week ending' 
3rd August, 1001. 


Ahmedabad 


19,560 


14,525 


Kaira 


23,616 


4,733 


Panch Mahals 


9,507 


5,812 


Broach 


665 


Works closed. 


Sholapur ... 


61,977 


62,240 


Ahmednagar 


75,790 


79,817 


Poona 


22,557 


21,656 


Khandeeh 


1,415 


1,418 


Nasik 


6,691 


5,655 


Satara 


13,184 


13,905 


Bijapur 


20,731 


22,896 


Belgaum ... ... ... ... 


12,544 


13,937 



The good rain which has recently fallen in the kharif tracts in Gujarat has 
already caused a substantial reduction in Kaira. The decrease in Ahmedabad 
and the Panch Mahals is not so large, but a further satisfactory reduction may 
soon be expected in those districts also. In the Deccan and Karnatak on the 
other hand the latest figures on the whole show an increase over those of the 
week ending 20th July, 1901. This is due to the fact that in the Eastern 
Deccan where famine is most acute rain has hitherto been very partial and the 

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kharif crops are there of small importance as compared with the rabi. In this 
tract the numbers are likely to remain high as in previous famines until the 
month of . September, when the prospects of the kharif harvest and of the 

rabi sowings are assured. As has been previously 
File No. 17. Serial No. 11. reported to the Government of India, as the present 

year of scarcity is the second in succession and the 
people had not time to recover from the effects of the famine of 1896-97 before 
they were overtaken by a similar calamity, the people require to be treated with 
a certain degree of leniency, and the level of prices does not afford a correct 
gauge of the necessity for relief. 

3. I am at the same time to observe that the situation everywhere is being 
carefully watched and every effort is made to restrict relief to what is absolutely 
necessary. The large increase in the numbers on gratuitous relief at Khandesh 
noticed by the Government of India had attracted the attention of this Govern- 
ment, and lam to append a copy of their Resolution No. 1866, dated 1st instant, 
on the subject for the information of the Govenment of India. On works the 
weakly are separately ganged and tasked and the rest paid according to results, 
but the Commissioners will be desired to direct a reduction of the rate for work 
done wherever they consider that private employment is available for such as 
may leave the works. 

4. I am to add that attempts have been made to weed out from large works 
those who do not appear to be in need of relief in accordance with the suggestion 
made in paragraph 4 of your letter No. 1389 — 17, dated 15th May, 1901, but 
such attempts have hitherto been attended with a very small measure of success. 
In a recent report the Commissioner, Central Division, observed as follows : — 

" The Collectors were asked to take steps to give effect to the orders of the 
Government of India for the elimination from works of those who are not fit objects of 
charity, bat no appreciable reduction in numbers has been effected anywhere. It is 
difficult to exercise any such discretion except in the mcst obvious cases, and reliance 
must be placed, as in the past, on the maintenance of discipline and the rigorous 
exaction of tasks." 



Enclosure in No. 64. 



Extract from the Proceedings, to the Government of Bombay, Famine Department, 

No. 1866, dated 1st August, 1901. 

Government memorandum to the Collector of Khandesh, No. F — 724, dated 
17th July, 1901 : — 

"The undersigned presents compliments to the Collector of Khandesh and 

is directed to observe that the weekly 
returns in famine Form 17 for Khandesh 
for the weeks ending 29th ult. and 6th 
inst. show a large increase* in the numbers 
on village gratuitous relief in that District. 
The Collector is requested to be good 
enough to furnish Government with an 
explanation of this large increase." 



•Week ending 


Daily Average 
Numbers. 


22nd June 


15,545 


29th June 


25,542 


Increase 


9,997 


6th July 


34,196 


Further Increase 


8,654 



Letter from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1550, dated 22nd July, 1901 : — 

" With reference to Government memorandum No. P-724 of the 17th instant to 
the address of the Collector of Khandesh, I have the honour to state that the increase 
in the number of dole recipients had previously attracted my notice and was made the 
subject of a reference to the Collector. The rise in numbers is explained by him as 
due to the admission to dole of all Bhil cultivators in Nandurbar, Pimpalner, Taloda, 
Navapur, Shahada and Shirpur Talukas. This measure of relief will probably not be 
necessary after the end of August, when it is expected the maize crop will be ready. 
The Collector is satisfied that no fraud is being practised by subordinates. The lists 
have been checked by Mr. Mclver as well as Mr. Vernede, and both are constantly 
moving about and supervising the distribution of doles. The former looks after the 
Pimpalner Taluka and the Navapur Petha, while the latter has Taloda and Nandurbar 
in his charge. Mr. Vernede will also scrutinise the Shahada lists and Mr. French 
will be asked to examine those for Shirpur. 



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" 2. Government wished that small works should be carried on simultaneously 
with the grant of dole, but, owing partly to rain and partly to weeding operations 
being in progress, it has not been found possible to give effect to this order and the 
people are leaving the small works. The Pimpalner Road works and a forest work in 
Shirpur are almost the only works which are drawing a few hundred persons each. 
. Liberality in the matter of dole is, in the Collector's opinion, keeping down crime and 
inducing the Bhils to stick to their villages. In about six weeks more the numbers on 
dole in all probability will begin to fall, and I hope that Government will concur in 
the Collector's view that until then no reduction in the numbers on dole should be 
attempted. Even as the numbers are at present, they can hardly be regarded as 
excessive for five talukas where there was great distress last year. The effect on crime 
is most satisfactory." 

Resolution. — Some extension of gratuitous relief to members of aboriginal 
tribes in the rains is admissible, but there should be selection of those in need 
of it. The admission to the dole of all Bhil cultivators in five talukas and one 
petha, which involves the gratuitous relief of many who in the dry weather did 
not find it necessary to seek employment on works, seems to go beyond the 
necessities of the case. Efforts should be made to restrict the dole to those who 
cannot obtain other means of livelihood, and tagai for subsistence should 
preferentially be given to cultivators who, though requiring temporary aid, are 
likely to be able to repay advances. 



No. 65. 

Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., Secretary to the Government of India, 
Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Secretary to the 
Government of Bombay, No. 3242 — 17, dated Simla, 26th August, 1901. 

In acknowledging receipt of your letter No. P.-819, of 9th August, 1901, 
on the subject of the contraction of famine relief in the Bombay Presidency, I 
am directed to express a hope that the conditions now prevailing in Gujarat, 
where prices have now fallen in some places to 20 sirs per rupee, will render it 
possible to close all relief works by the end of this month and to gradually 
withdraw gratuitous relief by the end of September. The Government of India 
appreciate the effect of previous calamities on the people of the Deccan, but I 
am to suggest that, after the middle of next month, relief might cease to be 
given to the able-bodied, gratuitous relief continuing in gradually decreasing 
extent for a month or six weeks later. 



No. 66. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir Mackenzie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government 
of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, No. 2040, dated Bombay 
Castle, 9th September, 1901. 

With reference to your letter No. 3242-17, dated 26th ultimo, on the 
subject of the contraction of famine relief in this Presidency, I am directed to 
state for the information of the Government of India that unless the monsoon 
takes any unfavourable turn there is a fair hope that relief of all kinds will be 
closed in Gujarat and Khandesh by the end of this month. <■ 

2. As regards the rest of the Central Division and the Southern Division, 

I am directed to forward a copy of the Resolution* 
• No. 2032, dated 7th of this Government passed on the reports received 
September, 1901. on the subject, and to state that the Governor in 

Council is convinced that it would not be safe to 
adopt more stringent measures for the contraction of relief than are proposed in 
the orders. I am to point out that in 1896-97, as well as 1876-77, the need for 



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relief in the Eastern Deccan, including Bijapur, continued to be very great in 
September ; indeed in Bijapur the maximum of relief given was reached in 
September of 1897. In the current year the kharif prospects are better, but 
in many places are not good, and in any case agricultural labour is not needed 
on an extensive scale until the season of weeding rabi crops. With every 
desire to meet the wishes of the Government of India, this Government feel that 
a summary closure of all works in the middle of the current month in the 
Eastern Deccan would be disastrous. Agricultural labour is both more 
remunerative and more agreeable than labour on relief works, and when enough 
of it is available the people will not remain on relief works. 



Memorandum from the Commissioner, X. D., No. 8502, dated 15th August, 



" With reference to paragraph 2 of Government Resolution No. 1908, dated 12th 
instant, the Commissioner, Northern Division, has the honour to remark that the 
numbers on relief works for the week ending iOth August have sunk— 



" 2. The question in those two Districts is therefore rapidly ceasing to be a 
practical one. In the Panch Mahals, after a great drop on 3rd August, the numbers 
have slightly risen on 10th to 5,8C5, and the Collector is being consulted." 

Letter from the Commissioner, S. D., No. F. — 735, dated 16th August, 1901 : — 

" With reference to paragraph 2 of Government Resolution No. 1908 of the 12th 
instant, calling for report as to the extent to which the suggestions of the Government 
of India can be given effect to, in regard to the reducing of able-bodied workers on 
the relief works, I have the honour to reply as follows. 

" 2. Experience in the Belgaum and Bijapur Districts, during the famines of 
1896-1897 and 1899-1900, indicates that people in these parts do not remain on relief 
works when the need for relief is over. In 1896-97 the number in August in Bijapur 
was 104,301, in September it was 103,483, but owing to sufficient rainfall in the last 
week of September and subsequently it fell to 19,786 in October, and to less than 2,000 
(1,286) in November. In Belgaum in 1896-97 very much the same thing happened, 
and in the famine of 1899-1900 the works were voluntarily abandoned in a similar 
way. 

" 3. The famine-stricken regions in this Division are, normally, for by far the 
greater part, rabi. Consequently the rain for them and the time for cultivating them 
and the time when people would find employment in the fields has not come yet 
Had good rain already fallen throughout the area, the people would no doubt have 
sown a deal of kharif in rabi land, -but the rain has not, by any means, everywhere 
been good enough to enable the people to sow kharif in even all the land that in a 
normal year is sown with kharif, and a good deal of such kharif as has been sown is now 
in a precarious condition. 

" 4. Consequently, I am afraid that we cannot at present hope to reduce at all the 
number on our works, as there is no sufficient field labour or any other employ- 
ment for them, and they would remain in their houses and fall into bad condition." 

Letter from the Collector of Ahmednagar, No. F. — 3776, dated 17th August, 



" With reference to your memorandum No. F. — 1691, dated 14th instant, I have 
the honour to report that in consideration of the good physical condition of the able- 
bodied workers on relief works there will be little danger in raising the present tasks 
by 25 per cent, for earthwork. In my opinion the present tasks for metal-breaking 
should not be raised. I recommend the raising the tasks for earthwork, because 
Classes 1, 11 and 111 are now capable of turning out more work. I do not think there 
will be any large demand for field labour for some time, probably until the kharif 
harvest is about to be reaped. For this reason it is not wise to effect a substantial 
reduction in the number of relief workers by a system of elimination on a large scale. 
The raising of the task will probably effect a small reduction and will make the people 
eager to leave the works at the first opportunity. And this is, I think, all that can be 
safely done at present. 



Enclosure in No. 66. 



No. 2032, dated Bombay Castle the 7th September, 1901. 



1901 : 



In Ahmedabad to 4,728, 
In Kaira to 727. 



1901 :— 



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" 2. It is the unanimous opinion of my Assistants and myself that there is no 
scope at present for a substantial reduction in the dole lists." 

Letter from the Collector of Satara, No. 7112, dated 17th August, 1901 :— 

" I have the honour to reply to your Memorandum No. F. — 1691, dated the 14th 
August. I regret I do not see how it is feasible at present in this District to eliminate 
people from the relief works. In the first place, in the period between one harvest 
and another the need for relief increases steadily and surely because the resources of 
people, who have any resources (in the way of small stocks of grain) to start with, get 
gradually exhausted and obviously cannot be replenished until the next harvest. In 
the second place, though in a district in which relief works are managed according to 
the famine code and a minimum wage, sufficient to support life in reasonable comfort, 
ib paid, it is probable that large numbers of lazy people may be attracted to a relief 
work, yet this is not the case in a district like Satara, in which there is no minimum 
wage and people are paid by results. 

" When payment is made by results on a relief work, the wages earned are less 
than an agricultural labourer could earn in the open market. There is an obvious 
incentive therefore to an able-bodied labourer to abandon relief work in favour of 
agricultural labour at the first opportunity ; and 1 have heard of many cases of people 
deserting their relief work and going to distant villages where employment could be 
found. They returned, however, as soon as their agricultural work was completed. 
Another reason for not adopting severe measures for the elimination of able-bodied 
persons from relief works in this district is that a very large proportion of the workers 
are women and children, and there are generally a good many non-working children 
attached to them. There is, therefore, a difficulty in finding enough men to enable us 
to arrange gangs properly. This difficulty would be increased if many of the men 
were eliminated, and on the other hand elimination of women would have an 
unfortunate effect on the children dependent on them. 

"In a District in which relief works were numerous it might be possible to 
arrange to have distance test, and to refuse to allow people to attend relief works near 
their homes. But this is out of the question in Satara at present, for there are only 
three relief works, and one of these is in a hilly taluka with a heavy rainfall, and 
another will have to be closed shortly on account of the completion of the work. 
Another expedient would be to increase the task. I am prepared to do this at once 
with your permission in the Patau Taluka, in which the task assigned is only 75- per 
cent, of the ordinary famine task. But I do not think we should be justified in 
increasing the task in the Khatao Taluka (at the Nehar and Goregaon work), where 
the ordinary famine task is already assigned, until the crops are in a more forward 
condition. 

" In your third paragraph you suggest a reduction of the dole lists. I am having 
inquiries made with this object. But just as the time before the harvest is the time 
when the need for employment on the relief works is necessarily greatest, so it is the 
time when the demand for dole is greatest on the part of those who have been unable 
to go to relief works." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1719, dated 21st August, 
1901:— 

" Copies submitted to Government with reference to their Resolution No. 1908, 
dated the 12th instant. 

" 2. The Collector of Ahmednagar considers that there will be little danger in 
raising the present tasks by 25 per cent, for earthwork, no change being made in the 
task for metal-breaking. The Collector of Satara proposes a similar enhancement of 
the tasks in the Patan Taluka only. 

" 3. Subject to the rule for the separate ganging and tasking of the weekly, the 
Commissioner considers that these suggestions may be approved from and after the 
week ending 31st instant. 

" With reference to paragraph 2 of the Resolution, the administration of the dole 
has been recently very carefully inquired into and the relief is well administered, 
and, where necessary, on the lines indicated." 

Letter from the Collector of Nasik No. 11040, dated 21st August, 1901 :— 

" I have the honour of replying to your No. F. — 1691, dated 14th August, 1901. 

" 2. One of the main obstacles in the way of contracting relief operations has 
been the continued dearness of fqod-grains as compared with normal rates. Twenty 
per cent, above normal is not unusual ; and this is the level at which Section 11 of 
the Famine Relief Code implies that famine may be regarded as imminent and relief 
measures called for. 

"3. But the present conditions are peculiar. Even in Yeola, where there has 
been very little rain, the poor-house is not overfull, and the taluka contributes but 
few persons to the relief works in the neighbouring talukas of Chandor and Sinnar. 



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The death-rate, too, continues normal everywhere. These facte prove, I think, that 
the standard of living and the rate of -wages have adjusted themselves to meet the 
high prices prevailing, and that, when agricultural work is possible, the labourer can 
earn a living wage. 

" 4. Moreover, unless the rains stops abruptly (as it did in 1896), the kharif 
harvest over a large^area should be fair to very good, and may be expected to begin 
about the end of September or soon after. In other parts the crops have been kept 
alive by frequent showers, but are nevertheless backward, and the harvest will 
probably be late. And in Yeola, Eastern Sinnar, and a quadrilateral roughly bounded 
by the Satana-Malegaon Road, the Malegaon-Manmad Road, the northern boundary of 
Chandor and Chandor-Satana Road, there has been very little rain indeed, and some 
land still remains unsown. 

" 5. I consider, therefore, that in Igatpuri, Dindori, Peint, and Nasik all relief 
may be discontinued after the end of this month ; except, perhaps, the Nasik poor- 
honse, of which more presently. I do not think that any material hardship would be 
occasioned by adopting the same course in Nandgaon and in the part of Kalvan and 
Bag lan -west of the Chandor-Satana-Pimpalner Road. 

" 6. In the east of Ealvon, Baglan and Malegaon (exclusive of the quadrilateral 
already referred to), in Niphad and in Chandor, I hold it advisable to continue relief 
till the end of October. It might be discontinued earlier, if Government insist ; but, 
if so, they must be prepared for a possible rise in the death-rate. 

" 7. In the areas mentioned at the end of the paragraph 4 above, I am at present 
quite unable to say when relief can stop. All the elements of famine are present — 
high prices, scanty rainfall, a bad outlook for harvest, scarcity of employment. But, 
as I have said, the death-rate keeps down. If relief is discontinued in these areas 
shortly it must be only a tentative cessation, and the mortality must be carefully 
watched. 

" 8. The small work in south-west Malegaon (Sonai Tank) is full. Admissions 
are made at the discretion of the officer in charge, the works in best case having to 
make way, if necessary, for new arrivals in poor condition. The Odal tank work in 
Chandor is not very largely patronised ; but, as I have said in paragraph 6, it would be 
well to keep it open till the end of October, if only to take drafts from the Nasik poor- 
' house. The Sinnar- Wavi Road has some 3,500 people on it, and here a difficulty has 
arisen which to some extent accounts for the steady increase of dole recipients. People 
come to this work who are obviously not so feeble as to require the special treatment 
meted out to the weakly, the hill-folk, &c, but whose inclusion in the other gangs is 
keenly resented by the stronger and more able-bodied workers lest their admission 
should reduce the wage-earning capacity of the gangs. I have referred this to the 
Executive Engineer, with a view to employing this intermediate class on a lower task. 
The forest demarcation works in Kalvan and Baglan have been completed. 

" 9. The poor-houses in Nasik and Yeola should be kept open at present, people 
from the former being drafted to the Odal Tank : and, in order to prevent their 
persistent return at the earliest possible opportunity, I think it would be well to refuse 
re-admission to sturdy beggars, and to deal with such under Section 109, Criminal 
Procedure Code. This would tend to a decided abatement of the beggar nuisance. At 
present I think there can be no doubt that many people well able to earn a living are, 
by choice, living by means of charity, poor-house relief, and petty theft. 

" 10. I have given relief to the needy of the Nasik weavers at their own trade, 
but have warned them that they cannot expect this after funds run short, which will 
probably happen next month. 

" 11. I beg, therefore, to inquire whether yon approve the suggestions contained 
in paragraphs 5 to 9 above." 

Reply of the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1743, dated 26th August, 1901 :— 

M In reference to No. 11,040, dated the 2lBt instant, from the Collector of Nasik. 
the Commissioner has the honour to reply as follows. 

" 2. The Collector's proposal that relief should cease after the 31st instant in the 
following areas is approved : — 

Talukas Igatpuri, Dindori, Peint, Nasik, and Nandgaon, and in the Kalvan 
and Baglan Talukas, west of the Chandor-Satana-Pimpalner Road. 

" 3. It is presumed that in the above the Collector wishes also to include 
West Sinnar. 

"4. In the rest of the District relief should cease gradually as the situation 
improves, and a further report should be submitted by the end of September next. 
The closure of the poor-houses must be left to the Collector's discretion." 



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Memorandum from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1744. dated 26th August, 
1901 :— 

" Copies submitted to Government for information in continuation of this office 
* No. F. — 1719 of the 2ist August, 1901. memorandum* quoted in the margin." 



Letter from the Collector of Khandesh, No. F. 1367, dated 23rd August, 
1901 :— 

" With reference to your memorandum, No. F. — 1691, dated 14th instant, I have 
the honour to report that I had already anticipated the orders of the Government of 
India embodied in their letter quoted in the preamble of Government Resolution, No. 
1908, dated 12th idem, and issued orders accordingly, directing contraction of famine 
operations in West Khandesh. 

" 2. Finding that the agricultural outlook had greatly improved, and a demand 
for labour was arising, I first gave orders on the 3rd August to cut down the dole list, 
so as to set free such of the dole recipients as could obtain agricultural employment 
in the fields. These orders have resulted in reducing the number of doles by 29 per 
cent. Further on, when I found that the prospects were well assured, that maize was fast 
ripening, and roots and vegetables were available almost everywhere, I directed, on the 
15th August, that in Nawapur and Sindkheda, where the Bhils could be left safely to 
themselves without any assistance from us, the doles should stop from date of receipt 
of the orders, and that in other places they should be further reduced, retaining on 
the list only such cultivators, not exceeding two in each family, as would not be able 
to carry on their operations without our help. I have further directed that in all other 
talukas the doles will close by 31st instant except in Pimpalner, where, as previously 
reported, they will continue till 15th September next. 

" 3. Moreover, I found that the special rates of wages were not needed on the 
relief works, and that the time had come to make the conditions of the wage more 
stringent ; so on the 11th August I asked the Executive Engineer to reduce the wages 
to the level of the Code rates, and make payments strictly in proportion to the work 
done. I have also closed the Nandurbar-Bhadwad Road work, and other works will 
follow suit. 



"4. The effect of these orders will, I hope, be noticeable in the returns for the- 
week that closed on the 21st. It will thus appear that every endeavour has been made 
to reduce the famine operations and restrict the relief to where it is absolutely needed,, 
and that nothing is now left to be done in reference to suggestions of the Government 
of India. 

" 5. Since writing the above I have heard from the Divisional Forest Officer that 
all the Forest Famine Works which were in progress in Nandurbar, Shirpur, and 
Taloda Ranges, have been closed." 



Memorandum from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1751, dated 27th August,. 
1901 :— 

" Submitted to Government in continuation of this office memorandum quoted in 
No. F. — 1744 of 26th August, 1901. the margin." 



Letter from the Collector of Sholapur, No. D. — 2761, dated 20th August, 
1901 :— 

" With reference to your memorandum, No. F — 1691, dated 14th instant, I have 
the honour to report that, in my opinion, until the kharif crop has been reaped, no 
reduction of the dole lists is possible. The present system of relief must be continued 
as it is till the end of September, by which time the kharif crops will have ripened 
and the prospects of the rabi crops will be fairly definite. As this District has suffered 
from successive famines and scarcity since 1896, the resources of the people are 
exhausted, and they deserve the most lenient treatment. Strict instructions have, 
however, been issued to all Relief Head Karkuns not to admit to dole any persons 
who ore fit and able to maintain themselves, and to strike off the lists any such who 
have crept in. 



" 2. As regards the contemplated reduction in the number on works, all that is 
possible is being done. The numbers, I am glad to report, have already commenced 
to go down." 

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Reply of the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1752, dated 27th August, 1901 

" The Collector is requested to be good enough to state whether at least on some 
works the task may not be raised for earthwork by 25 per cent. It should not be so 
raised without the previous permission of Government. Prices are easier and prospects 
in some talukas good, and no hardship would apparently be caused by the raising of 
the task. The Collector's opinion is therefore invited on the subject after consulting 
the Executive Engineer." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1753, dated 27th August, 
1901:- ^ ' 

" Copy, with a copy of the Collector's letter, submitted to Government in con- 
No. F.-1761, dated 27th August, i«oi. "nuation of this office memorandum quoted 
' 61 m the margin. 

Letter from the Collector of the Panch Mahals, No. 5775, dated 23rd August, 
1901 :— 

" With reference to your No. 8533 of 16th August, 1901, I have the honour to 
state that the daily average number of persons on relief works for the week ending 
10th August was 5,815 and not 5,865 as stated in your memorandum. The figures 
were thus identical with those of the previous week, 5,812. 

" 2. Nearly the whole of the workers were in the Eastern Mahals. In the Western 
Mahals there was only the Godbra-Baroda Chord Line work, which has now been 
closed. The reason why there was no decrease in the Eastern Mahals was that the 
rains had not been sufficient up to the dates of the reports under reference. The 
people had not therefore had much incentive to leave the works. 

" 3. I am very desirous of reducing the numbers as soon as practicable. But it 
is the opinion of the local relief officers that few of the Bhils have grain in their 
houses, and until the ' samo ' is ready, which will be in about three weeks from this 
date, it is not safe to turn the people off the works without some fear of deterioration 
which has already been noticed in some parts of the Division. The local demand for 
labour cannot be expected to take off many of the workers, as there are few well-to do 
cultivators who employ labour, while the cultivation on the lands belonging to the 
Bhils themselves, which is not of an elaborate nature, has been performed by the 
members of the families who have remained aX home. 

" 4. There has now been good rain in Dohad and Jhalod, and, with the near 
approach of ripe 'samo,' it will bo safe to begin to get the people off the works in 
the next week, and I shall take steps to do so. I propose to close works which do not 
appear absolutely necessary, and on others to reduce the wage. As regards the 
Muwalia Tank, the only large work now remaining, I am now in consultation with 
the Executive Engineer." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N: D., No. 8822, dated 31st August, 
1901:— . 

"Copy submitted to Government with reference to this office No. 8502, dated 
15th instant." 

Resolution. — The orders issued by the Commissioner, C. D., to the 
Collector of Nasik in his memorandum No. F. — 1743, dated 26th August, 1901, 
are approved. 

2. The proposals for raising the tasks by 25 per cent, in the Ahmednagar 
District and in the Patan Taluka of the Satara District, contained in paragraphs 
2 and 3 of the memorandum from the Commissioner, C. D., No. F. — 1719, 
dated 21st August, 1901, are also approved. The report of the Collector of 
Sholapur called for by the Commissioner in his memorandum No. F. — 1752 of 
the 27th idem, regarding the raising of the tasks in that District, and the report 
for the Poona District, which has not yet been submitted, will be awaited. 

3. The Commissioner, S. D., should be requested to consider at once 
whether it would not be safe to raise the task in Bijapur as has been done in 
Ahmednagar and is likely to be done in Sholapur and Satara. 



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No. 67. 

Letter from J. B. Fuller, Esq., C. I. E., Secretary to the Government of India, to 
the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay, No. 3478 — 17 — 16, dated 
Simla, the 23rd September, 1901. 

With reference to your letter No. 2040, dated the 9th instant, regarding 
the contraction of femine relief operations, I am directed to say that the 
Government of India learn with satisfaction that the grant of relief of all kinds 
in Gujarat and Khandesh will probably terminate by the end of the current 
month. 

2. As regards the operations in other parts of the Presidency, I am to 
invite the attention of the Governor in Council to paragraphs 144 and 153 of 
the Report of the Indian Famine Commission, 1901, and to state that the policy 
therein formulated for the administration of work relief during the monsoon 
season has been accepted by the Governor General in Council and that it is 
trusted that the Government of Bombay will give it due effect.. 



COLLECTION OF LAND REVENUE— SUSPENSIONS 

AND REMISSIONS. 

No. 68. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.I., I.C.S., Secretary to the Government 
of India, to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Famine, 
No. 1058— 171-1-.F, dated Simla, the 2Srd May, 1900. 

The Governor General in Council is aware that the policy of the Bombay 
Government this year in the matter of land-revenue suspensions and collections 
in Gujarat and elsewhere has been the subject of considerable criticism in the 
public press, and has called forth numerous memorials and representations, 
some of which have reached this Government. His Excellency in Council is 
also aware from the monthly proceedings of the Bombay Government that the 
officers charged with the duty of giving local effect to the instructions of the 
Government have felt considerable doubt as to whether those instructions will 
not result in a degree of pressure upon the revenue payers that must seriously 
militate against the return of agricultural prosperity after the immediate effects 
of the drought have passed away. 

2. The Governor General in Council is ordinarily reluctant to interfere 
with the details of the administration of the land revenue in the Bombay 
Presidency, and he is sensible that in adopting the policy which has given rise 
to so much controversy the Presidential Government have been actuated by a 
wish to guard the fiscal interests of the imperial exchequer. He is anxious, 
therefore, that the present communication should not be regarded as a censure 
on the line of action which has been pursued, but rather as an enquiry whether, 
in view of the present emergencies of the agricultural population in the 
Northern Division, a somewhat more liberal policy in dealing with the land 
revenue question may not with propriety be adopted. 

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3. The Governor-General in Council is deeply impressed with the magni- 
tude of the calamity ' which has befallen the districts of Gujarat, and with the 
many and obvious signs that the spirits and energy of the people have given 
way under the unparalleled losses which they have sustained. Destitution not 
only has befallen the small and struggling cultivator, who measures his 
resources by the crop of each year, but it has also extended to classes who in 
ordinary years ars more or less independent of the vicissitudes of the season, 
and enjoy good credit at reasonable rates. Credit, the Governor-General in 
Council believes, is virtually dead at present in Gujarat so far as agriculturists 
are concerned. Jewelry can only be disposed of with the greatest difficulty and 
at ruinous rates, and assets which were once easily realisable at fair market 

values are greatly depreciated. These facts, 
•Bombay Government's Ee- though they appear to have been questioned* in 

dated 16th January, 1900. of common notoriety, and must be accepted as 

elemental truths in any discussion as to the 
resources of agriculturists whose crops have failed and whose cattle have died 
this year. 

4. The principles laid down in the latest orders of the Local Government 

that suspensions should not be granted to persons 
Bombay Government Notifi- w ho are able to pav the revenue " without incon- 
oatton, No. 82, dated 8th April, venience or difficulty," and that "no coercion 

should be used to recover from an occupant assess- 
ment which he cannot pay out of resources other than those needed for the 
efficient resumption of agricultural operations " are theoretically reasonable. So 
also is the underlying principle that in granting or refusing suspensions of 
revenue regard should, so far as may be practicable, be had to the general 
financial circumstances of individual revenue payers and their respective ability 
to meet the Government demand from resources other than the actual crop of 
the year. But the practical application of these principles in a- year of wide- 
spread destitution is exposed to two difficulties. In the first place, if rigorous 
discrimination is insisted on, it devolves minute and inquisitorial inquiries as to 
the circumstances of thousands of petty farmers upon already overworked 
revenue establishments, and it opens the door, as the Famine Commission of 

1878 pointed out, to the evils of personal favouritism 
Report, Part II., Section III., and official corruption. In the second place, the 
paragraphs 5 and 8. issue of such inquiries is so largely a matter of 

opinion that it is liable to be largely influenced by 
any general views which the Government may be thought to entertain as to the 
amount of revenue to be collected within the year. The remedy for the first 
difficulty is not to insist upon a rigorous discrimination or a close investigation 
of individual resources, but to accept a somewhat broad classification of the 
revenue payers with reference to their obvious circumstances. The remedy 
for the second is for the Government to show that it wishes to be liberal, or, at 
least, to give the divisional and district authorities permission to suspend 
revenue up to a definite sum in the aggregate. 

5. The Governor-General in Council is constrained to think that the 
instructions and observations contained in the orders of the 23rd November, 
1899, and of the 16th January, 1900, are calculated, even when read in the 
light of the explanatory orders of the 8th April last, to create the impression 
that a. rigorous discrimination, and a close and jealous scrutiny of assets, are 
made essential preliminaries to granting postponement of the current year's 
demand in the distressed districts. If such an impression has actually been 
created, it is antecedently improbable that the procedure of the district and 
taluk officers, acting in compliance with instructions thus interpreted, will result 
in liberality to the revenue payers. The Governor-General in Council has not 
observed that any definite indication has been given by the Government to its 
officers as to what proportion of the total demand of the year may with propriety 
be suspended. In some other provinces, on occasions of widespread drought 



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necessitating large postponements of the demand, the Local Government has 
found it convenient to settle a limit of this kind for the division or the district 
in consultation with the Commissioner or the Collector, and on a general con- 
sideration of all the attendant circumstances. Within a limit thus fixed, the 
Divisional Commissioner is free to apportion the .amounts to be suspended in 
each district, and the Collector does the same for each taluk in his district. 
Discrimination between one village or another, or between individual revenue 
payers, can then be more readily pursued and with better results, so far as it 
may be thought necessary ; but it usually takes the form of excluding a small 
and well-denned majority of well-to-do persons, who by common repute are 
rally able to pay the demand " without inconvenience and without difficulty." 

6. In commending this course to the Governor in Council for his 
consideration, the Government of India desire to express their opinion that a 
considerable proportion of the year's land revenue demand should be suspended 
in Gujarat. . The incidence of the land revenue on the cultivated area in 
several of the districts of Gujarat is exceptionally heavy, and the assessment has 
been admittedly made on the supposition that these districts were practically 
immune from any such drought as periodically visits the lightly assessed 
Deccan. The circumstances of Gujarat in the present year are thus quite as 
abnormal as the circumstances of the Chenab irrigation tract in the Punjab 
would be were the headworks to be temporarily injured, and the tract thereby 
reduced to a desert. In the latter case, the revenue would under the system of 
assessment in force in the Chenab tract automatically disappear ; but, even were 
it legally leviable, the idea o'f attempting to collect any large portion of it would 
be regarded as wholly wrong and impolitic. Yet the case is sufficiently 
analagous to that of the highly assessed and now barren lands of Gujarat to 
enforce the argument in favour of treating the revenue payers of Gujarat this 
year with special liberality. 

7. The effect which the Government of Bombay may be disposed to give 
to these suggestions will, it is foreseen, depend in a measure upon the extent to 
which the land revenue may have already been realized. As to the progress of 
the collections up to date, the Government of India have no knowledge, and 
they would desire to be informed on this point. They also desire to learn what 
decrease in the budget estimates of land revenue for the current financial year 
is likely to occur by reason of any action taken on this letter. My recent 
telegrams with regard to the probable requirements of the Government of 
Bombay for advances for seed and cattle will have acquainted His Excellency 
the Governor in Council with the decision of the Government of India to come 
to the aid of the agriculturists of distressed tracts in a very special manner. In 
connection with this measure, they are anxious to ensure that the policy of the 
several Local Governments in the matter of the collection or postponement of 
the land revenue demand shall be so shaped so as not to impede or interfere 
with the effect of the measure, but rather so as to co-operate with it in restoring 
agricultural prosperity. 



No. 69. 

Letter from J. Monteath, Esq., C.S.I..I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, No. 2599, dated Bombay Castle, 21sr June. 
1900. 9 ' 

I am directed to request that you will be so good as to submit for the 
consideration of the Government of India the following remarks with reference 
to your letter No. 1058 — 171-1-F., dated 23rd ultimo. 



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2. It is stated in paragraph 5 that the Governor-General in Council has* 
not observed that any definite indication has been given by this Government to 1 
its officers as to what proportion of the total demand of the year may witW 

Sropriety be suspended. 1 am to invite a reference to paragraph 12 of thf 
tonourable Mr, Mmr-Mackenzie's letter No. 124-Fam., dated 2nd October, 
1899, in which an estimate was given of the maximum amount of which 'the 1 
collection was likely to be. suspended in the Northern Division, to which 
Division your letter of May 23rd makes especial reference. In the letter abovi 
referred to the proportions for the several districts of this Presidency are 
definitely stated. The first step which is taken in this matter of revenue 
collection is to desire the Commissioners and Collectors to report how much will 
in their opinion be recovered in accordance with the general principles prescribed. 
If the forecasts of these officers are accepted by Government, they of course form 
the standards up to which they are expected to work. In the case of the four 
Northern districts of Gujarat, the Governor in Council was, for reasons stated in 
the letter above quoted and in Government Resolution No. 8370, dated 23rd 
November, 1899, unable to adopt the estimates of the Collectors and therefore 

Prescribed different standards. But in Government resolution No. 236, dated 
6th January, 1900, it was explained with reference to further representations 
from the Commissioner that it was not intended to direct that all the revenue 
which this Government considered that the occupants in these, districts might 
reasonably be expected to be able to pay should necessarily be recovered ; that 
what was important was to apply properly the general orders which had been 
given, and that the result would show whether the, estimates of Government or 
those of the Commissioner were the more correct. 

3. The orders referred' to are those contained in Government Circular 
No. 9704, dated 2nd December, 1896, and Government Resolution No. 98-Fam., 
dated 9th January, 1897, and the method of applying them is explained in 
Government Resolutions No. 236, dated 16th January, 1900, and No. 1965, 
dated 7th April, 1900. The general principle adopted is the same as that stated 
at the close of paragraph 5 of your letter, but the classes of people who are 
prima facie held to be not entitled to concession are somewhat more definitely 
designated. Besides occupants who have reaped crops of fair value, with regard 
to whom there is presumably no difference of opinion, they are non -agriculturist 
occupants, who are in other words, or at least for the most part, money-lenders', 
mortgagees, who are almost invariably men of capital, and occupants who are 
by common repute well-to-do. As regards the last, it has been directed that 
they should have the benefit of any doubt. To these people only are even 
notices issued ; the rest are not presumed to be able to pay without borrowing; 
and if revenue is collected from any of them, it is because they or people on 
their behalf pay of their own accord. So far it is clear that no minute and 
inquisitorial inquiries such as are referred to in paragraph 4 of your letter are 
involved in this Government's procedure. If, however, people of the classes 
above described, who may prima facie be held to be able to pay, refuse to 
comply with the notices issued to them, the burden of proving their inability 
clearly rests upon them, and of course further inquiry is necessary. To such an 
extent only do the principles applied by this Government involve proceedings 
which can in any sense ,be called inquisitorial, and in the opinion of his 
Excellency the Governor in Council they are not open to objection, and cannot 
be avoided unless payment is made a mere matter of option. It may be 
observed, however, that for the purpose of these proceedings as well as for a 
satisfactory classification of the kind above described the officers of this 
Presidency possess special qualifications. An Assistant or Deputy Collector is 
required to travel at least seven months in the year, and generally does travel 
more. He visits every part of his charge, and comes within easy reach of every 
village as a rule twice a year. A Collector also generally travels through every 
taluka once in a year. These officers have, therefore, a closer acquaintance with 
the people and their circumstances than is usual in most of the other parts of India. 
It has been ordered that the question whether distraint should be resorted to in 
any case is to be decided by an officer of not lower rank than that of Assistant 
or Deputy Collector, and in these circumstances personal favouritism and official 
corruption in this matter are practically impossible. 



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bombay PRRsmrtJicr. 201 

4. The Governor in 'Council cannot but think that the course which has 
been followed in this Presidency differs in no material respect from that which 
is commended for his consideration. .If, however, there is any misapprehension'/ 
this Government will be glad to know precisely what amendment of the' 
procedure is desired, aud will most willingly adopt any measure by which his 
Excellency the Governor-General in Council may consider that the revenue 
which is equitably recoverable can be collected with less inconvenience to the 
people. There is certainly no wish on the part of this Government that the 
landholders , of the Bombay Presidency should be treated with less liberality 
than those ofvother parts of India. Executive officers are universally in> 
sympathy, and are aware that Government is in sympathy, with cultivators, and. 
are most anxious to do all that is possible to promote the prosperty of that class, 
and to avoid anything calculated to have the opposite effect. ' 

5. Undoubtedly according to present indications distress in Gujarat is 
very much more severe than was anticipated by this Government to be possible 
in a province of such reputed wealth, and it has been necessary to abandon the 
standards of revenue recoverable which seemed exceedingly moderate when 
compared with what had been realized in less favoured and equally-afflicted 
tracts of country in 1896-97 with no more pressure than was required to check 
organized opposition. The revised estimates of the Collectors are shown in 
column 3 of the accompanying statement, and now form the standards up to 
which it is thought these officers will be able to work. The Governor in 
Council cannot at present say that any other standards would be more suitable, 
and if they are not adopted, the only alternative in the direction of greater 
liberality is to forbid any further pressure in the collection of revenue. 

6. But for the purpose of assisting the Government of India to form an 
opinion as to the propriety of adopting such a course I am directed to bring 
the following facts to the notice of the Government of India. The preambles 

No. 2165, dated 3rd May, ofthe accompanying copies of Resolutions quoted? 
1900. in the margin contain the replies of the Collectora 

No. 2240, dated 10th May, 0 f Gujarat to an inquiry made by the Commissioner, 
190 °- N. D., as to whether any considerable section of 

the occupants who could afford to pay the assessment were contumaciously 

. vr « .u»j i j a i_ withholding it, and there is also appended a more 
May 1900 detailed report* from the Collector of Kaira. It 

will be seen that there is ample evidence of 
combined opposition on the part of notoriously wealthy people, and that savkars 
and merchants have been removing valuable property to Native States, and 
that even people who have reaped irrigated crops of abnormal value in this year 
of famine have endeavoured to defeat the recovery of the assessment from them. 
Vigorous measures were taken by the Collector of Surat, in the greater part of 
which district there was a considerable outturn of fodder which in the 
circumstances possessed this year an abnormal value, and a fair yield of grain, 
and of cotton, with, the result that there is now but a small balance of the year's 
revenue outstanding. Columns 7 and 8 of the accompanying statement show the 
collections, and their proportion to the demand in all the districts of the 
Presidency proper, the figures having been obtained by telegraph for the 
purpose of this report. The proportion recovered is higher in the Panch 
Mahals — the poorest district in Gujarat — than in the rich districts of 
A.hmedabad, Kaira and Broach, and the figures for these districts offer a 
remarkable contrast to those for all districts of the Central Division except 
A.hmednagar. The amount shown for Ahmedabad is said to include 
adjustments on account of remissions, for jenhanced assessment. It is doubtful 
whether the amount recovered in that district is equal to the assessment of the 
irrigated land, which is not far short of one-tenth of the whole occupied area, 
and is of course more highly assessed than other land. The facts that the 
revised estimates of the Collectors of the four Northern Gujarat districts are 
very far short of the original estimates of Government and that the collections 
in these districts are far short of the lowest estimates which have been framed 
indicate that the action of the local officers has not been unduly influenced by 



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any views expressed by Government. It seems more probable that many 
landholders who are well able to pay their assessment have been encouraged t<» 
withhold it by their belief that the Commissioner and some of the Collectors 
had advocated very extensive suspensions. Proof of the theory is not possible 
but there is little doubt that when a Collector or Commissioner reports on a 
matter of this nature the purport of his report or recommendation leaks at once 
out of his office and speedily becomes public property. 

7. The Governor in Council, therefore, is of opinion that if - the 

concession above indicated or any other concession beyond what has been 

authorised by this Government is granted, it will benefit only wealthy people, 

and it will strengthen their tendency to organize opposition to the recovery of 

the revenue, and be productive of trouble and difficulty for many years to come. 

Cultivators will not profit, for capitalists will only make advances to tenants 

and debtors when there is favourable rain, and will do so in that case equally 

whether the Government dues have been discharged or not. But if the 

concession is granted in Gujarat, there would be no justification for not 

extending it to the Deccan, which, however, would even thus profit far less, 

because in it a much larger share of the revenue has already been paid. In his 

, . .. „ n evidence before the Famine Commission of 1880, 

Appendix ii. f p. <$U. gir Richard Temple said*:— "In Bombay, the 

people of the Gujarat province, including the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Broach, and Surat, are morally and materially the most prosperous of any 
province in India." Portions or Gujarat have no doubt suffered in more recent 
years from unfavourable seasons, floods and other causes, but not more than the 
Deccan has done even up to the year 1896-97. In that year that Division was 
in the throes of acute famine, which did not extend to Gujarat. Intervening 
seasons were less favourable .in Sholapur and the East of Poona 
and Ahmednagar than in any district of the Northern Division, 
and in this year the loss of crops in Khandesh, Eastern Nasik, Eastern 
Ahmednagar and Eastern. Poona has been not less complete. To these tracts the 
remarks made at the close of paragraph 6 of your letter apply quite as fully as 
to any part of Gujarat. That province undoubtedly contains a large number of 
very poor people, but it also- contains a much larger number of wealthy 
inhabitants than any other part of the Presidency. Many of these persons are 
prone to make complaints, and the Governor in Council is unable to perceive 
that Gujarat has a more valid claim than other parts of the Presidency to specially 
favourable treatment. 

8. As already stated column 7 of the accompanying statement shows the 
collections up to date, and it seems probable that about 11 lakhs more may be 
paid voluntary, making a total of nearly two crores. It further pressure is pro- 
hibited, it will be necessary to reduce the budget estimate of land revenue for 
the current financial year by at least 37 lakhs. It has been assumed m framing 
the budget that a considerable portion of the revenue suspended in the current 
revenue year will be collected before 31st March, but it is improbable that a 
substantial part of what may be postponed in the circumstances referred to will 
be readily paid. If the course which has hitherto been followed be continued, 
and the Collectors' estimates are realized, the collections will still be nearly 18 
lakhs below the budget estimate, and thi6 deficiency occurs almost entirely in 
Gujarat. 



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Enclosure 2 in No. 69. 



No. 2165, dated Bombay CasAe, the Zrd May, 1900. 



Letter from the Commissioner, N. D., to the Collectors in the Northern 
Division, No. 3324, dated 26th March, 1900 :— 

" I have the honour to ask if you have any reason to believe that any considerable 
section of khatedars in your district who can afford to pay the assessment are con- 
tumaciously -withholding it. If so, I shall be glad to be informed what steps you have 
taken to break down their opposition." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 3924, dated 8th April, 



Letter from the Collector of Thana, No. 2517, dated 27th March, 1900 :— 

" In reply to your letter No. 3324, dated the 26th instant, I have the honour to 
report that no considerable section of khatedars in this district are contumaciously 
withholding their land revenue." 

" 2. There are, of course, a few isolated instances of the kind in which I- have 
ordered either attachment of property or sale of land, and a good number of land- 
owners, small and large, are putting off payment in the hope of getting suspension or 
waiting for higher prices for their grain. But in those talukas in which the 
M amlatdars have taken sufficient trouble over the matter land revenue has come in 
very well, and the fact that in some parts the collections are backward is, iu my 
opinion, simply the fault of the Mamlatdars concerned, about whom I shall most 
likely have something to write later on." 



Letter from the Collector of Kaira, No. r.-2,242, dated 28th March, 1900 :— 



" With reference to your No. 3,324, dated 26th instant, I have the honour to state 
that I have every reason to believe that a large number of the well-to-do patidars of 
this district, who, as I am informed, can afford to pay the assessment, are contu- 
maciously withholding it. The only action being taken against them is that orders 
are being issued for the distraint of their holdinge. An effort is, I believe, being 
made by the sub-divisional officers to take proceedings first against the leaders of the 
contumacious parties in the various villages in the hope that when the other various 
people see the influential men being severely dealt with they will become more 
amenable. In cases of undoubted contumacy, the one-fourth fine will be levied in 
addition to the amount of the assessment due. I am glad to be able to report that a 
certain amount of success has attended the action taken, as will be seen from the 
fact that Rs. 19,532 have been recovered during the week ending 24th instant, as 
against Rs. 3,510 in the preceding week. The sub-divisional officers are proceeding 
carefully and making as thorough enquiries as are practicable in each case." 

Letter from the Collector of Ahmedabad, No. f.-1,309, dated 4th April, 



" With reference to your No. 3,324 of 26th ultimo, I have the honour to state that 
considerable numbers who can pay are contumaciously withholding. In some cases 
moveable property is being attached, in some cases land is to be forfeited." 



Letter from the Collector of Broach, No. Fam.-2,762, dated 12th April, 
1900:— 



" With reference to your No. 3,324, dated the 26th ultimo, I have the honour to 
state that,! though no combined action under the directions of any organised leading is 
apparent in the district, every holder who can avoid paying up his dues seems to have 
made up his mind not to pay it. Mamlatdars have been directed to serve persons 
who, in their opinion are well-to-do, with notices of demand and the rayats have been 
informed that if they hold back payment through pure obstinacy their lands will be 
forfeited. But the fear of forfeiture does not act so readily in the case of rich persons 
poesissed of property as the fear of attachment and sale of their moveable property 
which consists of gold and silver ornaments and hard cash. Besides, they say that 
Government will forfeit their holdings and will again give them back free of 
•occupancy price and the arrears. It is under this impression that they have intentionally 



1900 :— 



Thana Collector's No 2517, dated 27th Maroh, 1900. 
Kaira Collector's No. B.-2242, dated 28th Maroh, 1900. 
Ahmedabad Collector's No. f.— 1309, dated 4th April, 1900. 



" Copy with copies of the 
replies received up to date from 
three .Collectors submitted to 
Government for information." 



1900 :— 



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205 



■withheld payment. I have therefore directed the Mamlatdars that in the case of 
extreme reealcitration where attachment of moveable property would produce the 
desired effect to attach it and to follow the usual procedure. T have also directed 
them to distinctly inform the cultivators that if their lands be forfeited they will 
never be given back to them but will be sold by public auction to the highest bidder. 
I have issued these instructions with a direction that this measure should be adopted 
with very great caution and discretion. I hesitated much before I save this power to 
Mamlatdars, but when I found that the savkars and merchants systematically sent out 
their valuables to the neighbouring states to avoid its being attached, I had no other 
alternative but to issue the order." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 4144, dated 14th Aprils 



" Submitted to Government in continuation of this office No. 3,924, dated 8th 
instant." 

Resolution. — Recorded. 



Letter from the Collector of Surat, No. F.-1137, dated the 26th April, 1900 : — 

" In reply to your letter No. 3324, dated 26th ultimo, I have the honour to report 
that some sawkars and well-to-do khatedars of the Mandvi, Bardoli, Valod (Mahal) 
and Olpad Talukas combined to exaggerate their distress and to withhold paying in 
the assessment. When my camp was at Mandvi I found that the collection of land 
revenue was proceeding very slowly and that the sawkars and well-to-do had combined 
to refuse payment of the assessment. The attachment of lands had absolutely no 
effect as they imagined that the lands would be restored or at any rate recovered on 
easy terms next year. I accordingly issued warrants for the arrest of three of the 
leading defaulters — sawkars. One warrant only was executed with the result that 
Rs. 10,000 were paid in by sawkars on the same day and the combination in Mandvi 
and the Olpad Sub-Division practically disappeared. 

"2. At Valod I found a similar combination among the sawkars which was 
broken up by the attachment, at my suggestion, of the moveable property of one of 
the ringleaders. 

" 3. In Olpad and Bardoli Talukas the opposition did not extend beyond passive 
resistance instigated by the better classes and was broken down by firmness on the 
part of the Sub-Divisional Officer and the Mamlatdars. 

• 

" 4. In the Bulsar Sub-Division associations were formed by some of the leading 
Anavlas of Chikhli, Bulsar and Pardi Talukas, but when the leaders themselves were 
made to pay the assessment first the rest followed their example and the movement 
died a natural death. 

" 5. In the Jalalpur Taluka I found that the Eolis of one village, Bodali, had 
met in panch and passed a resolution to fine and outcast any who paid their revenue. 
I called the leading members of the panch and pointed out to them the illegality and 
the consequence of such action and insisted on their paying first in the presence of 
the whole village. 

" 6. It may be said to the credit of the Kali Paraj and poorly classes of cultivators 
that they did not join in any such movement and in spite of their comparatively 
limited resources have paid off their dues as far as lay in their power." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 4724, dated 1st May, 1900 : — 

"Submitted to Government in continuation of this office No. 4144, dated 
14th ultimo." 

Resolution. — The Collector should be informed that Government approve 
of the action taken by him, which in the circumstances was judicious. 



10566 2 D 2 



1900 : 



Enclosure 3 in No. 69. 



No. 2240, dated Bombay Castle, 10th May, 1900. 



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Enclosure 4 in No. 69. 

Letter from the Collector of Kaira to the Commissioner, N. D., No. R — 3434, 

' dated the 9th May, 1900. 

I have the honour to return your No. 4364, dated the 2lst ultimo, and to 
report as follows : — 

The steps taken to collect Government demand this year are these : 
Early in Deceml)er last the statement prescribed in paragraph 3 of Government 
Resolution No. 8345, dated the 22nd November, 1899, was ordered to be 
prepared for every village. It was ready by the beginning of January, and 
notices of demand were issued against those who fell into any of the classes 
specified therein. But they were regarded by the people as mere waste paper. 
Compulsion had, therefore, to be resorted to, and detailed orders consistent with 
the declared policy of Government were issued. Forfeiture of lands in respect 
to which the arrears were due was as a preliminary step authorised. Attach- 
ment of moveable property . was also allowed only in cases in which it was 
known to be sufficient to meet with the Government demand without causing 
deprivation of necessities to the defaulters. The authority to order distraints 
was of course restricted to the Sub- Divisional Officers, i.e., Assistant and Deputy 
■Collectors. 

3. The above processes were carefully and steadily applied. The better 
results in the beginning of February were due to them. But the effects were 
•only temporary and a lull began towards the end of that month, as the 
preliminary step of simple forfeiture was regarded as a mere threat by the 
people, whose attitude in the matter of collection is well known to you. Day 
by day it became more astute. So far as my information goes, subscriptions 
were raised to send deputations and to meet other charges in this connection. 
Memorials were printed and forwarded to all offices in large numbers by all 
alike protesting against the levy of assessment this year. All possible obstacles 
were thrown in the way of Government officials. Valuables were removed to 
safe quarters or buried. Orders regarding the precautionary measures were 
openly defied, and crops removed and stored in secure places to avoid attach- 
ments. Some of the patels too took a leading part, and I had to set an example 
by suspending the worst of them. Those who were honest enough to pay were 
looked upon with utter contempt and threatened with excommunication. They 
were, however, careful enough to pay punctually the judi due on their inam land 
to save it from forfeiture. Such land can, however, be legally attached for 
arrears due on account of Government khalsa land, and orders accordingly 
issued. 

4. More stringent measures were thought necessary, and sales of forfeited 
lands were ordered, but I am happy to say not a single sale has up to now been 
allowed to be completed. In test cases, distraint of moveable property was 
ordered, and in the worst cases action had to be taken under Section 142 of the 
Land Revenue Code. The steady increase in the flow of collections is the 
result of these steps, as will be seen from the statement marked " A " appended 
to this letter. And with a view to deal a final blow at the combination I have 
ordered the levy of notice fees and £ penalties in cases of obstinacy after the 
15th instant. This, I think, will bring round the Bania, who has hitherto kept 
in the back ground. 

5. In conclusion I beg to bring to your notice the case of the Talukdars, 
Udhadars l and other large landholders. A heavy amount is due from them, 
but as yet I have taken no steps against them, as practically they have received 
no rents this year. The question is engaging my close attention, and I will 
very shortly decide what to do in their case. 

6. The above will, I hope, satisfy you as to the action taken and tfy; 
results achieved in the matter. 



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Annexure. 

Statement showing total land revenue collections during the year 1899-1900, 



Week Ending. 


Total Collections 
During the Week. 


Remarks. 






Rs. 




3rd February, 1900 


49,982 






» • • • 


33,388 




17th 


... ... 


14,854 




24th 


... ... 


22,213 




3rd March 


... ... 






10th „ 


,, ... 






17th „ 


„ ... _. 


3,510 




24th „ 


9J ... 


19,532 


« 


31st „ 


„ 


27,597 




7th April 


,, 


22,248 




14th „ 


)» ... 


15,941 


Decrease 








owing to 


21st „ 


» 


24,669 


Easter 


28th „ 






holidays. 


»> 


30,132 


5th May 


,, ... ... 


34,311 






Total 


3,11,183 





No. 70. 

Letter from T. W. Holderness, Esq., C.S.f., Secretary to the Government of 
India, to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay (Famine), 
No. 1409 F. dated Simla, the 7th July, 1900. 

. I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 2599, dated 21st 
June 1900, reporting on the policy which has been pursued in the present 
famine by the Government of Bombay with regard to the collection of the land 
revenue. 

2. The figures appended to your letter show that in four out of the five 
' districts in Gujarat, very considerable leniency has in point of fact been exercised 

in the collection of the land revenue by the collectors, and it is inferred that their 
estimates for the remainder of the year, though very much below the estimates 
• reported to this Government in October last, are accepted by the Government of 
' Bombay as a reasonable standard which may be attained so long as coercion is 
kept within strictly reasonable limits, and which will not be exceeded. On these 
•estimates about 30 lakhs remain for collection, of which 11 lakhs more may, it is 
thought, be voluntarily paid in, if further pressure is prohibited. The prohibi- 
tion of further pressure will thus affect the sum of about 19 lakhs, and the 
Government of India are asked as to whether such prohibition is desired or not 
-by them. 

3. I am to remark that no suggestion was made in my letter of the 23rd 
May 1900 that the enforcement of all coercive processes should be stopped. 
There are undoubtedly cases even in a year of very great distress, in which 
coercion is justifiable and necessary. The Government of India neither had nor 
have any intention of interfering with the discretion of the Government of Bombay 
in the matter. 



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4. The Governor-General in Council in my letter above referred to confined 
himself to the general principle that, in a period of widespread and severe distress 
originating from general failure of the crops over large areas, it is advisable to- 
grant suspensions freely and promptly, and to confine coercive processes to the 
small and well defined minority of persons who can pay the demand without 
inconvenience and difficulty. It is urged in your letter that this is the actual 
practice which has been enjoined on district and divisional officers this year in 
the Bombay Presidency, and that the procedure described in paragraph 3 does 
not involve minute and inquisitorial inquiries. If this view of the position be 
correct, there in no difference of opinion between the two Governments as to the 
proper policy to be pursued. It is impossible however, to peruse the proceedings 
of the local Government without being struck with the fact that this estimate 
of the procedure prescribed for divisional and district officers was not the opinion 

formed respecting it by the officers who were 
MS'imSrCoi M^We teito application. They appear to have 
missioner, Northern Division. found lt a difficult, it not an impossible, problem 

to divide with accuracy the general body of agri- 
cultural occupants in a year of the present severity into those who were not well- 
to-do, and those w.ho were sufficiently well-to-do to justify pressure to pay. It 
is of course possible that these officers were mistaken as to the difficulty of the 
task or that they set about it in the wrong way. But the impression which 
the correspondence has left on the mind of the Government of India is that the 
task would have been made easier for them had they been told at an earlier date 
that the Government had seen cause to reconsider the standard of revenue 
collections reported to the Government of India in October 1899, and that it was 
prepared to accept a much lower one. From paragraph 2 of your letter it is 
understood that the October estimate of collections was communicated to 
collectors provisionally for guidance. It is now recognised to have been an 
impossible standard, and has been in practice set aside. But the process of" 
setting it aside has been lengthy, and has been accompanied by much argument 
and disputation between the Government and its officers, by much uncertainty 
on the part of the latter as to what the Government actually expected them to 
accomplish, and by active controversy in the public press, European and Native. 
These disadvantages might, in the opinion of the Governor-General in Council, 
have been avoided, had liberal limits for suspensions been fixed at an early date 
for each district. 

5. In paragraph 4 of your letter it is 'said that there is no wish that the 
landholders of the Bombay Presidency should be treated with less liberality than 
those of other parts of India, and enquiry is made as to what is the practice else- 
where. The correspondence enclosed in this letter will show that in the Central 
Provinces this year 70 per cent, of the year's demand has been suspended. In 
the famine tract of the Delhi Division of the Punjab, which is the part of that 
province most severely affected by drought, more than one half of the demand 
has been suspended. In the famine of 1897 revenue to the amount of about one 
and a half crores was suspended in the north-western Provinces and Oudb, the 
suspensions being distributed over the several districts in proportion to their 
respective crop losses and their general condition. In the same famine suspensions 

# aggregating Rs. 33,60,000 were given in four Deccan* 

* ^^T 1001 ' districts of Madras on the year's demand of Re. 
Anantapnr. 63,09,000. Had the Madras Presidency this year 
Cuddapah. suffered to the same extent as Gujarat, there is no 

doubt that, under the rules which are in force in 
that Presidency, suspensions would have been given at once, and before the issue 
of notices, on a very liberal scale, with reference mainly to the extent to which 
the crops failed in each district, sub-division, or group of villages, and without 
inquiry into the individual circumstances of the ryots. The Government of 
India do not suggest that the practice of other provinces in this matter is in all 
respects suitable to the land-revenue system of the Bombay Presidency. But 
they think the answer to the inquiry contained in paragraph 4 of your letter 
is that greater liberality in suspensions of land-revenue is, as a rule, shown in 
other temporarily settled provinces than has been the practice in the past in the 
Bombay Presidency. At the same time they willingly admit that the collections- 



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209 



up to date this year in several districts of the Presidency, are practical evidence 
that a large portion of the revenue demand has been left with the occupants. 

6. These observations are confined to the question of suspensions. There 
is no reason why every suspension should involve ultimate remission of a 
corresponding amount of land-revenue. The case for liberality and promptitude 
in the matter of revenue suspensions, when the country is suffering under a 
wide-spread calamity, is well put in paragraphs 6 and 14 of the letter of the 
Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. As regards remissions, however, 
the case is different. If the land-revenue assessment is light or moderate, if 
the general condition of the landholders before the famine was good, and if the 
tract shows signs of prompt recovery at its close, a large portion of the 
suspended revenue should ultimately be capable of collection. There is then 
time (which is wanting in the stress and hurry of famine relief) to make careful 
inquiries into the circumstances of individual landholders ; while with the revival 
of credit pressure on the part of the revenue authorities has then a less injurious 
effect, and is then accepted as reasonable by the great body of landholders. It 
seems to the Government of India that, if this distinction between suspensions 
and remissions is clearly preserved, increased liberality in the matter of 
suspensions need not necessarily be attended by corresponding loss of revenue. 



No. 71. 

Resolution of Government. No. 3265, dated Bombay Casde, the 
oth September, 1900. 

As the revenue year 1899-1900 has now closed, His Excellency the 
Governor in Council considers it desirable to issue the following further 
instructions with regard to the collection of land revenue pertaining to that or 
previous years, and at the same time to call attention to certain provisions of 
the law which there may be some risk of being misconstrued. 

2. If, as is hoped, the harvests of the current year are good, it will be 
legitimate, and no doubt in many cases expedient, to adopt the precautionary 
measures authorized in Sections 140 and 141 of the Land Kevenue Code. The 
revenue of the current year is properly a first charge on the crop, and the 
lien should be enforced where the crop is good and leaves after discharge of the 
Government dues a balance sufficient for the maintenance until another harvest 
of the cultivator and those dependent on him. But it is important to bear 
in mind that this lien is only to the extent of the current year's revenue 
and the utmost care must be taken to avoid any action likely to lead to the 
mortgage of the crops on account of arrears of revenue of past years. When 
the crops are reaped, it will be a question for consideration whether the outturn. 
m or is not such as will enable the occupant, without borrowing, to pay also 
part or the whole of what is due for the previous year. 

3. In any case in which land has not been cultivated owing to the 
occupant's -want of means, the responsibility for the assessment, in consequence 
of notice of relinquishment not having been given before the date prescribed 
in Section 74 of the Land Revenue Code, should not be enforced. In almost 
all such cases it will be in accordance with the principles which have been 
laid down to remit the arrears of previous ye ars. Bu t care should be taken 
to confine the benefit of these concessions to"^5ersohs who, being in actual 
occupation directly under Government, have not the means of cultivation. 
Superior holders, whether registered as occupants or not, who are not 
impoverished, but who, for reasons other than inability to provide the cost of, 
-cultivation have allowed land to remain fallow are not entitled to it. 



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4. In the recovery of arrears, the orders already issued should be very - 
strictly carried out. There should be no further delay in rigorously enforcing 
the provisions of the law against defaulters about whose possession of means 
to pay there is no doubt. For the present, others should be in no way pressed. 
The instruction that no order of destraint, which of course should be held 
applicable to forfeiture of land, shall be issued by an officer below the grade 
ot Assistant or Deputy Collector must be adhered to pending further orders 
without any modification whatever, and Government will notice with severe 
displeasure any departure from it which comes to their knowledge. The 
Collectors should make all subordinate officers clearly understand that the 
adoption by them of any measures which are not authorised by the law or 
orders will meet with punishment. 

5. When, however, the condition of the crops is definitely known, it 
should be considered whether the outturn is such as to admit of the payment 
of a part or whole of the arrears, as well as of the current year's revenue, 
without unduly curtailing the cultivators' means of subsistence. Such 
occupants as get good crops on a considerable area of l»nd, may be able to 
discharge all their dues without difficulty. In other cases in which the 
occupants are not clearly well-to-do, it may be desirable to recover a part only 
of the arrears and leave the balance for levy in future years. In cases in 
which, owing to the small size of the holding or the poverty of the crop, the 
outturn is not such as will leave any balance after discharging the year's 
assessment and supplying the means of subsistence until another harvest, the 
arrears may be at once Remitted. 

6. His Excellency the Governor in Council recognizes that considerable 
trouble will be involved in carrying out these orders, but it is impossible 
otherwise to combine the recovery of such revenue as in the interests of the 
State ought" to be levied with such relief as may be fairly accorded to 
impoverished cultivators, and he confidently relies on the officers of Govern- 
ment to spare no pains to secure that object. Timely steps should be taken 
to obtain such detailed information as is necessary for the purpose, the Circle 
Inspectors being required to complete their inspections and write up their 
books without any avoidable delay. As regards the kharif crops Village 
Form No. 3, Part I., should be filled up by village officers before the end of 
September. The Circle Inspectors should conduct their inspections and checks 
of the forms, not merely after the completion of the form by the village 
officers, but during its compilation, in order that its progress and the genuine- 
ness of the field inspections by the village officers may be assured. A second 
inspection of the rabi-sown areas should be made by the village officers in 
November, and should be subjected to similar check by the Circle Inspectors.. 
The check should be principally directed to the correct registration of the areas 
left unsown. Returns of such areas should be compiled number by number- 
for each village and submitted to the Collector under the certificate of the. 
Circle Inspector that he has personally inspected the village and believes the' 
return to be correct. The work of the Circle Inspectors must be diligently.- 
supervised and checked by the Mamlatdars and Assistant and Deputy Collectors r - 
as well as by the District Inspector and Superintendent of Land Records and 
Agriculture. As soon as possible after the prospects of the rabi harvest are- 
known, there should be submitted to Government estimates of the amounts- 
likely to be collected on account of the revenue of the year, and on account of 
arrears, also of the amount of arrears which should be held over for recovery 
in future years, and of the amount which should be remitted at once. > 



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MORTALITY IN GUJARAT. 
NO. 72. 

Telegram from the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Secretary to the Government of 
Bombay, Famine, No. 1010-.F. dated Simla, the 18/& May, 1900. 

Your letter No. 471-M., dated 10th May. Government of India are greatly 
concerned at terrible mortality shown by March death-rates of districts in 
Northern Division, and they fear that no improvement has since taken place. 
They would suggest that expansion of village gratuitous relief and of kitchen 
relief may possibly be required. 



No. 73. 

Letter from J. Monteath, Esq., C.S.I., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay, to the Secretary t» the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, No. 2369, date/ Bombay Castle, the 2<oth May, 
1900. 

With reference to your telegram No. 1010-F. of 18th instant, I am directed 
to make the following remarks for the information and consideration of the 
Government of India in amplification of my telegram No. 678, dated 24th instant, 
which was as follows : — 

" Your telegram 1010-F. of 18th. Extension of dole to people leaving works from 
illness and to such scared away by cholera as are in danger of starvation has been for 
some time authorised. This Government having consulted Commissioner think more 
liberal gratuitous relief would involve great danger of general demoralization and 
abandonment of works. Letter follows." 

2. The exceedingly high mortality in Gujarat districts has been for some 
time a matter of the gravest anxiety and perplexity to His Excellency the Governor 
in Council. The causes of it are still being investigated by the Sanitary Commis- 
sioner, to whom all assistance available for the purpose has been offered. The 
Commissioner, N. D., has expressed the opinion that the general cause is the 
novel shock of famine to people used to good wages and comparatively luxurious 
food and easy life. This theory, which has been adopted by some of the- 
Collectors, clearly cannot apply to the Panch Mahals, where the death-rate has- 
been highest, as the great bulk of the inhabitants of that district are more inured 
to privation than those of any other district in the Presidency. In Ahmedabad 
and Broach whilst the mortality has been very high the average cost of relief on 
works has been materialy greater than elsewhere, partly it is believed because 
the wage was calculated on a basis very favourable to the worker and partly 
because deduction .for short work was not common. So far as experience in 
any other part of India is a guide, the wage which it is open to every able-bodied 
person to earn is sufficient for the maintenance of health and strength and the 
moderate amount of work which is exacted is calculated to be beneficial rather 
than injurious. Further, the testimony, medical and other, is virtually unanimous 
that with rare exceptions, almost all of new-comers, the physical condition of* 
people while on the works is good. 

3. As regards gratuitous relief this Government have continuously enjoined 
on the collectors the necessity of giving it to all who are entitled to it under the 
rules of the Code. It has been directed that in any case in which the death of 
a resident is considered to be due to starvation it should be explained how it 
became possible if village inspection and village relief were properly organized. 
Preference has been expressed for relief by cooked food so far as it is convenient 

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and practicable, but it has been repeatedly ordered that infirm people should not 

be required to go an' unreasonable distance for the purpose and that the dole 

should be given to any who have bond fide scruples about the receipt of cooked 

food. The need of giving temporary relief to destitute wanderers until they can 

be sent to a poor-house has also been pointed out, and an order* of which a copy 

accompanies, has been passed for the conveyance of 

M * 2S22Tf? ^T lu ^ iou such persons to a poorhouse and for their compul- 
No. 2289, dated 15th May, r r , ., r , , 

1900 sory residence there unless or until they are able 

and willing to work. It has been reported from 

several districts that people falling ill on works will not go to the hospital but 

return to their homes. The admission of them to the dole until they are able 

td work has been authorised, it being at the same time directed that all possible 

efforts should be made to keep them on the works, such as have a repugnance to 

the hospital being, if practicable, treated in separate huts. It has also been 

ordered that such of the very large numbers of people frightened from the works 

by outbreaks of cholera as are in danger of starvation should receive gratuitous 

relief, but that the principles enunciated in Sections 49 (f) and 61 i a) of the 

Famine Relief Code Rhould be a3hered to. There can be little doubt that if 

there is any lax distribution of gratuitous relief to able-bodied people, the works 

will be abandoned and general demoralization will result. The Commissioner, 

N. D., reports that " many if not most of the deaths have been among person 

returning sick from the works or already on the dole or otherwise moderately 

provided for ; most of the remainder are among vagrants, very difficult to deal 

with." On the whole His Excellency in Council is of opinion that the high 

mortality cannot be attributed to any undue restriction of gratuitous relief and 

that no material expansion of it is possible without risk of widespread 

demoralization. 

4. At the same time it is recognized that the situation is exceedingly grave 
and that no measure which gives promise of alleviation should be omitted. The 
mortality already high from causes not discovered has been greatly increased by 
cholera and it can scarcely be honed that it will be possible to give relief in time 
to all of the many thousands of people who have deserted the works on account 
of violent outbreaks of that disease. The Commissioner, N. D., has been 
authorised to open small village works to the extent to which reasonably efficient 
supervision, including that of influential non-official gentlemen, is available. 
It is probable that many who are deterred by fear of cholera from returning to 
tfce larger works will accept employment nearer home on somewhat smaller 
wages. At the same time the larger works on which cholera has been epidemic 
are closed and others opened in their stead. There have been appointed to 
Gujarat Districts 38 additional European officers, including six medical men, 
and one native Commissioned officer to assist in checking the spread of cholera, 
to induce able-bodied persons in need to go to the works and to see that gratui- 
tous relief is properly administered. Such intelligent native non-commissioned 
officers and privates as the military authorities can spare are also being employed. 
It does not appear to the Governor in Council that it is possible to do more witb 
hope of effect or wiihont risk of evil results, but if any other measure likely to 
be useful suggests itself to His Excellency the Governor General in Council, this 
Government will willingly try it. 

5. Reverting to the question of the probable causes of the exceedingly 
high death-rates, I am to state that His Excellency in Council hesitates to express 
any definite opinion until the investigation is complete. There will however be 
found in another letter which will follow evidence of extensive immigration into 
at least one district. A large proportion of the immigrants arrive in a reduced 
and many in a moribund condition. This is especially the case with .those 
attracted to large towns by the hope of private charity, and these will neither go 
of tlieir own accord to or willingly stay in poor-houses. The deaths of these 
immigrants disproportionately increase the registered rate of mortality, which is 
calculated on the resident population. There is however little doubt that the 
mortalitv amongst that population is also great. The diseases returned are 
mainly diarrhoea, dysentery and fever, but the Sanitary Commissioner says that 
the symptons as regards the last are not those of famine fever. The unusual 
brackishness of water in this year of excessive drought which was found to be 



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injurious to many of the irrigated crops may be also deleterious to the human 
system.' Works on which virulent outbreaks of cholera occurred have been 
specially mentioned as those which many people previously left on account of 
illness, and in both cases it seems probable that the cause was to be found in 
•the water. A full report will however be submitted as soon as the investigation 
is complete. 



Enclosure in No. 73. 

No. 2289, dated Bombay Castle, the 15th May, 1900. 

Resolution. — The Commissioner, N.D., has already been authorised by 
telegram to direct that all destitute wanderers be taken by force if necessary to 
a poor-house and compelled to stay there unless or until they are able and 
willing to work. In the Gujarat Districts, where cholera is prevailing in w» 
epidemic form, a notification under the Epidemic Diseases Act would place the 
legality of this course beyond" question. Bufr-His-fixcellency the Governor in 
Council considers that similar action should be taken wherever there is acute 
famine and that it is justified by the fact that it constitutes the only effective 
means of saving the lives of these people. In the Report of the Indian Famine 
Commission of J880, Volume III, page 181, it is stated with reference to 
suggestions to give power of compulsion by legislation : — " It does not appear 
however that the absence of this legal authority hampered officers to any 
' material extent in doing what they felt to be the wisest and most humane thing 
for these paupers." It has generally been assumed that a poor-house as distinct 
from a kitchen is a place where the ordinary inmates are compelled to reside, 
and effect should be given everywhere to this principle. 

2. Separate orders have been or will be issued on the questions of dealing 
with people who have left works on account of cholera and of supplying more 
European officers. 



Annexure I. to Government Resolution, Famine Department, No. 2289, 

dated 15th May, 1900. 

Letter from the Commissioner, N. D. to the Chief Secretary to Government, Famine Depart' 
ment, iVo. 4738, dated 1st May, 1900. 

I have the honour to report the information I receive from the distressed districts of 
this Division in order to place on record some hint of the conditions the Collectors and 
their staffs have now to deal with and also for anj instructions that Government may be 
pleased to issue. 

2. The Collector of Ahmedabad says the number of starving destitute round the city 
is " appalling." They won't go to the poor-houses of wliich there are several- if they have 
to stay in them. Nor will they work. The only condition on which they will accept 
help is that they are allowed to wander away after, a meal and hang about the roads for 
casual charity. The ambulance system started under this office circular of 31st March, 
of course, only touches them when they have reached the stage of exhaustion. The 
foolish practice of Riving alms without any system is no doubt largely responsible for this. 
It has drawn and continues to draw the lazy and the vagrant as to a great centre from 
miles around Additional troubles are a recent outbreak of cholera in the Government 
poor-house, and the death yesterday from small pox of Mr. Manibbai Premabhai, President 
of the Municipality, a moat benevolent and energetic citizen, who will be greatly missed. 

3. In Kaira cholera has broken out on five large works, and the people are leaving 
them in large numbers. The problem is what to do with them in their villages. If they 
are put on the dole right off, every one will leave the works and go home to live foi 
nothing. If not given dole, they will die in crowds. At present the Collector is holding 
his hand in the hope that cholera will decrease and that there will be a reflux ba< k to the 
works. 

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4. In the Panch Mahals the Collector has already officially reported direct to yon in 
his No. 2,523 of 28th ultimo the outbreak of cholera on the Kanelao Tank, the " horror " of 
which is described by a cool-headed man like Mr. Stewart as " beyond description." The 
people of course have left and the same difficulties threaten as in Kaira. 

5. The only immediate course I have to respectfully suggest is that, if anyhow 
possible, more European help of the right sort may be afforded. The unexpected difficulty 
of dealing with people even in the Kaira District who are unwilling to go upon any work 
Indicates the necessity of dividing the district up into smaller sections than hitherto with 
a superior officer over it responsible for supervision of all phases of famine relief, including 
village inspection. 



Annexure II. 

Telegram from- the Chief Secretary to Government, Famine Department, to the Com- 
missioner, N. D., No. 409, dated ith May, 1900. 

Your letter 4,738 of 1st instant, paragraph 2. You are anthorized to direct that all 
destitute wanderers be taken by force if necessary to a poor-house and compelled to stay 
there unless or until they are able and willing to work. 



No. 74. 

No. 2,407, dated Bombay Castle, the SOth May, 1900. 

Government memorandum to the Collector of the Panch Mahals, No. m. — 505, 
dated 12th May, 1900 :— 

"The undersigned presents compliments to the Collector of the Panch Mahals, 
and is directed to request that he will be good enough to submit at once a report on 
the statements contained in the letter from Mr. F. C. Aldrich published in the 
Times of India of the 11th May, 1900, and if they are true, or even approximately 
true, to furnish an explanation how, and why, and through whose negligence things 
have been allowed to reach such a pass." 

Government memorandum to the Commissioner, N. D., No. m. — 506, dated 
12th May, 1900 — Forwarding a copy of the above. 

Telegram from the Government of India, Department of Revenue and 
Agriculture (Famine), dated 17th May, 1900. 

" Attention of Government of India has been attracted to article headed ' Famine 
scenes in Dohad,' published in 'Pioneer, 14th May, and they will be glad to receive 
at an early date a report as to the amount of truth there is in this article." 

Letter from the Collector of the Panch Mahals, No. 3,122, dated, 22nd May, 
1900 :— 

" I have the honour to submit the following report on the letter from Mr. F. C. 
Aldrich, published in the Times of India of the 11th instant, as called for in your 
memorandum No. M. — 505 of the 12th instant. 

" 2. I would premise by saying that neither I nor any other officer in this district 
has any idea who Mr. Aldrich is. I gather from his letter that he went to Dohad by 
the only train in the day from A'nand, arriving there at 12.52, and left by the only 
returning train at 15.43. The result of this visit of something under three hours 
is a letter which is not only highly coloured, but as misleading as casual observation 
and most imperfect enquiry could make it. 

" 3. The Dohad-Limdi Road work being nearly completed, work was opened on 
the Dohad Tank in the middle of March and in the week ending April 28th there was 
an average daily attendance of 7,317 workers with a daily average of 936 dependants 
and children fed in the kitchen. As Government are aware cholera broke out in a 
very severe form over a great part of the country in the end of April. On May 1st, 
as cases were reported from Dohid, I went there for the day to see that proper 
arrangements were made' for the prisoners in the jail and inhabitants of the poor- 
house. There had then been two or three cases on the relief work, but it was hoped 
that anything like a severe outbreak might be prevented. On the 2nd, however, 
54 deaths occurred, and on the 3rd, 67, and on that date Captain Southey who is in 



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215 



charge of the works in Dohad and Jhalod under the Executive Engineer closed the 
tank work and made immediate arrangements for opening work on the Dohad- Alirijpur 
Road at a spot about 4 miles from ) ,'ohad town. As a matter of fact men had been 
working for some days at that spot and at two other places close by, digging wells to 
secure an adequate supply of water in case an outbreak of cholera rendered it necessary 
to move the camp. Work was opened at the new camp on the 7th, and subsequently 
the people were transferred to the Muwala Tank site which is between two and 
three miles from Dohad. There has been J or months a work in progress at Oarbadu, 
12 miles from Dohad to the south, and since the middle of March a large tank work 
also at Jhalod, 22 miles to the north. So much for the arrangements for workers. 
No one was ever transferred to a work 25 miles off. Every one coming was taken 
on at the nearest work which was less than five miles off. 

" 4. Next as to people unable to work. From the beginning of January there 
has been a poor-house in Dohad, not hidden away as one might imagine from the 
fact that Mr Aldrich fails to mention it, but open to everyone asking for relief and 
open to everyone to inspect. The average daily numbers in it were 718 in the week 
ending April 21st, 584 in the week ending April 28th, and 501 in the week ending 
May 5th, a large decrease, though, as I will show, numbers of people were collected 
in Dohad town and sent into it. It needs more than a casual visit to appreciate 
the difficulties of dealing with Bhils. With regular meals they cannot be got to 
stay in the poor-house, and though given clothing to cover their naked bodies, they 
sell it and appear as naked again. When I went to the poor-house on the 1st there 
were holes all round the enclosure where people had broken out during the night 
urged by fear of cholera or by some wandering instinct which will not let them keep 
still. Presumably Mr. Aldrich was not informed of the outbreak of cholera, as he says 
nothing of it. Anyone who knows what it means when cholera breaks out in a camp 
of 7,000 Bhils, when the sweepers strike and the Hospital Assistant, the only available 
medical aid, promptly applies for leave as was the case at Dohad, would scarcely be 
surprised at seeing dead bodies ; but the picture presented by Mr. Aldrich's letter is 
a misrepresentation which, when made without any attempt at enquiry, is very little 
removed from a deliberate falsehood. In his very first paragraph he presents a 
terrible scene of starving people sitting down beneath trees to shelter themselves 
from the pitiless sun. Considering that his visit was at the hottest time of the day 
when no work is done and everyone seeks what shade can be got, the description is 
nothing but sensational nonsense. If Mr. Aldrich could speak to the people he would 
very soon have found out the truth, but as he has lamentably failed to do so, it is but 
fair to conclude that he does not know the language, and is drawing entirely on his 
imagination when he retails their statements that there is no one to give. 

" 5. As to the second paragraph it is true that there were bodies in tho nala east 
of the town. They had been collected there to be burned, but it most emphatically is 
not true that there was lying in the town the body of a woman who had died two 
days before. Tt is also true that the non-official members of the Dohad Municipality 
have 'lone nothing to help. The richer people of the town promised handsome 
subscriptions, of which they have paid nothing, and in January, when I camped at 
Dohad, the Hindus were giving indigestible food to a disorderly mob of people and 
children without arrangement or method, but that the official members of the 
Municipality have made no arrangements is not true. I'rom the beginning emaciated 
people have been regularly removed from the town to the poor house, and when, 
owing to the almost total failure of the inhowra crop, the number of destitute Bhils 
thronging into the town increased, it was divided into four regular wards with a 
special peon in charge of each, and two carts were employed to carry people to the 
poor-house. When cholera broke out the District Deputy Collector came into Dohad 
from his camp, and on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th was moving about in the town from 7 to 11 
each morning, and on the 4th itself had a dozen carts working. Ihe number of people 
thus conveyed to the poor house by the Municipality from within Municipal limits 
was, for the week ending April 21st, 435, for the week ending April 28th, 350, for the 
week ending May 5th, 739, the total number admitted to the poor house for the three 
weeks aggregating 1,9 U, and the total of those sent to work and those who ran away 
1,224. It will thus be seen that it was only by the persistent efforts of the Municipal 
executive that people could be kept in the poor-house at all. In case the large number 
of runaways may be ascribed to unkind treatment, I may point out that the same 
difficulty has been experienced in Jhalod, where for some time a most kindly and 
sympathetic missionary was in charge of the poor-house, and in Godhra, where the 
chance of a small handful of grain from some shopkeeper has induced people over 
and over again to break out of the poor-house at night. The concluding paragraphs 
of Mr. Aldrich's letter are pure sensation, and do not seem to call for any special 
remarks. On the day he went to Dohad there were there besides the local officials, 
viz., the District Deputy Collector and the Mamlatdar, Captain Southoy, I.S.C., on duty 
at the relief camp, and Lieutenant James, T.S.C., who went there especially on the 3rd 
to look after the poor-house. Mr. Aldrich can scarcely have failed in his walk through 
the town to see the fort in which the Mamlatdar's office is situated, or the bungalow in 
which the European officers were living, 'yet to not one of these officers did he go to 
enquire what was being done or could be done. Captain Southey writes to me that 
on the 4th he was engaged the whole morning in collecting from the tank and its 
vicinity the bodies of those who had died of cholera the previous night and that day, 
and that in the evening he went round again and could not see one left. He adds 
that there was great difficulty in getting the work done as the sweepers had all bolted 



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and he considers that so far frou^ doing nothing, the municipal authorities had got the 
1 1 place cleared as soon as they possibly could. He himself saw the municipal carts at 
v work at 5.30 a.m. 

"6. I am sending this report through the Commissioner, who himself went to 
Dohad on the 5th, and he will be able to say whether the state of things on that day 
gives any ground for believing the picture presented of the previous day, and I would 
merely add a hope that Government will not allow an imputation of this sort 
published in the public press to rest upon officers who had been working for now 
nearly nine months to save life amongst a people who will not work nor be regularly 
fed, and who, if they are to be saved at all, must be saved by force in spite of 
themselves." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 5,640, dated the 23rd 
May, 1900 :— 

" Forwarded. 

"The Commissioner can corroborate Mr. Stewart's report of his personal 
knowledge, having been in Dohad on the 5th, 6th, and 7th May. That distressing 
scenes were to be witnessed is too true, but nothing else could be expected after such 
a violent outbreak of cholera, which not only resulted in many deaths on the work, 
but dispersed 7,0(>0 panic-stricken and destitute people, many of them already seized 
or about to be seized by the disease. At the poor-house an organised ambulance service 
was at work, and the poor people, as they were brought in, were either kindly treated 
in the cholera wards, or, if only exhausted, were fed with milk under the care of a 
European nurse. All this was as noteworthy as the apathy of the townspeople and the 
reluctance of the unhappy wanderers to come into the poor house so long as they 
thought there was a chance of getting a few grains of corn outside from ill-advised 
charity. Such was the effect of the efforts made that Mr. Lely, on going through part 
of the town with Captain Southey on the morning of the 7th to see the site of the new 
work being prepared at Muwala, remarked to his companion that no one would 
believe from what they saw that there was so much distress in the country." 

Resolctton. — In the opinion of His Excellency the Governor in Council 
the letter of the Collector of the Panch Mahals and the endorsement of the 
Commissioner, N. D., show conclusively that there are no substantial grounds 
for the more serious allegations made in a letter signed " F. C. Aldrich," and 
published in the Times of India and Bombay Gazette on the 11th instant. In 
particular it is clear that the persons whose corpses could be seen on the 4th 
instant were not starved to death but died of cholera, and that there was no 
avoidable delay in disposing of the dead. The real facts are very deplorable 
but they could not have been prevented by any exertions on the part of the 
local officers, while the writer has, through manifestly imperfect information, so 
distorted them as to make them reflect on the vigilance of these officers, who are 
carrying out most difficult and unpleasant duties with zeal and determination 
worthy of all praise. 

2. Copies of the letter of the Collector, memorandum of the Commissioner, 
and of this Resolution, should be forwarded to the Government of India with 
reference to their telegram of the 1 7th instant. Copies should also be placed on 
the Editor's table. 



No. 75. 

Letter from T. W. tfolderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of 
India, to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay, No. 1,160-i^., 
dated Simla, the \th June, 1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 2,369, dated 
26th May, replying to my telegram of the 18th May, in which it was suggested 
that, in view of the great mortality occurring in the Northern Division, an 
expansion of village gratuitous relief and of kitchen relief might possibly be 
required. 



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2. It is stated in your letter that the Governor in Council is, on the | whole, 
of opinion that the high mortality cannot be attributed to any undue restriction 
of gratuitous relief, and that no material expansion of it is possible without the 
risk of widespread demoralisation; but that he recognizes that the mortality 
from causes not yet discovered is very high and the .situation exceedingly grave. 

3. In suggesting that gratuitous relief should be expanded the Governor 
General in Council did not intend "to imply tfaat'itiiad been unduly restricted in 
the early stages of the famine, or that the present high mortality was attributable 
to such restriction. What he perceived was that the widespread prevalence of 
cholera had made the relief work system of the code obnoxious to the ,people, 
that there was very great and increasing distress, and very great and increasing 
mortality, and that along with this urgent and increasing necessity for greater 
relief the actual amount of relief given was week by week decreasing. In particular 
the amount of gratuitous relief given in the Gujarat districts_was according 

to the latest figures,* on a much smaller scale than 
• See appended statement A. was accepted as reasonable and prudent in other 

provinces -in 1897, and appeared incommensurate 
with, the current reports as to the debilitated condition bf large masses i of the 
people. From these considerations the Governor General in Council could not 
but feel that the relief system in force in Gujarat, however closely it adhered to 
the prescriptions of the famine code, failed in point of fact, in the special 
circumstances of the situation, to cope with the prevailing distress, and required 
to be reconsidered and supplemented by other expedients. The Governor 
General in Council has no wish to demoralise the people, but at the present 
time the paramount necessity is to mitigate extreme suffering and to save life, 
and this will not be attained so long as, owing to the local unsuitability of the 
relief system in force, relief contracts instead of expanding. 

4. The Governor General in Council believes that there is no difference of 
opinion on this point between himself and the Government of Bombay. He 
refers to it in order to assure .the Government of Bombay that any measures 
which they may think proper to take in the direction of temporarily relaxing 
the rules of the famine code, and of bringing effective relief to the people, will 
nave his warmest sympathy and his fullest support. He still considers that the 
gratuitous relief figures of the Gujarat districts indicate that this kind of relief 
will admit of considerable expansion before it reaches the point at which 
demoralisation among the able-bodied is likely to set in. There must be 
considerably more than 2 per cent, of the population not on relief works, which 
stands in need of relief and is not able bodied in the usual acceptation of the 
term. For the able-bodied employment is obviously preferable to gratuitous 
relief. The Governor General in Council notices with satisfaction that permission 
has been given to the Commissioner of the Northern Division to open small 
works and to relax the rule regarding compulsory residence on large works. It 
is hoped that these concessions will have the effect of attracting again to work 
the labour which of late has drifted from the large works and is at present 
wandering aimlessly about the country. The situation appears to be 
pre-eminently one which requires large discretionary powers and full liberty of 
action to be entrusted to the chief controlling authority on the spot. If this is 
not the case at present, it may be advisable for His Excellency in Council to 
consider whether greater delegation of powers may jnot be advantageoxis. 



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219 



No. 76. 

Letter from J. Monteath, Esq., C.S.I., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay, to the Secretary lo the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, N<>. 2,586, dated Bombay Castle, the \%th June, 
1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 1,1*>0-f., dated 
4th instant, communicating remarks on the advisability of temporarily relaxing 
the rules of the Famine Code with a view to bringing effective relief to the 
people in urgent need of it. In reply I am to state for the information of. the 
Government of India that copies of the correspondence ending with the letter 
have been forwarded to the Commissioner, N. I)., and he has been authorized 
to direct such an expansion of gratuitous relief as is desired by the Government 
of India in all places where the circumstances appear to require it and also ro 
adopt any other measure to which in his opinion immediate effect should be 
given for the purpose of meeting the difficulties now existing in the administra- 
tion of relief. 

2. With reference to the suggestion at the close of your letter, I am to 
state that it has been the practice of the Commissioners in accordance with the 
principle embodied in Section 29 of the Famine Relief Code to issue orders at 
once in all cases of urgency not involving a departure from a principle of 
importance, and report their proceedings for approval. This course has been 
generally adopted by the Commissioner, N. D., in the matter of gratuitous relief, 
and no objection has been made to any of the directions issued by him ; in fact, 
on recent occasions he has been authorized to show even increased liberality. 
The reference to Sections 49 ( /) and 61 (a) of the Code is not an exception, 
for it was made with regard to the statement in paragraph 3 of his letter 
No. 4,738, dated 1st May, 1900, that if people leaving the works on account of 
cholera " are put on the dole right off, every one will leave the works and go 
home to live for nothing." When in his instructions to the Collector of the 
Panch Mahals he said that to those who are able-bodied or only temporarily 
weak from the want of food " relief cannot be offered except for work without 
bringing about a yf>t greater evil than starvation," this Government in their 
Resolution No. 2,439, dated 1st June, 1900, pointed out that in accordance with 
paragraph 486 of the Famine Commission's Report, the recommendations con- 
tained in which had been ordered to be adopted in the Panch Mahals, the dole 
must be given temporarily to " persons showing signs of emaciation or physically 
capable of doing only very light nominal work." Other orders have been 
issued for the purpose of ensuring that gratuitous relief shall be given to all 
entitled, and none for the purpose of restricting any measure of relief of this 
kind proposed by the Commissioner or any Collector. If therefore the last two 
sentences of your letter are intended to imply that sufficient powers may not. 
have been delegated to the Commissioner and that as a consequence there may 
have been an undue limitation of gratuitous relief, I am directed to request that 
you will be so good as to assure the Government of India that such is not 
the case. 

3. I am to add that the process of getting on the dole list such of the 
people deserting works on account of cholera as are in need of gratuitous relief 
is necessarily a slow one, but there has been in all the Gujarat Districts except 
Broach since the beginning of May a continuous increase, and the proportione 
on the population of persons gratuitously relieved in villages in the week ending 
9th instant were as follows : — 





Village. 


Percentage. 






Ahmedabad 


3-50 






Panch Mahals 


5-97 






Slftir& •■• • a • ••• ••• • • • 


2-35 






]3ro£icli ■■• ••• >■• * * • ••• 


2-80 






Surat (only partially affected) 


1-77 





10666 2 f 



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People are also returning rapidly to the works in all Gujarat Districts and the 
Collector of Kaira reports that sudi a's he saw on their way back did not seem 
to have suffered. 



Letter from the Collector of the Panch Mahals, No. 3,071, dated 19th May, 
1900 :— 



"I have the honour to invite your attention to the diary of the special Aval 
Karkun of Godhra for the week ending the 11th, which I forward herewith. In 
forwarding the previous week's diary I pointed out that the Aval Karkun had put on 
the dole list over 10 per cent, of the population of the villages visited. In the week 
for which the <liary is now 6ubmitted, in seven villages, with an estimated population 
of 2,850 people, he has put on the list 505, or just under 18 per cent. Under existing 
orders to consider the idiosyncrasies of the people, the Aval Karkun is not wrong, but 
I deair : to point out clearly that the idiosyncrasy here is nothing but a distaste of 
woi'k. Very many of these people can work and will not. If they are left alone they 
get gradually weaker and die, and as Mr. Rendall pointe out, they very soon find out 
that th ; alternative to going to a relief work is starvation for a few days and then the 
dole, or in many cases merely refusal to work and then the dole. Daily payments are 
being made on all the works, and I have just sent 39 school masters to aid in the 
payments and have got a large supply of copper. The choice lies between facing an 
enormous mortality and facing a dole list which means practically the pauperization 
of the whole district. To avoid the former we are rapidly attaining the latter, and 
- I bring it specially to your notice before things go further." 



Letter from the Commissioner, N. D., to the Collector of the Panch Mahals, 
No. 5,528, dated 21st May, 1900 :— 



- " There is no doubt that in your No. 3,071 of 19th inst., you have stated a very 

real dilemma of famine administration. It is more pressing in your district because 
of the large population of Bhils and others, who though more civilized in some 
respects than their compeers elsewhere, retain the aversion to regular life and work 
which characterized their forefathers. 

" 2. The following is the course which I think you should take. 

"3. Unless you have already done so, I should split up each Special Aval 
Karkun's charge into smaller sections, more easy of management by one man. You 
have probably done this already, as several officers have been put at your disposal who 
know Gujarati and are therefore fitted for this work. 

" 4. I should then instruct each officer in charge of a section to go from village 
to village, and assemble in each village all those who had no means of subsistence, 
including all on the Aval Karkun's list. By preference he should select the day on 
which dole is distributed. Those who are really unable to work even after a few 
days' feeding he should confirm on the dole list. Those who are able-bodied or only 
temporarily weak from want of food he should call up and warn very clearly that 
Government would not feed them unless they worked and insist on their going to the 
works. The weaker ones he should send in carts to the works with a note to the 
> officer in charge to take them on at first as nominal workers. 

" 5. You are I know starting more small works, and this is necessary, for it is 
too much to ask people of this sort to go at this season of the year, and when cholera 
is prevalent, 15 miles from their villages. 

"6. Something will depend on the personal influence of the officer, but I am 
not unaware of the difficulties. Many will decline to go or will run away at the first 
opportunity. To such it seems to me that relief cannot be offered except for work 
without bringing about a yet greater evii than starvation. The last device of the lazy 
will be to stay in the village or return to it and share the dole received by the real 
incapables. You have already, I believe, noted on the readiness with which the Bhil 
will share his handful of grain with his friends and relations. Something may still 
be done by insistence and tact on the part of the local officer, and that is in this last 
resort all we have to look to." 

Memorandum from the Commissioner, N. D., No. 5,529, dated 21st May, 



"Copy together with copy of Collector's letter No. 3,071, dated 19th May, 1900, 
submitted to Government for information." 



Enclosure in No. 76. 



No. 2,439, dated Bombay Castle, the ist June, 1900. 



1900: — 




BOMBAY FBBSIDBNCV.' 



Resolution. — The instructions issued by the Commissioner, N, D.,,are ini 
accordance with the orders of Government, provided the dole is given temporarily 
to " persons showing signs of emaciation or physically capable of doing only 
very light nominal work " (paragraph 486 of the Famine Commission's report), 
and subject to that proviso are approved. If by "existing orders to consider 
the idiosyncrasies of the people " the Collector refers to Government Resolution. 
No. 2,069, dated 21 at April, 1900, it is not clear that Le has correctly, understood 
it. There is no authority in it for giving the dole to people who can work, but 
the idiosyncrasies of really infirm people entitled to gratuitous relief are to be 
considered by giving them the dole if they will die rather than go to a poor-house 
or kitchen. 



No. 77. 

Letter from T. W. flolderness, Esq., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, to the Chief Secretary 
to the Government of Bombay, No. 1,307 F., dated Simla, the 26th June} 
1900. 

I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 2,586, dated' 
19th June, 1900, reporting that the Commissioner, Northern Division, has been' 
authorised to direct such an expansion of gratuitous relief as is desired by the 
Government of India in all places where the circumstances appear to require it, 
and also to adopt any other measure which he may consider to be immediately 
required for the purpose of meeting the difficulties now existing in the adminis- 
tration of relief. 

2. The Governor General in Council is relieved to find that this action 
has been taken, and trusts that it may result in a perceptible diminution of the 
death-rate, and in ameliorating the condition of the distressed population of the 
famine districts. He observes that the latest returns from the Presidency show 
a materal expansion of relief under all heads, and he is glad to learn that the ■ 
relief- workers, whose numbers have of late greatly decreased owing to the 
mortality and panic occasioned by virulent outbreaks of cholera, are now 
reported to be rapidly returning to the works in all the districts. His 
Excellency in Council desires to record again his deep sympathy with the 
Government of Bombay in the great difficulties which have beset the administra- 
tion of famine relief in Gujarat, and his anxiety to place at their disposal 
whatever assistance may be in his power. 

3. His Excellency in Council is glad to receive, and readily accepts, the 
assurance that sufficient powers have throughout been accorded to the Commis- 
sioner ot the Division. The remarks made in my former letter as to the 
desirability of such delegation of powers for the successful conduct of a famine 
campaign were meant to lay stress on a principle of primary importance, which 
the Governor General in Council could not omit to mention in passing under 
review the possible remedies for a very exceptional and critical situation. 



No. 78. 

Letter from J. Mmteath, Esq., C.S.I. , F.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government of- 
Bombay, to the Secretary to the G-vernment of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture, No. 1,367-P., dated Poona, the 2\st July, 1900. 

I am directed to forward for the information of the Government of India 
the accompanying copies of reports from the Collectors of Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Broach, and the Panch Mahals on the subject of the causes of excessive 

1066* »JJ 



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mortality in these districts, together with a copy of the memorandum from 
Government calling for them. The Governor in Council had hoped to have 
by this time more complete material for consideration of the question, but the 
report of the Sanitary Commissioner, which should form the most important 
contribution, is not likely to be ready for several weeks to come. In the 
circumstances it is considered desirable to put his Excellency the Governor 
General in Council now in possession of all the information which this Govern- 
ment have so far obtained. The purport of it has already been communicated, 
but the detailed reports may be ot use. 

2. It is impossible at present to gauge the extent to whicli the recorded 
rates of mortality have been swelled by the deaths of immigrants, but there is no 
doubt that the mortality amongst residents has been very high. It would be 
premature to attempt now an analysis of the causes. But the prominent fact is 
that the character of many of the classes of the people is such as to render futile 
all attempts to give them relief on reasonable conditions. The Government of 
India are aware from copies of the orders which have been sent to them that 
wherever the progress reports, which have for sqme months past been 
submitted every fortnight, or other reports, indicated that a relaxation of test 
was desirable, it has been promptly directed, and every effort has been made to 
restrict fines to cases of contumacy. But many would not go to works on any 
conditions or even remain in poor-houses. It is possible that the mortality 
might have been somewhat less if all such had got relief in their own homes. 
But such a course could not have been adopted without the risk of pauperizing 
the greater part of the community. It has been directed throughout that the 
recommendations of the Famine Commissioners with regard to aboriginal tribes 
should be made applicable to the Bhils in the Panch Mahals, and they have 
been applied in the later stages, but in the earlier stages of the famine these 
people lived mainly on the flesh of animals which died or were killed by them. 
Even according to these recommendations, however, the dole can be given 
temporarily only to such as show signs of emaciation, or are physically 
incapable of doing the ordinary work. It is exceedingly difficult with such 
establishment as is available to have this criterion properly applied, and, as is 
indicated in the letter of the Collector of the Panch Mahals, the digestion of a 
person subsisting on innutritous food may be ruined before he is considered 
eligible for the dole. 

3. Since cholera dispersed people employed on works, there has been a 
gradual increase in gratuitous relief, and there are now nearly 218,000 persons 
in receipt of the dole in Gujarat, the number in the rest of the Presidency being 
under 103,000. It is impossible to contemplate this fact without apprehension 
of the ultimate consequences. At the same time, however, very large numbers 
have returned or gone anew to the works. < 



Enclosure 1 in No. 78. 



Memo, from J. Monteath, Esq., Chief Secretary to Government of Bombay, to the 
Commissioner of the Northern Division, No. Jf-269 (Famine), dated 
Mahableshwar, the 23rd April, 1900. 

The undersigned presents compliments to the Commissioner, Northern 
Division, and in forwarding the accompanying statements of mortality in whole 
districts, and on relief works, and in poor-houses respectively for Gujarat 
districts for three months ending February, is directed to point out that, 
although the mortality on works and in poor-houses has in some cases been 
excessively high, it in no case amounts to a large proportion of the total 
mortality, and leaves a very large mortality in towns and villages to be 
accounted for. The Honourable Mr. Lely is requested to report, after very 
careful inquiry, whether, in view of these figures, he is able to say that village 
inspection and village relief are being carried out with proper care and vigilance. 
If every village is visited every week or 10 days by a Circle Inspector, and the 



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work of these Inspectors is thoroughly supervised, it is difficult to understand 
how many people can die of actual insufficiency of food. Some inquiry should 
also be made as to the registration. Village officers are not ordinarily, perhaps, 
apt to err in the direction of recording deaths which do not actually occur, but 
the death-rate in some of the districts has, it is believed, far exceeded that ever 
recorded in any famine district before, and as no adequate explanation seems yet 
to have been discovered, inquiry regarding all points which might affect the 
rate of mortality is necessary. The Sanitary Commissioner is also being asked 
to make careful investigation of other points. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 78. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. F. S. P. Lely, Commissioner, Northern Division, 
to the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Famine Department, 
Memo. No.>-365, dated Ahmedabad, the 2<oth May, 1900. 

Two reports from the Collectors of Ahmedabad and Kaira are submitted to 
Government with reference to their memorandum No. M-269, dated 23rd April, 
1900. Reports from the Collectors of Broach and Panch Mahals will be sub- 
mitted as soon as received. 

2. The Commissioner does not propose to forestall the complete summary 
of evidence regarding the great mortality which no doubt will be made after 
the famine is over and when there is more time to study the facts. At present 
he entirely agrees with the estimate of the main causes as given by Mr. Quin 
and, less fully, by Mr. Gibb. 

3. As indicating how a large number of the deaths may be due to causes 
other than simple " starvation," it may be mentioned that in the Mahipatram 
Orphanage at Ahmedabad there were 800 children, who were all well fed and 
in good condition. During the first 20 days of May 150 of them died of 
influenza or some such disease. 

4. For village inspection the staff was sufficient, but their task has been 

ritly embarrassed by the fact that many refused to go to work who could not 
put on dole without demoralizing both them and the rest of the people. 
This consideration naturally had more weight in the earlier part of the year 
when there were still many small helps to a living in the villages. Judging 
by the diaries received, the Inspecting Officers have been active, though it goes 
without saying that their work has not always been perfect, especially with 
respect to the large numbers of wanderers from outside which, especially in 
Ahmedabad, have largely swelled the death roll. 



Annexure I. 

Letter from M. C. Oibb, Esq., Collector of Ahmedabad, to the Commissioner, Northern 
Division, No. F-1SU, dated Ahmedabad, the 10th May, 1900. 

I have the honour to report on the subject of your No. 4608 of 27th April, 1900, below 
Government memorandum No. 269 of 23rd idem. 

2. 1 append a statement showing the deaths in the different circles for December, 
January, and February, with monthly rates per mille. 

3 It will be seen that far the heaviest death-rates occur in the Viramgam and Prantij 
(which includes Modasa) rural circles, and in the Ahmedabad, Gogha, Viramgam, aud 
Dholka town circles. 

4. The high death-rate in Ahmedabad city and Viramgam and Dholka towns is in 

great part attributable to the large number of deaths 
* I hare not rerifled this. among immigrant paupers. A good many deaths in the 

rural circles are probably attributable to the same cause. 
The high death-rate in Gogha town is probably due to deaths on the work being 
included.* 



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5. The deathrrate from fever and bowel complaints among people -who are not 
actually famine stricken is large and I should attribute this partly, at all events, to their 
having to livaon less nutritious food than usual. Thus persons who usually oau afford a 
little milk or ghee may be this year only able to afford just enough to buy absolute 
nect Bsaries, and. without their usual small luxuries, fall an easy prey to disease. Numbers 
of persons who are not accustomed to it, lived on the roots of nulreeds (bir), a diet to 
which usually only a few of the poorer classes, living near the nul, resort. I am told that 
in Dhanduka there were numerous deaths from bowel complaints due to eating thid 
unsuitable food. 

6. In Ahmedabad, and possibly elsewhere, there has been a good deal of influenza, 
and the infant mortality has also been high. 

7. When workers get ill they frequently leave the work and wander about instead of 
going to' hospital. Numbers -agam -stay-wi n t hoi r villages -earning only just enough to 
support life by selling head-loads of firewood or digging up roots of grass. 

8. I cannot attempt any answer to the question asked in (1) of your paragraph 1, 
though your suggestion appears reasonable ; as to your question (2), I have answered that 
to some extent in paragraph 7 above. 

9. Regarding question asked in your paragraph 3. The talatis stay in their villages 
more regularly than usual, but neither they nor the muhhis do what they ought in finding 
out distress. The Circle Inspector staff is, I think, sufficient except perhaps in Daskroi. 
Even in Daskroi the Circle Inspectors can visit each village once a fortnight. In most 
talukas he can, and does, visit each village oftener. Generally speaking, those who die of 
actual starvation are wanderers, and though village officers have orders to put such on dole 
if really starving they have very insufficiently carried them out. 

10. Ambulance parties are working in and near Ahmedabad, Viramgam aud at some 
other places. 

11. Your last paragraph. The works are visited frequently but I have given no 
directions as to how often each work should be visited oy each Assistant Deputy Collector 
or Mamlatdar. I have always found that all these officers were thoroughly cognizant of 
how works were going. I am confident that the works have on the whole been very well 
managed though there have been instances, such as you refer to, of people not getting 
taken on at once and consequently going away. Such, however, have been the exception, 
and generally I think have occurred through no fault of the superior staff, the parties 
applying to some temporary low-paid subordinate who has neglected to tell them 
where to go. 



Letter from H. 0. Qtiin, Esq., Collector of Kaira, to the Commissioner, Northern Division, 
No. .R-3742, dated Camp, Nariad, the 19th May, 1900. 

With reference to your No. 4608, dated 27th ultimo, I have the honour to submit the. 
following report : — 

2. The enormous mortality in this district which is arousing anxiety had been 
noticed by me before my attention was drawn to it by the remarks of Government. As I 
have already stated I am of opinion that it is on the whole due to what I would call 
general famine conditions. That is to say it has not been caused by any epidemic (I omit 
all reference to the outbreakof cholera which has for the last month been claiming large 
numbers of victims), nor is it the result of any special or particular cause which can be 
singled out. The large majority of persons who now swell the death-roll are dliaralas, a 
caste of kolis whose general characteristics would almost mark them out as designed by 
nature to fall ah easy prey to such a scourge as is now afflicting Gujarat. In the first place, 
in common with other inhabitants of this favoured Province, they are entirely unused to 
privation. They have always had no difficulty in getting, without exerting themselves, 
enough to live on, and I take it that they have been unable to realise what famine would 
mean to them, or to devise any means of saving themselves. In the second place they are 
idle, apathetic and thriftless to the last degree. In an ordinary y«ar they are accustomed 
to do just as little work as they possibly can. In consequence, they have I believe become 
innately incapable of steady labour ; their constant idleness through generations has 
brought about a constitutional inability to bear the strain of any prolonged effort. The 
results have been, first, a very great dislike to go to relief works, and subsequently, when 
imminent starvation has driven them there, failure to do the task demanded of them and 
to bear the fatigue and exposure which are the inevitable concomitants of labour under 
famine conditions. The wages they have been able to earn have generally be n but 
scanty and have certainly not sufficed to provide them with the quantity of food to which 
they are accustomed. A third fact which has tended to the deterioration of the dliaralas' 
condition is his unwillingness, resulting indeed in positive refusal, to leave his cattle while 
they still live. Almost every dharala household had at the beginning of the famine a few 
cows, or buffaloes, and here and there a pair of bullocks, and the insoluble problem for the 
people was, how to look after and feed their cattle and at the same time to labour on relief 



Annexure II. 



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works where of coursa the animals could not accompany them. To the dharala his live- 
stock represented all he had in the world, and it is not surprising that he should have been 
loath to leave his cows and his buffaloes to perish of starvation in order that he might toil 
for a living wage at work which he detested, and to which he had never been accustomed. 
Efforts were made to induce the people to arrange for one or two members of the family to 
feed the cattle while the rest went to a relief work, but they were not successful, and 
it must .be remembered that the providing of food for the cattle was no easy- matter nor 
one that required only a small expenditure of time. It involved slowly driving the 
enfeebled animal round the hedges and fields, so long as they contained any edible 
weed or creeper, and mounting trees to pick off, often one by one, the leaves whieh for 
thousands of cattle throughout the district were practically, through several months, the 
only nourishment, they obtained. 

3. The causes then that I would assign to the high mortality are these : — 

(a) The not being accustomed to privation and the failure to realise what it 

would mean ; 

(b) The dislike to and constitutional unfitness for steady work : and ., 

(c) The attachment to their cattle, which tied them to their villages till they 

became weak and enfeebled themselves, and were unable to resist any 
disease which subsequently attacked them. 

4. As regards the distribution of the mortality it appears that the death-rate is by 
no means equal all over the district. To analyse the statistics thoroughly would occupy 
more time than I can now -spare, -b«t I -ha v e t a k ea-oat- some -figures -for- February and 
March which are instructive. On comparing the numbers of deaths during those 
months, in each taluka with the three-year average number during the same months, the 
excesses work out as follows : — (The figures are not absolutely correct but are nearly so). 



Taluka. 


February 

Excess 
Percentage. 


March Exoesa 
Percentage. 


Matar' ... ' ... 


17 


40 


Mehmadabad 


65 


167 


NadUd 


44 


32 


Anand 


95 


99 


Borsad 


166 


162 


Thatra 


120 


93 


Kapadwanj 


220 


208 



In these figures the Municipal areas have not been taken into consideration as the 
deaths in them are largely composed of non-residents, many of whom may have come 
from other talukas. It will be seen that in Kapadwanj is to be found by far the highest 
mortality and in Borsad the second highest. Thasra was third in February, but only fifth 
in March, when the third place was taken by Mehmadabad. Anand is fourth in both 
months. Matar and Nadiad show the lowest death-rates. As regards Mntar, I would 
explain this by the fact that large numbers of persons Mt the taluka for Ahmedabad and 
other places at the beginning of the famine, whole villages almost in the south-west being 
deserted. Nadiad is a wealthy taluka, and the large towns of Nadiad and Mahudha 
provide a certain amount of labour. 

5. The unenviable pre-eminence of Kapadwanj is not hard to understand. The 
taluka is the poorest in the district and has the largest population of dharalas and the 
distress was felt there first. The people began early to wander, and large numbers of 
them became quickly enfeebled. This was evident from the state of affairs visible in the 
Kapadwanj poor-house and town at an early Btage. The relief work was specially 
unpopular and attracted only an inconsiderable section of the people. The Thasra taluka 
is also very poor, and in the Mahi side villages there are no wells. The position of Borsad 
is the most difficult to understand. The north part of the taluka is one of the most fertile 
and prosperous parts of the district, and in the west there are large and rich villages. The 
south and east portion, however, along the Mahi has all along been recognised as being 
in a very bad way, and presumably the highest mortality has taken place there. Anand 
also is a very prosperous taluka on the whole, but its death-rate is excessive. 

6. Turning to the distribution of the mortality amongst different villages, it is 
impossible without more elaborate statistics than I have before me to say which villages 
have suffered the most and why. I have, however, some figures for Anand taluka for the 
four months January to April, which show that the death-rate in that taluka, taken over 
that period, varied from about 21 per mille per annum in one village to 294 per mille per 
annum in another. Of course, in dealing with these figures it must be remembered that 
all percentages are based on the populations as they were before the famine (or perhaps as 



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they were in 1891), and there is no doubt that some villages have been deserted by 
their inhabitants to a far greater extent than others. Still making due allowance for 
this source of error it is clear that the mortality varies immensely between one village 
and another. 

7. Continuing the analysis of the Anand figures, as an illustration. I find that most 
of the worst affected villages are those in the north and north-east of the taluka, and along 
the Mahi. These last are badly supplied with wells, which means lack of local work and 
therefore of the means of earning subsistence. The others are, I believe, inhabited very 
largely by dharalas, amongst whom, as I have already stated, the great majority of the 
deaths are taking place. 

8. I regret that with my present incomplete information 1 am not able to give details 
as to other talukas, but I think the figures available show clearly that the mortality has 
not been evenly distributed over the district, that some talukas have suffered far more 
than others, and that certain smaller areas can be pointed out wherein the mortality has 
been excessive, owing to local conditions which tended to bring the people more quickly 
to the end of their means, or to the fact that there is a very high proportion of dharalas 
amongst the inhabitants. To support the contention that the great majority of deaths are 
those of dharalas, I may state that from figures supplied me by the District Deputy 
Collector, it would appear that the following are the percentages of deaths amongst 
dharalas to total deaths in three talukas of his charge for the period from January to 
April : — 





Taluka. 


Percentage. 






Kapadwanj ... 




78 






Thasra 




64 






Anand 




60 





9. As regards the measures adopted for village inspection you are aware that the 
whole district was divided into circles in the month of November, 1899. The average 
circle contained about 15 villages except in Borsad where one large circle contained 32 
villages, there being but little distress in that neighbourhood. At first, and in order to 
make himself acquainted with his charge, each Inspector was ordered to visit each village 
of this circle within a week. Subsequently the Inspectors were ordered to visit each 
village once in 15 days, and the Famine Aval Karkuns and Mamlatdars were directed to 
note the last dates on which any village inspected by them had been visited by the Circle 
Inspector. Recently the number of circles and Inspectors has been increased, and now 
each man has 12 villages only, on the average, and has been ordered to visit each once a 
week. So far as I am informed, and as I have myself seen, the work of the Circle 
Inspectors has been on the whole well done, and I think most persons eligible for 
gratuitous relief under the code rules have been admitted to the dole. Each Circle 
Inspector submits a weekly diary which is checked by the Sub-Divisional officer. The 
Assistant Collector, Mr. Beyts, reports as follows : — 

" From 'the Circle Inspector's diaries and my own village inspection, I can say 
fairly that in circles up to 15 villages each village was visited at least once in 12 or 
13 days, and in circles of 20 villages once a fortnight. Any longer interval was 
noticed officially by me. I rarely find a person struck off the dole without valid 
reason, and find that those I consider neglected are nearly always cases in which it is 
merely a matter of opinion and not of careless work." 

The District Deputy Collector, Mr. Modi, is also of opinion that the Circle Inspectors 
have worked well. 

10. No special steps have hitherto been taken by me to ascertain the special cause of 
the high mortality. It had not occurred to me, nor do I think it likely, that any special 
enquiries would elicit any information of which we are not already in possession. The 
general conditions, as reported from the villages in the diaries of the Famine Aval 
Karkuns being in themselves sufficient to account for a high death-rate no special enquiry 
was set on foot. In the case of some of the villages near Dakor and one or two in other 
places I asked the District Medical Officer to visit them, and report as to the condition of 
the people, my suspicions being aroused by the large numbers put on the dole, but I was 
given no reason to believe that further investigation would disclose any facts of which we 
were not already aware. 

11. It is true that large numbers of wanderers have died in the vicinity of towns 
whither they have been attracted by the hope of alms or wages, but I do not consider 
that these deaths have affected the total mortality of the district to such an extent as 
you seem to suspect. The excess mortality in the whole district as compared with 



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the average mortality of the previous years for the months January to March has been 
as follows : — 



! 

Month. 

i 


Percentage. 




1 

1 January 

' February 

Maroh ... ... ... ... 

i 


99 per cent, or 2,603 
82 „ „ 2,863 
141 „ „ 3,814 


In municipal areas — and in these poor-houses are included — give the following 
figures : — 


| Month. 

i ___ _ 


Percentage. 




i January 

| February 

March 

t 


! 

i 203 per cent, or 841 
1 172 .. „ 691 
215 „ „ 966 



Taking the three months together we see that the excess number of deaths over the- 
whole district was 8.780, while in municipal areas the excess number was 2,488, that is. to 
say, that deaths in the neighbourhood of large towns account for a little more than 28 per • 
rent, of the total excess. The proportionate increase in the death-rate of the municipal 
areas is larger than that in the villages, but the absolute number of deaths in villages 
remains very high. Ambulance parties are now at work in the vicinity of all towns and 
some of the larger villages. Orders were long ago issued to village officers to- make 
arrangements for dealing with destitute wanderers ; but I am afraid they are not observed 
as closely as they should be. 

12. As regards the management and supervision of works, I can only say that from 
the first this matter has received the most careful and constant attention of myself, my 
Assistants, and my Deputy. Under orders from me the Sub-Divisional officers visit each 
work in their charge at least twice a month. These orders were issued in December last, 
but even before their issue the Sub-Divisional officers were regularly inspecting the works. 
The works in the neighbourhood of head-quarters have been periodically inspected by my 
Personal Assistant, Mr. Swifte, as well as by the assistant in charge of the talukas. The 
visits to relief workB are entered in the diary of the officers concerned, and I am thus in a 
position to check the work done. I have myself spared no pains to visit all the works in 
the district as often as I could without neglecting my office work. 

13. As regards the question of accuracy of registration which is alluded to in the 
Government memorandum which has given rise to this report, I have the honour to express 
my opinion that the registration in this district is distinctly good, and that there is no 
likelihood whatever of the registered number of deaths being in excess of the actual. 
Indeed I have reason to believe that all the deaths which have occurred have not been 
reported to the Sanitary Commissioner, from whom, I presume, Government have received 
their information. Owing to some misunderstanding the deaths on relief works have been 
registered by the Special Civil Officers, but not in all cases reported to the village or 
Municipal authorities, hence the figures for the whole district have not reached the 
Sanitary Commissioner in a complete form. I am now making enquMea into the matter, 
and whatever omissions are discovered will be rectified. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 78. 

Letter from O. D. Panse, Esq., Collector, Broach, to the Commissioner, Northern Division 
No. 3983-.F., dated Broach, the 26th May, 1900. 

. With reference to your No. 4608, dated the 27th April last, forwarding Chief Secretary's 
No. 269-M., dated 23rd ultimo, I have the honour to state that I quite concur with you in 
thinking that the increased mortality in the district during the months of January, 
February, and March last was in a measure due to the causes referred to by you. It is a 
fact that the people in this district have never been inured to privation, and they never 
had within living memory experienced anything like the terrible distress they have to 
stand during the present famine. They have for the most part enjoyed favourable 
harvests, and, except in the case of the poorest classes, the people have lived in greater 
ease and in much better style than the rayats in the Deccan. Even the poorer clas 

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have always had enough of suitable food superior in kind to that available to their 
poorer brothers in the south. They have in consequence become more soft and less able 
to stand on insufficient and unaccustomed food for any length of time than the people in 
the Deccan. In the Deccan district the people, even in ordinary times, have for the 
greatest part to live on simple bread and onion with a little salt and chillies. On this side 
the ordinary rayats use wheat, pulse, rice and other comforts as part of their usual food. 
These they cannot afford to get in the present scarcity, and find ic difficult to live on the 
coarse food that they can get. I have noticed that many of the peons getting only 7 or 8 
rupees a month daily take tea in the morning, a thing which is certainly not known to 
many of the clerks or karkuns in the Deccan. 

2. The land in Gujarat is certainly rich, that is, it gives a good yield in case the rains 
are favourable, even if the agriculturists do not take so much care about their holdings. 
In the Deccan, and particularly in Konkan, the case is different. There the cultivators 
are required to work very hard in their soil to get the small yield their land gives them. 
The consequence is that they become hardy and are usually accustomed to live on scanty 
fare from their very boyhood, and so can stand to a far greater extent small distresses. 
Prom my own experience I can say that though severe famine was raging in the Bijapur 
District for about 14 months I did not find a single dead body lying on the roads or in the 
fields. I cannot say that the grain was cheaper there, or that the relief measures were 
more favourable. They were just what they are at present, and still I am sorry to say that 
I find dead bodies lying by the roadside and relief works. The reason is not far to seek. 
It can be summed up in one word — that the general delicacy of constitution does not 
permit the Gujaratis to bear the stress of the present scarcity. The lower classes, like 
bhils, are too fond of parched rice, cocoanuts, green dates, sweetmeats, and like kinds of 
eatables. Even in their present circumstances they cannot withstand the temptation of 
spending something on these items, which cannot be said to be the necessaries of life, and 
the consequence is they have to live on insufficient food, and this being continued for 
some time undermines their condition and disables them to bear any kind of strain. 
They thus become emaciated and fall easy victims to exhaustion brought on to some 
extent by themselves. 

3. The climate of Gujarat is no doubt enervating, and along with other causes it has 
not failed to produce its own effects on the condition of the populace. Here one cannot 
observe fast, or live on coarse food, with the same immunity as one can do in the Deccan. 

4. The prominent factor of the high mortality is the mortality among street beggars 
and wanderers. These beggars and wanderers are an envious sort of people. They cannot 
be persuaded to go to works or to poor-houses. They will continue their course of begging 
from house to house without getting sufficient quantity to live upon. This brings on slow 
but steady emaciation. They flatly decline to join the poor-house as tobacco and opium 
are not provided therein. For the sake of trial some were forcibly put in the poor-house, 
but they all stealthily left it in a day or two. They thus become quite lean and weak, and 
when ridden to the ground they are taken at the eleventh hour to the poor-houses only to 
die there. Every kind of medical help, and the hospital rations, prove ineffective in their 
case, and many of them succumb to death, some even within a couple of hours after their 
admittance to the poor-house. Every attempt to persuade these ignorant and headstrong 
beggars to go to poor-houses has become futile. On account of the high rate of mortality 
among the inmates of the poor-house it has become a firm belief among them that they are 
taken there simply for being killed. As an instance of this it may be pointed out that 
during the last week no less than 65 wanderers died in the city. There is a Government 
poor-house, and one more is opened by the charitable persons in the city. Such being the 
case, can anybody say that there is no provision for weak and emaciated persons ? But 
these people do not avail themselves of the provision made for them, and are paying the 
full penalty of their sheer foolishness. On finding that the mortality had gone high in 
the city I directed the police not to allow the people to wander, but send the emaciated of 
these to the poor-house and the able-bodied to the work. 

5. Some of the lower classes, more especially the bhils, are habitually lazy and not 
used to regular work. They are therefore disinclined to join relief works, and struggle on 
to earn a miserable subsistence by headloads of grass or firewood and some other kind of 
labour, and stick to their homes until they are too far exhausted and unable to further help 
themselves in any way. The increased mortality among cattle helped these people for a 
time to provide themselves with some subsistence, and in many cases they subsisted on 
unwholesome meat which only served to bring on diarrhoea and dysentery which, in the 
absence of any treatment in villages, in many cases proved fatal. Another circumstance 
was the people taking too freely to the exclusive use of Burma rice, which sold cheaper 
than jowar, which was the usual staple food of the people. The rice had not the same 
staying power as jowar, and the people not being used to it suffered by the exclusive use 
of this new food. 

6. During January and February many of the poor people, especially on the works, 
suffered from exposure during the rather severe cold which prevailed in those months. 

7. As regards village inspection and village relief I have been doing all I can to make 
it as efficient as possible. I have already submitted to you copies of circular orders issued 

by me to village officers and Circle Inspectors in connection 
Vernacular, not forwarded. with village relief. The copies are appended hereto for 

ready reference. The former are strictly enjoined to give 
timely relief from village dole in every case where it may be necessary, and not to allow 
any death by starvation to occur. For this purpose small grants have been placed at the 



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disposal of the officers in charge of police stations, and the Circle Inspectors have been 
ordered to spare no pains to inspect the villages in their charge and supervise the work of 
the village officers and submit regular diaries which are checked by Mamlatdars, Sub- 
Divisional officer and by myself. The Mamlatdars have been relieved of all their criminal 
work and the greater part of their revenue work by giving them extra head karkuns, and 
by investing the Sub-Judges with criminal powers, and they have been specially ordered 
to move rapidly from village to village, and to particularly supervise the work of the 
village officers and the Circle Inspectors in the matter of the administration of the famine 
relief. The Divisional officers have also been requested to supervise this work, and the 
poor-houses and the relief works in their charge, and for better management, three out of 
the five poor-houses in the district have been placed in charge of the local Sub-Judges and 
the one at Broach in that of the Civil Surgeon. The Municipalities have also been exhorted 
to take their proper share in the famine administration by looking after the town beggars 
and starving people within their limits, and to ke*p up an ambulance system and to take 
such persons to the local poor-houses for timely relief. The same system is also introduced 
on relief works and villages. The special civil officers have also been instructed to iesue 
credit chits to such of the. workers as cannot obtain supplies on credit. Orders have also 
been issued under section 52 (d) of the Famine Code. 

8. As regards relief works I may be permitted to observe that they are often visited 
by Sub-Divisional officers and the District Medical Officer. As far as I have seen new- 
comers have been taken on all the works and then drafted, but no one is ever refused 
relief. I myself have visited all the works and found the arrangements satisfactory. 

9. I have thus done all that was necessary and possible for affording timely relief to 
the sufferers. I myself and my assistants, the District Medical Officer, and the Executive 
Engineer have been moving throuarhout the district and visiting the several works and 
watching the general condition of the people with particular care. The mortality has no 
doubt gone high for the reasons stated above. I shall, however, spare no pains to prevent 
death from starvation. 



No. 385-^., dated Ahmedabad, the %%th May, 1900. 
Forwarded to Government. 

Mr. Pause has a special right to be heard when comparing the habits and stamina of 
the people in the Deccan and in Gujarat. 

There have been in the Broach District ever since the famine began to make itself 
felt a Circle Inspector to on an average every 14 villages, and a special mamlatdar (under 
the name of Aval karkun) in every taluka. The supervision has been in the exceptionally 
vigorous hands of Messrs. Painter and Maneklal Narbheram and of Mr. Panse himself who 
has been very active in moving about among the villages. The relief works have been so 
numerous as to lead Government to apprehend that an excessive number were receiving 
relief. It is too early to express any final opinion, but the Commissioner believes that no 
human agency at command could have reduced the mortality in this district. 

F. S. P. Lblt, 
Commissioner, Northern Division. 



Enclosure 4 in No. 78. 

Letter from H. Jtendatt, Esq., Assistant Collector, Panch Mahals, to the Com- 
missioner, Northern Division, No. 3638, dated Godhra, the 9th June, 
1900. 

In reply to your No. 4608 of the 27th April below Government memorandum 
No. M.-269 of the 23rd idem, I have the honour to report as follows. The 
report applies also to Government memorandum No. M.-617 of the 20th May, 
forwarded under your No. 5631 of the 23rd idem. 

2. I would first point out that the distribution between relief works, poor- 
houses and villages given in the statement received from Government is altogether 
misleading. Column 4 of the statement for December, January, and February 
is headed " Number of deaths in Relief Works Hospitals," while that for March 
is headed " Number of deaths in Relief Works Hospitals and Camps." Memoran- 
dum No. M. 269 speaks of the proportion which the mortality on relief works 
bears to the total mortality, and I presume, therefore, column 4 of the statement 
should include all deaths at the relief camps whether in hospital or not, for it 
unfortunately happens that many people die outside the hospital ; that the 

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figures in the statement do not show the correct proportion is obvious for the 
total number of deaths on works shewn in the statement is 114 in January and 
169 in February, for the whole district, whereas at the village of Doki in Dohad 
taluka which I visited this morning, there were 1 95 deaths in January and 239 
in February, and almost every one occurred in the camp (including kitchen and 
hospital) of the Dohad-Limdi road work, which was at Doki during those two 
months. The population of Doki is 216 and the number of deaths in December 
was* two and in March four. The same is the case with Ambali in Godhra 
taluka where the death rate has attracted attention, and in fact at every place 
where relief camps have been situated. Separate registers ought to have been 
kept, but were not. When this was brought to notice special orders were issued 
for registers to be kept, but the practice of registering deaths in the village 
registers has continued, and after consultation with the Sanitary Commissioner, 
I think it would probably merely cause worse confusion to alter the practice 
now. I do not think there has been double registration, but for the total 
number of deaths the figures reported by the mamlatdars to the Sanitary Com- 
missioner should be taken, those entered in the weekly famine returns being left 
out of consideration. 

3. As to the causes of excessive mortality they are firstly, laziness and 
disinclination to work or to the restraint of a kitchen or poor-house, and 
secondly the fact that though a large proportion of the people is accustomed to 
live a very hand-to-mouth existence, they have refused to recognize the fact that 
their usual summer supply of jungle products, mowra and toddy, would not be 
forthcoming and waited on until their strength was exhausted and their 
digestion ruined by eating rubbish. Even when the hope of mowra and toddy 
had to be abandoned many people, especially amongst the kolis, have refused to 
go to work saying deliberately that they would die in their villages. Immigra- 
tion has undoubtedly swelled the mortality returns to a considerable extent. 
The Mamlatdar of Dohad puts down 25 per cent, of the deaths in his taluka to 
immigrants from the Central India States, and there is no doubt the number has 
been large though an accurate enumeration is impossible as the names of many < 
who died were not known, and false names and villages are usually given. 

4. With regard to your 3rd paragraph I have examined the detailed 
returns for each taluka and mahal. The mortality is of course highest at the 
large central towns of Godhra, Dohad and Jhalod, but leaving these out, and 
omitting also villages in which deaths on relief camps are recorded, the mortality 
appears to be pretty evenly distributed. 

5. There are at present 22 Circle Inspectors working in 692 villages, of 
which 13 are permanently uninhabited. I have sanction for 7 more, but cannot 
get men suitable for the work. There are over these Circle Inspectors, five 
Special Aval Karkuns and three Forest Officers, while Mr. Ryan supervises 
iKalol and Halol in addition. Each Circle Inspector submits a weekly diary to 
the divisional officer, and each supervising officer submits a weekly diary to me 
which I forward to you. There are ambulance parties in the five chief towns, 
and at the relief works, and every effort is made to bring in wanderers. 

6. There is no rule as to the number of times the divisional officers should 
visit relief works. I see from the diaries of the special civil officers when the 
works are visited and I get frequent demi-official reports. At present there are 
only two works (excluding Champaner which is very small) which have not 

European officers resident or practically resident on them, viz., Wadatalao and 
Dohad Ali-Rajpur road. Wadatalao was started at the end of March and has 
been visited by the District Medical Officer, the Executive Engineer, Mr. Ryan • 
and myself, and the Dohad Ali-Rajpur road work shares with the Muwalia tank 
the attentions of Captain Southey. 

7. There is one point which has possibly not been brought to the notice 
of Government, and that is the number of inam villages (talukdari, mewasi, 
&c.) in the district. In Halol more than half the mahal is inami while in 
Kalol there are 31 inam villages out of 65. The proportion in the other talukas 
is smaller, but still considerable. Now, with the exception of one or two bright 
examples, such as the Naik of Tanda, in Dohad, and the Inamdar of Goraj, in 



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Halol. ihe owners of these villages, do practically nothing whatever for their 
people. Our Circle Inspectors visit the village and give the dole to deserving 
persons at Government expense, but the inamdars are required to do nothing 
but pay their assessment to Government, and they neither look after the people 
themselves nor keep efficient village officers to do it for them. It is only to be 
expected that their people will starve and wander. As for the Government 
villages, I can only say that with people such as we have to deal with either 
the nigh mortality must be accepted or the famine code principles altered. 
Government find it hard to understand how, with thorough supervision, people 
can die of actual insufficiency of food. I would remind you of an attempt, at 
the beginning of the famine, to define a " death from starvation." In a district 
like this, where the life of a bhil or a lcoli is of no value, and where the higher 
castes are, as a rule, absolutely indifferent to the suffering of the town, deaths 
from actual want of food can occur, and I fear that some do occur ; but until 
death from starvation is denned it is impossible to account satisfactorily for the 
mortality ascribed to that cause. If a man is set on by robbers and severely 
injured, and fever supervenes and he dies, fever would not, I imagine, be given 
as the cause of his death ; and, similarly, if a man refuses work on relief under 
a system which admits of proper control, and wanders about eating rubbish till 
his stomach is ruined and a decent meal causes diarrhoea from which he dies, I 
see no remedy but to ascribe his death to starvation. It is starvation which . he 
could have avoided, and for which no one is to blame but himself, but it is, 
nevertheless, starvation. The famine code requires that a man who is able to 
work and needs relief should work for it, and it is a perfectly fair principle. If 
it is to be observed there must, amongst people like these, be a high mortality. 
They will not work while they can, but go on until, in the majority of cases, 
they die because they cannot digest the food given them. 



No. 79. 



Tetter from J. Monteath, Esq., C.S.I., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Government 
of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture . No. l,372-i\, dated Poona, the 22nd July, 1900. 



In continuation of my letter No. 1,367-P., dated 21st instant, I am directed 

to forward for the information of the Government 
of India copies of the papers specified in the margin, 
regarding the causes of high mortality in the 
districts of Northern Gujarat in the month of 
January, 1900. 



Memorandum from the Com- 
missioner, Northern Division, 
No. 3,878, dated 7th April, 1900. 

Letter from the Collector of 
the Panch Mahals, No. 2,275, 
dated 19th April, 1900. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 79. 

• Memo, from the Commissioner, Northern Division, to the Chief Secretary to the 
Government of Bombay, Famine Department, No. 3,878, dated Camp, 
Broach, the 7th April, 1900. 

In accordance with Government memorandum No. 1,505, of 15th March, 
the Commissioner, Northern Division, has the honour to report on the very high 
death rates in Gujarat, especially in Broach, Eaira and Panch Mahals in the 
month of January. The opinion of the Collector of Panch Mahals has not yet 
been received. 

2. The district officers of Kaira and Broach do not think the excessive 
cold has much to do with it. That this opinion is right seems sufficiently 
proved by the fact that the mortality has tended to increase since the weather 
became milder. The Commissioner has no compiled statistics at hand, but from 
daily observation he has no doubt that this is so. 



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3. Mr. Quin, Collector of Kaira, writes : — 



" It is true that for a few days the cold was excessive and thiB no doubt increased 
the mortality largely for the time, but on the whole I think the majority of deaths abov*> 
the normal were due to the general famine conditions prevailing ia the di/itri$fc! 
Large numbers of persons having no means of subsistence and refusing to go to relief, 
works were wandering about the district in January trying to maintain themselves by 
begging. These persons Were to be fonnd generally in the neighbourhood of large 
towns, and the death-rate amongst them was natarally very high." 

4. Mr. Painter, Assistant Collector of Broach, writes on 23rd January,, 
that a large number of the deaths are traceable to the relief works, that he knows 
it to be a fact that " many deaths in the villages are those of persons who 
had been to relief works and falling ill there returned to their homes to die. 
The symptoms are generally looseness of the bowels and fever." He conjectures 
that it may be due to bad water, or to the fraudulent mixture of lang with the 
jowar flour, but he admits that he has no definite grounds for the suggestions. 

5. On the 24th March the same officer writes : — " The view that cold was 
not to any large extent responsible for the steady increase of deaths, has, I think, 
been borne out by the fact that the advent of the hot weather has not reduced 
the figures a3 it should were the deaths chiefly due to a transitory phenomenon." 

6. The subject is obscure, but the Commissioner's impression is that the 
main cause is to be sought for in the peculiar condition of the province. The 
very words used by Mr. Mollison to describe the Gujarat bullock may be applied 
to the Gujarat human. He is soft and not inured to get on with insufficient 
food or unwholesome food. He succumbs much more quickly to privation than 
the Deccani who is more accustomed to hardship. In this view the high death- 
rate in Broach is not so remarkable as would appear at first sight. The, 
Commissioner believes that the destitution in that district is much underestimated 
by those who have not studied it. A larger proportion of the population than 
elsewhere are in ordinary years employed on day labour at about 5 annas per 
day for men, and proportionately high wages for women and children. These 
high wages they freely spend on liquor and nourishing food without a thought 
for the morrow. They have not much stamina and the shock of reduced food 
and other privation breaks them down. The Commissioner fears that the 
mortality will continue to increase though it may or may not be shown in the 
returns, as doubtless many who died in the first months were wandering 
foreigners. 

7. In the Panch Mahals again things are altogether different. There the 
Bhil, unless he is under special influence, wanders about or stays at home rather 
than work, and dies. 

8. Steps are being taken to distinguish the local residents from immigrants. 

9. More vigilance than ever is necessary over the latrines, the water supply, 
and the food shops of the relief works. 



Letter from R. B. Stewart, Esq., Collector, Panch Mahals, to the Commissioner, 
Northern Division, Ahmedabad, Ao. 2,275, dated Camp, Godhra, the 19$ 
April, 1900. 

In reply to your No. 2,982, forwarding a copy of Government memorandum 
1,505, of 15th March I have the honour to report as follows : — 

The high death-rate in this district in January last was undoubtedly, due 
in a great measure to the extreme cold, and the Civil Surgeon, Godhra, attributes) 
a considerable proportion of deaths to influenza, small-pox, and measles also. 
The fatal result of these diseases is, however, due to privation. As stated in the 
return accompanying the Government memorandum, 15 cases of deaths ascribed 
to starvation were medically examined in Godhra town. Elsewhere none! 
of the cases were medically examined, the cause being stated by the village 



Enclosure 2 in No. 79. 



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officers to the best of their knowledge. In Dohad taluka there were 1-96 deaths 
on the relief works, 89 being children, and out of these 35 adults and 21 
ehildren are said to have died of cold. Of the 43 deaths in Godhra town ascribed 
to starvation none were those of local residents, but it is impossible to say 
whether the wanderers belonged to the district or outside. Of the eight deaths 
from starvation in Dohad and Jhalod one was that of a local man who had been 
on the relief work and left it, while the other persons were outsiders. 



No. 80. 

Letter from the Honourable Mr. J. W. P. Muir- Mackenzie, I.C.S., Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government of 
India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture (Famine). No. 3,41.9, 
dated Bombay Castle, the 1st October, 1900. 



In continuation of the letters from this Government specified in the margin, 

I am directed to forward for the information of 
the Government of India copies of a letter from the 
Surgeon General with the Government of Bombay, 
No. 8,452, dated 24th August, 1900, and its 
accompaniments, containing a report on the high 
mortality in the Gujarat Districts during the months of January, February, and 
March, 1900, and to make the following remarks. 



No. P.— 1367, dated 21st 

July, 1900. 
No. P.— 1372, dated 22nd 

July, 1900. 



2. There is little doubt that all the causes enumerated by the Surgeon 
General and the Sanitary Commissioner have had some effect. When the 
census is taken — but not till then — it may be possible to estimate how far the 
death-rates have been raised by the deaths of immigrants ; it is not now and 
apparently never will be possible to determine the extent of the effect of other 
causes. Although there has not been discovered the existence of any unusual 
disease, the fact that the mortality amongst residents in towns — exclusive of 
those who were merely temporary sojourners — has been exceedingly high 
indicates that the year has been a very unhealthy one. 

3. The figures given in paragraph 7 of the Surgeon General's report 
require correction, the real percentages being as follows : — 



Collector* te. 


Percentage of 
Population on 
Relief. 


Percentage of 
Gratuitously 
Relieved to Total 
Relieved. 


Death-rate per 
Mille per Annum, 
January to March. 


Ahmedabad ... 


13 


34 


96 


iC&int ••• « • • ••• ••• •»• 


6 


23 


114 


Panch Mahals ... 


6 


18 


163 


Broach ... 


31 


19 


134 


Khandesh 


17 


27 


88 


Sholapur 


20 


33 


42 



These figures cover too short a period to form a safe basis for deduction, but 
even so far as they go they hardly support the view that the death-rate 
depended largely on the extent of relief given. The mortality was very much 



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higher in Broach than in Ahmedabad, although the proportion of people in 
receipt of relief in the former district was more than double that in the latter. 
The following table has been prepared contrasting the extent of relief with the 
mortality in each of the districts until August (the figures for the last month 
for the Ahmedabad and Kaira Districts, however, being taken from the Collectors' 
weekly telegrams and being, therefore, probably incomplete) : — 



Percentage of Population on Belief of All Kinds. 



District. 


January, 
1900. 


February, 
1900. 


March, 
1900. 


April, 
1900. 


May, 

1900. 


Jnne, 
1900. 


July, 
1900. 


August, 

1900. 


' ( 

Ahmedabad j 


782 


7-50 


983 


10-53 


2401 


14-68 


15-82 


15-18 


















9 


13 


15 


17 


13 


14 


20 


21 




8-58 


7-97 


12-07 


1266 


22-17 


11-41 


14-67 


18-87 


Kaira . ,,. j 




















2 


5 


10 


13 


10 


14 


26 


24 




9-58 


12-58 


18-69 


2744 


46-60 


24-56 


21-79 


26-11 


Paneh Mahals ... \ 


















1 


6 


6 


7 


16 


12 


23 


36 


40 


Broach j 


9-34 


10-23 


1405 


1203 


31-62 


1208 


1409 


18-69 


















28 


35 


31 


25 


23 


22 


36 


33 




4-10 


5-95 


10-71 


12-67 


581 


6-02 


11-31 


12-91 


Khandesh . . ... j 




















16 


17 


18 


1") 


15 


14 


14 


12 


Sholapnr j 


3-57 


8-48 


'8-64 


461 


707 


6-18 


9-10 


5-89 












23 


21 




18 


20 


23 


23 


22 


18 




8-48 


412 


576 


8-26 


8-28 


6-77 


9-04 


7-84 


Ahmednagar j 














28 




11 


20 


27 


28 


27 


30 


;25 



Note — The figures in italics represent the death-rates per millo for the several months and those in block 
type for August represent death-rates calculated from the number of deaths reported by the Collectors in their 
weekly famine telegrams. 

It can scarcely be said that a very great extension of relief has had a very 
material effect so far in diminishing mortality. 

4. There are two statements in the Sanitary Commissioner's report which 
require modification. He states in the section regarding Ahmedabad City that 
it appears that " at first the village relief was given freely, but it was used so 
largely that it was found necessary to restrict it, and perhaps the restrictions 
were applied too stringently by the village authorities." It was found in 
November that village relief was given in Kaira on a much larger scale than in 
other districts, including the adjoining districts of Ahmedabad and Broach, and 
the Collector was instructed to restrict it to actual requirements with the result 
that there was a contraction in that district. But in the Ahmedabad district 
there was a continuous expansion. Lieutenant-Colonel Clarkson states in the 
section regarding the Ahmedabad district that the people "eked out their food 
with leaves of trees and roots and stayed on till their cattle perished and then 
when they came on the works they could not perform the task imposed, and so 
of course the minimum wage only was given, which being dissatisfied with (sic) 
the workers would leave and wander back to their villages." From the time, 
however, at which the Code system was introduced people received full 
wages for an appreciable interval after joining the works in the Ahmedabad 
district, and very few have been paid the minimum wage at any time in 
that district. 



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5. Tt is very difficult to draw the line between deaths of which privation 
is a contributing cause and deaths due to starvation, and although the question 

was discussed at an early stage of the famine,* no 
• Vide correspondence end • instructions regarding it have been issued. The 
in* with the letter to the burgeon General and the Sanitary Commissioner 
Government of India, No. Vov- 0 , , ^ « A >» i 

Fam., dated 20th December, apparently give to the term "starvation' a much 

1899. wider meaning than has been usual. It is impossible 

to prevent deaths from want of food amongst people 
who wander from their homes and who do not seek for Government assistance 
until emaciation has set in, and the meals which village officers are required to 
give to such as are unable to go to a poor-house probably in many cases accelerate 
the end. But this Government has throughout insisted on the view that people 
who remain at their homes in British villages cannot die from want of food 
without negligence on the part of village officers and of some at least of the 
inspecting officers, starvation not being a rapid process. Wherever there has 
been any allegation of such deaths among residents special inquiry has been 
ordered, but in no case in Gujarat has the allegation been substantiated. 

6. I am also directed to forward the accompanying copies of the reports* 

of the Sanitary Commission for the Government 
• Not printed. of Bombav, No. b.f. — 627 7-r., dated 24th August, 

and No. b.f.— 6996-p., dated 17th September, 1900, 
on the result of the chemical analysis of samples of water and foodstuffs 
obtained from certain relief camps and poor-houses in the four Northern 
Districts of Gujarat and in Sholapur, and to state that the attention of the 
Collectors concerned has been drawn to Lieutenant-Colonel Clarkson's remarks, 
contained in them. 



Enclosure in No. 80. 

Letter from the Sury eon- General with the Government of Bombay, to the 
Secretary to Government, Famine Department, Bombay, No. 8,452. dated 
the 24fh August, 1900. 

In forwarding herewith letter No. B. F. 5,935, dated 9th instant, from the 
Sanitary Commissioner for Government, I have the honour to state that, so for 
as I am in a position to judge from the information submitted, I agree with the 
Sanitary Commissioner in his opinion as to the causes of the very high mortality 
which has occurred in Gujarat during the past few months, as compared with 
that in the famine -stricken portion of the Deccan. 

2. The report does not contain evidence that any infectious disease, or 
special form of fever was prevalent, and the increased mortality appears to have 
been mainly recorded under tne heads of Fever, Diarrhoea and Dysentery ; but 
the Sanitary Commissioner draws no comparison between the mortality from 
these diseases and the mean annual death-rates from the same causes. 

3. The report does not say whether or not, scurvy was observed to be 
prevalent, and yet it probably existed in a considerable degree as a result of the 
general deprivation of wholesome food and contributed to swell the mortality. 
Fever would no doubt occur in many cases of privation, and especially in those- 
attended with intestinal disorders ; but it would have assisted in forming an 
opinion, if the results of the observation of typical cases of privation admitted 
into hospitals and poor-houses had been reported in some detail, as evidence of 
the effects of scarcity in producing a febrile condition and of the general physical 
condition of the sufferers from a clynical aspect. 

4. I think it may be said that the cases of privation among pilgrims and 
other ill -fed and over- wrought travellers, who are so often admitted in a dying 
condition into Indian Civil Hospitals, even in prosperous times, are almost 
invariably attended by fever ; and I regard a febrile state as a very frequent 
symptom of the later stages of starvation. I consider therefore that, having 
regard to one of the most prominent symptoms which would be observed or 

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complained of before decease, it is not surprising that a large number of deaths 
were registered as due to fever. But I am equally of opinion that these, together 
with a large proportion of the excess mortality attributed to other causes, cannot 
be ascribed to any other cause than starvation. 

5. The death-rate in the Surat Collectorate during the first quarter of 1900 
only rose to 55 per mille per annum, as compared with 134, 163, 114 and 96 in 
the districts of Broach, Panch Mahals, Kaira and Ahmedabad, respectively; and 
I think it is not unreasonable to infer, that had the excess mortality been due to 
any epidemic fever, this would probably have affected also the Surat Collectorate, 
the death-rate of which would then have approximated more nearly to that of 
the ether districts. I do not. however, wish to lay much stress upon this 
suggestion. 

6. I therefore concur in the views expressed by the Sanitary Commissioner 
in paragraphs 7 and 8 of his report ; but I am disposed to attach somewhat 
more importance to the bad quality and deficient quantity of the water-supply 
than Lieut. -Colonel Clarkson appears to do. For the sake of clearness I may 
thus summarise the causes which, in my opinion, have contributed directly or 
indirectly, and in varying degrees, to cause the deaths from starvation — 

(1) insufficient and unwholesome food, — the latter including leaves and 

roots of trees and other plants and wild fruits ; 

(2) the unwonted nature of some of the grain {e.g., Rangoon rice) which 

was otherwise wholesome ; 

(3) imperfect cooking of food, especially of rice and vegetables ; 

(4) bad quality of the drinking water ; 

(5) the originally prosperous and well-fed condition of the people, and 

their consequent inferior adaptability to resist the ill-effects of a 
sudden change to a poor and scanty diet as compared with the 
poorer and hardier people of the Deccan ; 

(6) the unwillingness of certain of the people to apply for, or accept, 

relief sufficiently early ; 

(7) the aimless wandering of some of the distressed population in search 

of work or of alms, and the attendant fatigue and exposure to sun 
and cold when in weakened health ; 

(8) the immigration of large numbers of destitute persons from adjoining 

Native States. 

With regard to the remarks contained in the Sanitary Commissioner's 
paragraph 8, I subjoin the following summary of those figures in Tables XV. 
and X VI. attached to the report which bear upon the connection between the 
death-rate and the percentage of the population relieved in each collectorate : — 



Three Months — January to March, 1900. 



Collectorate. 


Percentage of 

Population on 
Belief. 


Percentage of 
Gratuitously 
Believed to Total 
Believed. 


Death-rate per 
Mille per Annum, 
January to March. 


Ahmedabad ... 


13 


32 


96 


Kaira • • ••• ... * * * ... 


6 


24 


114 


Panch Mahals 


6 


18 


163 


Broach ... ... ... ... 


34 


16 


134 


Khandeeh 


17 


27 


88 


Sholapur 


19 


33 


43 



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2$7 



It will be seen that in the cases of Kaira and the Panch Mahals the death- 
rate was proportionate to the comparative smallness of the percentage ot the 
population on relief ; and that in the Panch Mahals and Broach it was also in 
direct ratio to the lower percentages of persons gratuitously relieved than in 
other districts. Whether these facts stand in the relation of cause and effect, I 
am unable to say ; and possibly there were influences which prevented the full 
extension of relief in Kaira and the Panch Mahals. But I would observe that 
in the Broach Collectorate, which had the largest percentage of relieved to 
population, the better opportunities for gratuitous relief were taken advantage of 
to a less extent than in any of the other collectorates, and the death-rate per 
mille per annum was only second to that of the Panch Mahals. 



Letter from the Sanitary Commissioner for the Government of Bombay, to the Chief 
Secretary to Government, Famine Department, No. B. F. 5,935-/*., dated the 9th 
August, 1900. 



2. First of all as to the general condition of the people in Gujarat. It will be seen 
from the separate reports that in normal times the mass of the people are in good condition 
and feed well, with the exception of the Bhils, who in the hot weather are pressed for 
food ; but even then with a good mhowra crop they suffer little. If those on relief works 
do not own land, and as far as my enquiries have gone, about one in ten stated they owned 
land for which they paid Rs. 20 more or less to Government, the usual practice is for the 
employer to feed them with two good meals a day of a pound of the usual grain at each 
meal, besides other things. In addition, some stated, they got one or two annas, and 
others, that they only got clothes. Sometimes a light morning meal was taken. Those 
who cultivated their own land stated that their usual grain meal was at least two pounds a 
day. Nearly all questioned stated they took either toddy or liquor. Of toddy a good 
draught would be taken, but liquor not in large quantity. The Bhils, however, I am 
informed, take liquor whenever they can get it. In a way then, no doubt, ordinary 
Gujaratis living in a moist and usually warm climate, earning fairly easily what is 
sufficient to live upon well, have soft contstitutions and feel the change to lesser diet ; but 
it seems to me that if at first they had gone on to works, what with the wage they could 
earn and the resources they had besides, and the reserve of latent power in well fed bodies, 
they would soon, after the first discomforts, have become inured to the harder work and 
lesser food. In all the districts it is reported that the people came on to work in an 
impoverished condition due to waiting on their cattle and living on what grain they could 
secure, mixing it with leaves and other deleterious substances. Then not finding the 
work to their liking they wandered away, trying to subsist by begging and getting more 
and more reduced, so that when they did get relieved by food at villages it did them 
no good. 

3. It has also been stated that the eating of Rangoon rice, which was imported in 
large quantities and sold cheaper than other grain, had something to do with the illness 
terminating in so many deaths. Rangoon rice is of a smaller grain than the rice usually 
eaten in this part of the country, and in many parts is not the usual food of the people. A 
certain amount of lime is added to it to keep it of a white colour and preserve it from 
insects. Samples of it have been sent to the Chemical Analyser to Government, and he has 
pronounced the rice to be good from a chemical point of view and the amount of lime 
contained in it to be harmless. Now, although a change ot diet from jowari or bajri to 
rice may give rise to intestinal disorder, especially amongst those in poor condition, I am of 
opinion that most of the workers would soon have got accustomed to it if they had 
prepared it properly. In numerous kitchens children and dependants have been fed on 
this rice, which has been properly prepared, and it has not appeared to have any deleterious 
effect. In the kitchens I have seen the children, some tim9 in residence, were, as a rule, 
in good condition, and the dependants, mostly old people, were stated to have maintained 
their condition. Moreover those who assisted in the actual kitchen operations, and 
partook of the same food as the inmates of the kitchen or poor-house were, as a rule, in 
remarkably good condition. The reason why the rice did harm, and the amount it did 
cannot be justly estimated, is that the people on the works did not properly cook it, often 
ate it half boiled, and children especially would pick the grains out of the dirt and eat 
them without cleansing. What is said of rice would be true of any of the grains usually 
eaten if improperly cooked and mixed with deleterious substance. 

4. With regard to the purity of the water supply. Of the 23 samples forwarded to 
the Chemical Analyser for the Government of Bombay and reported on, only five have 
been pronounced fit for potable purposes. In the best of times, however, moBt of the 

10566 2 fl 2 



Annexure I. 



No. M. — 158, dated tSth April 1900. 



„ M. — 213, „ 18th do. 

„ M. — 270, ., 23rd do. 

„ M. — 313, „ 26th do. 

„ M.— 419, „ 5th May 1900. 



With reference to your memoranda marginally noted, 
I have the honour to submit the accompanying reports 
on the high mortality of the Gujarat Districts, and te- 
state that I have endeavoured to reply to all the questions 
asked. 



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drinking water would be found unfit for potable purposes from a chemical point of view, 
especially when taken from rivers and surface wells. Brackish water exists in all the 
severely famine-affected districts in Gujarat, but I cannot find any positive evidence to 
connect it with the high mortality, for this is not confined to the talukas in which 
brackish water exists. 

5. Then as to the "caste " of those died (see Tables Nos. XIII. and XIV. •), by far 
the great majority are " Hindus of low caste." Classes such as Christians and Parsis must 
be left out of account, as their numbers are so small that a few deaths more affect the 
percentage very greatly. There must have been some error in registering the caste, as 
it is impossible to suppose, especially in Broach and the Panch Mahals, that none of 
the people coming under the head "All others" escaped death from some cause or 
another. 

6. In considering the cause of the high mortality, it must be borne in mind that the 
registration, though it may be, and probably is, accurate as regards the numbers dead, is 
not likely to be accurate as regards the cause of death. As will be seen in looking over 
the returns from the different Collectorates, in some the bulk of the deaths (Ahmedabad, 
Panch Mahals, Broach) is put down to " Fever," in another (Surat) the deaths are divided 
between " Fever " and " Other causes," whilst in another (Kaira) the majority of deaths 
is put down to " Other causes." If, however, the mortality as registered in Rural Circles 
is separated from that registered in Town Circles, it is seen that a very high percentage of 
the deaths continues to be attributed to " Fever " in the Rural Circles of all the Collectorates 
except Kaira, whilst in the Town Circles of each Collectorate, except the Panch Mahals, 
the largest percentage of deaths is put down under the heading " Other causes." 

7. Enquiry has been directed to find out if any particular form of fever has been 
prevalent, but so far the enquiry has failed to elicit that any specific- fever has been 
present. A sharp look-out was kept for relapsing fever, but none of the medical officers 
in the districts, or microscopical observations in a head-quarters town, have found any 
indications that this fever existed, nor has skilled expert investigation lately made found 
the diagnostic spirillum which should be if there was much relapsing fever about. So, as 
the death-rate in all the districts of Gujarat has steadily increased, and as there has been 
but one cause steadily at work all the time, viz., famine, the high death-rate must be 
ascribed to privation of the usual food and comforts of the people. 

Why it should have told upon the people so much when work and wage was to be 
.obtained must be attributed to : — 

1. The restriction in their food and their supplementing it with deleterious and 

indigestible substances. 

2. People clinging to their homes on this insufficient food to look after their cattle 

and then coming on to works in an impoverished condition. 

3. The large influx of people from the Native States round each Collectorate. 

8. It is to be noted also that the percentage of population on relief was in the Gujarat 
Districts, except Broach, for December, 181)9, and the months following, very small and 
low compared with the Deccan Districts : see Table No. XV. The large numbers in Broach 
were due to the large influx of strangers, more coming into this Collectorate, I understand, 
than into the others. In this connection also a table, No. XVI., compiled by Major Dyson, 
I.M.S., the Deputy Sanitary Commissioner, Gujarat Registration District, is appended, 
which shows the percentage of gratuitously relieved to the total on relief from October 
.last. In the two Deccan Districts put in for comparison the number gratuitously relieved 
has been consistently high, but the death-rate in them did not reach to a very high figure 
except in February and March in Khandesh. Now the gratuitous relief is mostly given to 
children and old people, and it will be seen from the tables of deaths by ages that the 
greatest mortality occurred at the extremes of life. As the majority of people in Gujarat 
live from hand to mouth, their resources are at an end by the time the new kharif 
crops are ready, and in ordinary years the buniah comes to their relief ; but, as Major 
Dyson writes, " Last year there was no kharif harvest, and the pinch of famine must 
have become severe towards the end of the year, and it is more than probable that 
large numbers of people, especially the young and the old, became so enfeebled during 
the last three months of the year that they fell easy victims during the cold of January 
and February, and even when they came on relief many were too far gone to receive 
:any benefit." 

9. As to deaths from " Starvation " which have been shown in some Collectorates 
and not in others, it appears to be a question of the heading under which the Registrars 
have chosen to enter them. In one town a few post-mortems having been made and the 
deaths certified as due to starvation, all those found dead have been entered as "Dead 
from starvation," whilst in another town people picked up dead are entered as dead from 
" Diarrhoea " or " Fever," according as their clothing was soiled or not. Of course, when 
numbers are picked up dead, unless cholera or some other specific disease is known to exist, 
the only guide to the cause is the condition of the body. It is absurd to ascribe the death tp 
fever. If the clothing is soiled, it is justifiable to enter the death as due to diarrhoea, but 
if there is emaciation, the probabilities are, certainly in famine time, that the death is due 
to want of proper food, and starvation is the proper term, for many of those people really 



* Not printed. 



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did starve themselves to death. In Ahmedabad Town, where the deaths ascribed to 
starvation have been many, beggars were taken to the poor-house, I was informed, over 
and over again ; bnt as long as they had strength to break oat they would do so, and take 
their chance in the city, until they were reduced to such a state that they either had to 
remain in the poor-house or perish near the city. In order to avoid being taken to the 
poor-house they would remain in the outskirts, and the search parties would find them 
dead or moribund. What has happened at Ahmedabad City has happened at other places, 
and though the deaths have not been entered under the same heading, the cause of death 
in the majority of those picked up dead is the same as at Ahmedabad. 



Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkaon, I.MJS., Sanitary Cwnmisaiitner, on the 
Mortality in the Ahmedabad Collectorate for the first Quarter, 1900. 

The Ahmedabad Collectorate is made up of 7 Rural Circles and 4 Town Circles 
besides one Military Cantonment. 

Of the total population 78*93 live in Rural Circles and 21*0i in the Town Circles and 
Cantonment. 

The Collectorate is surrounded by Native States except on the south, where it borders 
on the Kaira Collectorate. 

The Kolis and Thakurs and Bhils iu the Parantij Taluka are those who have suffered 
most in the present famine. In ordinary times they eat bajri and dall with chas, and in 
hot weather, in certain parts, they eat mliowra, as well as collect it for sale. A little liquor 
is taken daily, but not to any excess. They earn enough usually to keep themselves well 
without very hard labour, but not being thrifty do not save anything. 

A table, No. I., of deaths by causes, for the first three months, is appended, and of the 
total mortality in each month : 70*04 per cent, in January, 67*86 per cent, in February, and 
66*7 per cent, in March occurred in Rural Circles, whilst in the same months 29*96, 32*14, 
and 33*3 took place in Town Circles. Thus there is a slight decline in each month from 
January in the percentage mortality in Rural Circles, with a corresponding slight rise in the 
" mortality in Town Circles. 

Whilst as regards the ratio of deaths per 1,000 of population for the whole zillah, the 
ratio is 7*32 in January, 7*50 in February, and 9*33 in March, but when the calculation of 
deaths per 1,000 of population for Rural and Town Circles separately is made, it is seen 
that the ratio is much higher in Town than in Rural Circles. Practically, whilst the 
mortality in Rural Circles went up under 2 per 1,000 of population from January to March, in 
Town Circles it went up over 4 per 1,000 in the same time, due to the large number of 
people attracted to large towns either in the hope of work or of charity. 

A table, No. II., is given, showing deaths by ages and sexes. The chief mortality is 
among infants and children under 5 years of age, and then the other extreme of life shows 
the next highest mortality. The lowest death-rate is shown amongst those from 15 to 20 
years of age, followed by those of ages ranging from 10 to 15 years. The deaths amongst 
males are in excess of those amongst females. 

In all the Rural Circles during the three months, the principal mortality is ascribed to 
" Fever," and very few to " Dysentery " or " Diarrhoea," which are the causes one would 
expect in famine times to be most prevalent. In Town Circles, on the other hand, more 
than half the total mortality occurring in them is put down to " Other causes." An analysis 
of the deaths in the largest Town Circle and Viramgam Town Circle has been made, and 
the result shown separately. It shows also what a large number of strangers or "outsiders" 
have come in to swell the total of deaths, and there is little doubt that in Rural Circles also 
the death roll has been increased by the number of wanderers from Native States, by 
which this Collectorate is almost surrounded. The mortality has been increased, not only 
by these wanderers from outside, but by the mass of people not coming on to work till 
they were in very low condition. They eked out their food with leaves of trees and roots, 
and stayed on till their cattle perished, and then when they came on the works they could 
not perform the task imposed, and so of course the minimum wage only was given, which, 
being dissatisfied with, the workers would leave, and wander back to their villages. This, 
in my opinion, has been the chief cause of the high death-rate. The village agency has 
entered the mass of deaths under the head of "Fever," but no specific fever has been dis- 
covered to have existed, and in the majority of cases the cause of death has been duo to 
insufficient food. Contributory causes, though in a minor degree, were, in January, the 
cold, which led many workers to leave camps, and may have prevented others from coming 
on, but as the mortality has been steadily increasing, the effect of the cold weather can 
only have been temporary. There also, I was informed that in some cases the task was 
not equally apportioned by the subordinate officers in charge of works, and this had the 
effect of sending people off the works, but even presuming it did happen at one or two 
works, it could not have had a bad effect on the great mass of the people, and the cause of 
the excess mortality is to be found in the habits of the people, disinclined to go far from 
their villages and to work for a living wage. 



Annexure II. 



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Annexure III. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I.M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
High Death-rate and Deaths from Starvation in Ahmedabad City. 

Ahmedabad is a city, the population of which, by the census of 1691, is 144,451, bat 
since then, up to 1899, the population must have largely increased, because in 1891 there 
were only 9 mills, whilst in 1899 there were 22 mills and 3 factories, which must have 
attracted a large number of people, and the Health Officer is of opinion that the city is 
overcrowded, and, in addition, a. large number of people have come in again, and remained 
with friends and relations. Lately, owing to the bad state of the mill industry, numbers 
of hands have been unemployed. 

The ten-year mortality mean and the number of deaths in the first quarter is shown 
in the table appended, No. I., and also the ages at time of death in this Town Circle is 
shown in another table also appended, No. II. 

The table below shows the total deaths and deaths by causes and sex in the city for 
January, February, and March, 1900. 



Months. 


Total 
Deaths. 


Deaths by Causes. 


Sex. 


Cholera. 


Small- 
pox. 


Fever. 


Dysentery 

and 
Diarrhoea. 


Injuries. 


Other 
Causes. 


Male. 


Female. 


January 


1,454 




2 


468 


47 


14 


923 


793 


661 


February 


1,582 




1 


356 


41 


J 


1,177 


857 


726 


Maroh •• ... ... 


2,140 




10 


554 


76 


12 


1,486 


1,118 


1,022 



There is a slight preponderance of males dying to females. The infantile mortality is 
nigh. 

The deaths ascribed to " Other causes " are in each month much more than half of 
the total number of deaths. 

The chief diseases which help to make this total of " Other causes " are given below. 



Months. 


Deaths 
ascribed to 


Chief Illness ending in Death entered 
under heading " Other Causes." 


Remarks. 


Other 
Causes. 


Bronchial 
Affections. 


Want of 
Lactation. 


Starvation. 


January 


923 


478 


102 


246 


826 deaths out of 933 


February 


1,177 


392 


66 


539 


997 „ „ 1,177 


Maroh 


1,486 


477 


96 


590 


1,163 „ „ 1,466 



The " Want of lactation " and starvation are causes directly due to famine. 

In famine times it is notorious that people leave their homes and go to big cities in 
hopes of employment, and among these outsiders not known to reside in the city, 442 
deaths occurred in January, 684 in February, and 902 in March, or a percentage on the 
total deaths of 30*4, 43*2, and 42*2 in each month respectively. 

In cases of death in the streeto, or on the outskirts in which there are no relatives to 
claim the body, and in which no information can be obtained, a panchnama is held by the 
Mukhi and Police, and according to the appearance of the body the cause of death is 
registered. All these cases put down as dead from " Starvation " are those of outsiders 
wandering to the city and dying unknown. Thus in January 442, in February 684, and 
in March 902 " outsiders " died, and of these, in each respective month, 246 or 55*7 per 
cent., 539 or 78*8, 590 or 65*4 per cent, were put down as died from starvation, being 
picked up dead. 

An estimate of their ages was made, and the heaviest mortality was among adult* 
who were stated to be mostly " Kolis " and " Thakurs." 

The verdict of the panchnama has to be accepted, and then the question arises how 
were these people allowed to get in such a low state when Government had expressly 



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instituted a system of Tillage relief to help these wanderers to the famine camps, or the 
place they wanted to go to ? Although I was not in office at the beginning of the year, 
it would appear, from enquiries I have made, that at first the village relief was given 
freely, but it was Used so largely that it was found necessary to restrict it, and perhaps 
the restrictions were applied too stringently by the village authorities, or many of these 
people may have been from foreign territories or very distant villages, who did not know 
where to get relief on the road. For instance, in the Sarungpur poor-house at Ahmedabad 
there were 496 admissions from January 22nd to April 2nd, 1900. They came from 
134 villages, of which 73 cannot be identified. Of the 61 villages identified, 9 were in 
the Ahmedabad District. 38 in the Eaira District, 5 in Mahi Kantha, 7 from the Baroda 
territory, 1 from Cambay State, and 1 from Gwalior. The large number of villages not 
identified offers the presumption that they were not in British territory. According to 
the distances of the villages, some of the people must have come 40 miles before reaching 
the poor-house. 

Also many did not care about staying, either on works or in the poor-house, and 
would break out, preferring to beg in the city until they were unable to beg any longer 
and would die in the streets. 

Eliminating the deaths among outsiders, the increased mortality over the normal 
average is due in part to an outbreak of influenza, the Medical Officer of Health of 
Ahmedabad ascribing indeed all the deaths from fever during January, February and 
March to this cause. In part, also, the heavy mortality is due, the Health Officer 
considers, to the overcrowded state of the city, and in this I am inclined to agree with 
him, especially as the large number of deaths ascribed to *' Bronchial affections," which 
are included under the heading " Other causes," points that way. 



Annexure IV. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I.M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
Mortality in the Viramgam Town Circle. 

The Viramgam Town Circle returns, although of late years, since drainage channels 
were dog, the death-rate has been reduced, still have usually shown a high death-rate. 
The mortality ascribed to "Other causes" has not been so strikingly high as in 
Ahmedabad, the deaths attributed to fever being most numerous. Of the deaths ascribed 
to " Other causes " {see Table No. I.) the following analysis has been made : — 





Cause of Death. 


January. 


February. 


March. 






Bronchial aff eotiona 


51 


86 


49 






Measles ■ ... 


17 


18 


17 






Convulsions 


18 


20 


18 






Delirium 


21 










Starvation 


8 


4 


2 






Minor ailments 


13 


12 


8 






Total 


128 


no 


94 





In January there were a number of deaths from bronchitis, and in February an 
outburst of pneumonia. 



Annexure V. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I.M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
Mortality in the Kaira Collectorate for the first Quarter, 1900. 

In the Eaira Collectorate there are seven Rural and four Town Circles. 92*4 per cent, 
of the population of the district live in the Rural Circles, and 7*6 per cent, in the Town 
Circles. 

The Dharalas form the bulk of the population, there are no hill, tribes or forest peopl<\ 
and hardly any Bhils. * ' 



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The staple food in ordinary times is bajri, bavto and dhall. They are not, I am 
informed, addicted to liquor. They work in their own way and at their own time, and 
earn a comfortable living without any great exertion. 

A table of mortality for the first three months in the year is appended, Table 
No. III. Of the total mortality in each month, 88*36 per cent, took place in Rural Circles 
and 11-64 per cent, in Town Circles in January, 83*04 and 16*96 per cent, respectively in 
February, and 86*38 and 13*62 respectively in March. 

For the Collectorate as a whole, the greatest mortality is, in each month, attributed to 
" Other causes," but if the deaths in Rural and Town Circles are taken separately, it will be 
seen that it is, in the Rural Circles, the deaths ascribed to " Other causes " preponderate, 
whilst in Town Circles the chief cause of death is due to dysentry and diarrhoea, and so no 
separate analysis of the death causes in the Town Circles has been made. 

A table. No. IV., giving the deaths by " ages " and " sexes," shows that the mortality 
was greatest amongst people 50 years of age and upwards, both in the Collectorate as a 
whole and in the Rural Circles. In Town Circles deaths among children under five years 
of age preponderate. Young adults between 15 and 20 years of age suffered least. 

The deaths amongst males are, in every month, much higher than amongst females. 
As the mortality in Thasra Taluka was very high, an analysis of the deaths put down to 
"Other causes" was made, and the principal cause of death is attributed to bronchial 
affections, which cannot be put down as due to " overcrowding," though probably living 
in small huts with an insufficiency of clothing may have caused many, at the extremes of 
life, to be liable to disease attacking the lungs. 



Cause of Death. 



January. 



February. 



Bronchial affections 

Dropsy and dropsical swellings., 

Senility 

Want of lactation 

Anaemia and debility 

Emaciation 

Measles 

. Biokets 

Erysipelas 

Minor causes 

Total 



o06 
46 
60 
40 
II 
39 
13 
39 
21 
75 



650 



240 
81 
61 
18 
29 
40 
8 
1 
10 
62 



550 



March. 



325 
74 
95 
35 
31 
39 
to 
14 
18 
81 



737 



The District Medical Officer reports that, from enquiries he has made, it appears that 
the crops, which had almost matured at Heranj, Khandli, and Machial, in the Matar 
Taluka, were destroyed by irrigation with brackish water. The people did not drink this 
water ; but even if they did, the effect was not harmful, as the mortality in the Matar 
Taluka is the lowest of all the talukas in this district. 



Annexure VI. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I.M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
Mortality in the Panch Mahals Collectorate for the first Quarter, 1900. 

The Panch Mahals is a district in which are many Native States. It consists of five 
Rural Circles and two Town Circles. It is roughly divided into the Eastern and Western 
Mahals, of which the Bhils live chiefly in the eastern part, whilst the Eolis and Nikvas 
occupy the western portion. The staple food in ordinary times is Indian corn for those 
living in the east and bajri for those in the west, whilst on relief camps the Rangoon rice 
and mug dhall have been used. 

The Bhils are reported to drink whenever they get a chance, but are of active habits 
and hardy, and will work after their own fashion. The Kolis also drink as a regular 
habit, but not to any extent — they are not hardy and are not inclined for work (only) 
except at their own times and in their own way. Of the total population 91*2 per cent 
live in the Rural Circles and 8*8 per ceot. in the Town Circles. 



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: stable,- No. V.; is (appended,. showing the deaths by causes in the -Rural and, Town 
Ciroles^and this shows that in all >the Rural Circles the deaths returned as due to,.fever farr 
outnumber, the rest of the deaths. .1 

The difficulty is to explain this high percentage. There is little ' doubt that many of 
the deaths ascribed to fever are , not due to it, but from the village agency for registration 
too much cannot be expected. Plague has. not been prevalent in the zilla, nor influenza, 
nor relapsing fever. The causes appear to be in the people themselves. Mostly agricultural, 
they have held on as long as any cattle remained alive, supporting themselves by selling 
wood, Ac. The Bhils also have been waiting for the mowra crop, which has failed, and as 
these people- Were averse to State aid, averse to the work offered, the death-rate went up, 
and even when they did come on to work, being in poor condition, they were not able to 
recover, and the death-rate increased. 

A table, No. VI., is appended, showing the deaths by "ages" and "sexes." As 
regards " ajres " the largest number of deaths occurred amongst those 60 years of age and 
upwards, both in the Collectorate generally and in the Rural Circles. The infantile 
mortality is also high, and so is also the mortality af(er the age of 30. The Rural Circles 
and Town Circles, but especially the latter, show a large number of deaths of people aged 
between 30 and 50 years of age. 

The deaths amongst males far exceed those amongst females. 

t 

Of the. two Town Circles, Godhra and Dohad, the population is a little over 8 per cent, 
of the whole population of the zilla. 

The mortality statistics for Godhra Town Circle are appended (Table No. VII.). For 
the early months they have to be amendedras the deaths occurring in the poor-house have 
not been included. 

Of the total deaths in the first quarter of the year, 65*4 per cent, occurred amongst 
males, and the very great majority were Hindus of low caste. 48*7 per cent, of all the 
deaths are ascribed to " Fever " and 43*9 per cent, to "Other causes " The sudden drop in 
March of deaths put down to " Other causes," with a corresponding rise in the number of 
deaths under the head " Fever " is very noticeable. 

Regarding the analysis of deaths from " Other causes," in January and February there 
occur 43 and 77 deaths from starvation. These are amongst people picked up dead, or 
nearly so, in the vicinity of the town. In February occurs the large number of 132 deaths 
ascribed to " General debility." All these are attributed to famine. After February the 
deaths which arise from famine causes would seem to be transferred to the heading 
" Fever," as there is nothing else to account for such a sudden and heavy rise in the fever 
rate. The deaths in Godhra Town Circle for April and May are also included in the above 
table. Cholera commenced in the town, but the incidence, as shown in the returns, was 
very slight. The number of deaths ascribed to fever still continue high. 

The increase in the Dohad Town Circle mortality is due to the inclusion in the Town 
Circle register of deaths occurring in the poor-house, the tank work, and the hospital. No 
deaths are ascribed to "Starvation," but of the numbers picked up dead in the outskirts, if 
there were signs of purging the death was ascribed to " Diarrhoea," if not, then to " Fever." 



The Broach Collectorate consists of six Rural Circles and two Town Circles, and on 
the north and east. is bordered by Native States. 

Throughout the Jambusar and Vagra Talukas and the Hansot Mahal the water is 
brackish.' Between the upper stratum and a lower one, about 13 or 14 feet down, the 
sweet water-supply is obtained, and this is drunk. The brackish' water is not used for 
drinking or irrigation. 

The inhabitants are mostly Eunbis, Borahs, and Girasias, with a small number of 
Bhils and Talavias. Of the total population 84-7 per cent, live in the Rural Circles and 
15*3 per cent, in the Town Circles. With the exception of the Bhils, the inhabitants do 
not take much liquor; and their food in ordinary times is jowari, kitoheri, and chas, and 
three meals a day are usually taken. A table, No. VIII., showing the number of deaths 
and the death-rate, and the average ten years' mortality for the. months of January, 
February, and March, is appended, and also a table of deaths by ages and sexes (No. IX.). 
Of the total mortality in January, 83*5 per cent, occurred in Rural Circles, and 16*5 per 
cent, in Town Circles ; in February the percentages were 82*7 and 17*3 respectively ; and 
in March 79*5 and 20*5. Thus there is a gradual increase in each month in the percentage 
mortality in Town Circles. More than half the deaths, in each month are ascribed to 
"Fever." The mortality attributed to "Other causes" is also high, but the percentage to , 
the total deaths diminishes slightly from January to March, whilst' that from dysentery 
and diarrhoea goes up. 

10M6 SI 



Annexure VII. 



Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I. M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
Mortality in the Broach Collectorate for the first Quarter, 1900. 



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Amongst Rural Circles the highest mortality ocean in Tagra and A'mod, then in the 
Jambnsar and Broach Talukas, and then Hansot and Anklesvar ; and in March there is a 
very decided rise in the mortality in the Anklesvar Taluka, and it was in March that the 
people were drafted to the works in this taluka. 

There were no deaths from cholera and but one from small-pox. From starvation 
26 deaths were reported in January, 5 in February and 10 in March. 

The mortality in the Rural Circles is ascribed in January to a large number of the 
people and strangers wandering about and not getting subsistence, also to the cold which, 
it is stated, drove many from the works and prevented others going there, and to the 
alteration in the mode of Hying and working ; but as the cold was not prolonged and the 
people must soon have got to know where employment was obtainable, and as the mortality 
increased every month, the cause is to be attributed to the people not coming on the works. 
Jowari was first eaten and then Rangoon rice and then jowari again ; but change of diet 
appeared to make no difference in the mortality. Also, as noted above, brackish water is 
present in part of the district, but as the people are reported to have used the sweet water 
they were always accustomed to, this could not account for the mortality. 

The Table No. IX. shows that the heaviest mortality occurred amongst children 
between I and 5 years of age, and next to this those 60 years and upwards in age were the 
chief sufferers. 

In this Collectorate also the deaths amongst males are in excess of those amongst 
females. 



Annexnre VIII. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Clarkson, I.M.S., Sanitary Commistioner, on the 

Mortality in the Broach Town Circle. 

In the Town Circles the deaths ascribed to fever and dysentery and diarrhcea were 
comparatively few in number. The deaths from dysentery and diarrhoea increase in 
number gradually from January to March. The largest number of deaths is, however, put 
down to " Other causes." 

In Broach Town these have been examined and the following table is appended. The 
general death causes are shown in the table of deaths for the district :— 





Months. 


Total 


Deaths 
amongst 
Strangers. 


Sex. 






Deaths. 


Male. 


Female. 






January 


402 


112 


226 


17« 






February ... ... ... 


492 


170 


291 


201 






March ... ... ... 


783 


239 


386 


847 






April ... 


584 


150 


306 


278 






May 


929 


309 


466 


463 




There were more male than female deaths, and the infantile mortality was heavy. 
The low-caste Hindus — Bails, Talavias, Dhers — suffered most, losing over 65 per cent, of 
the total number of deaths recorded, and then the Mahomedans over 20 per cent, in the 
first quarter of the year. In May 210 deaths took place from cholera. Of the mortality 
ascribed to " Other causes " the chief causes of death and the numbers dying therefrom 
are : — 


Cause of Death. 


January. 


February. 


Mw- 1 *^. 


April. 


May. 


Bronohial affections 


89 


103 


205 


104 


118 


Measles . 




44 


90 


246 


191 


102 


Senility 




91 


90 


102 


82. 


S8 


Convulsions 




24 


27 


25 


26 


24 


Ansemia 


... ••• ... ... ... 


68 


90 


25 


19 


18 



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The measles and convulsions mostly occurred amongst the infante. The deaths put 
down to anemia and senility were probably due to famine causes. 

All picked np dead were strangers, and the cause of death was certified by a medical 
man ; bat there is no record as to the numbers picked up dead in and around Broach 
Town. Leaving out the deaths amongst strangers, the mortality in Broach has .been very 
high, and is due to overcrowding and bad ventilation, to which is dne the spread of measles, 
and the large number of bronchial affections. 



Annexure IX. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Cktrkson, T.M.S., Sanitary Commissioner, on the 
Mortality in the Surat Collectorate for the flmt Quarter. '1900. 

Snrat consists of 8 Rural Circles and 2 Town Circles. The worst affected district is 
Mandvi, but there is also distress in East Bardoli and parts of Bulsar and Pardi. The 
people mostly affected by famine are the Kaliparaj, but also Kolis and Mochis have 
suffered. The staple food of these people is nagli, kodra, baoti and rice, and three meals 
are usually enjoyed. Dhall does not seem to be used, but wal (a kind of bean) is eaten 
with nagli bread. Toddy is largely drunk and country liquor also. The Kaliparaj are 
similar to the Bhils in habits and like to live in scattered hamlets. There is much brackish 
water in Olpad, but not used for drinking or irrigation. The water in Mandvi is not 
brackish, but dries up very quickly. A large number of people from the neighbouring 
Native States are reported to have come into this taluka. 

Tables Nos. X. and XI. are appended giving the causes of deaths and the ratios and the 
deaths by ages and sexes. In the Collectorate on tho average for the first three months 
threeffonrths of the total deaths occurred in the Rural Circles, and although the majority 
of deaths in each month are ascribed to fever, the deaths attributed to " Other causes " are 
also very high. In the Rural Circles the deaths due to fever are twiee as high as the 
deaths from " Other causes," but in the Town Circles the reverse is the case and deaths 
due to " Other causes " are greatly in excess. Whatever numbers of strangers may have 
come into the taluka of Mandvi, not many found their way to the head-quarter town, and 
the number of deaths ascribed to fever is due to people wandering about and not going on 
the works. 

As regards the deaths in the Surat Town Circle (see Table No. XII.), which are in 
each month a little more than double the usual number, a table is given showing the causes 
of death. The deaths entered under the heading w Other causes " are in the great majority, 
and the analysis of them shows that to lung affections and measles the increase is due. The 
number of deaths increases from January to'March and then falls in April, and would have 
continued to fall in May but for an outbreak of cholera. 

The short table of the causes of deaths in Mandvi Town is appended (No. XII.). 



FAMINE BELIEF MEASURES IN THE BOMBAY 

PRESIDENCY. 

No. 81. 



Notification by the Government of Bombat. 

No. M. 1360, dated Mahdbleshwar, the 16$ November, 1901. 

The following correspondence between the Government of Bombay and the 
Government of India is published for general information :— 

Letter from the Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay, to the Secretary 
to the Government of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture 
(Famine), No. 2159, dated the 3rd October, 1901 :— 

"I am desired by the Governor in Council to acknowledge receipt of the 
Resolution of the Government of India, No. 12 — 13-30 of the 26th August, 1901, with 
which was forwarded copy of the Indian Famine Commission Report of 1901. 

10566 2 12 



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■ " A 2. tn submitting some preliminary observations upon : the report 1 1 am to say 
that the Bombay Government fully appreciate the value of many of the' recommenda- 
tions made by the Commission attaching special importance to. that regarding the 
appointment of a- Famine Commissioner -when relief operations are on a considerable 
scale, and are anxious to discuss in an entirely conciliatory spirit the questions 
regarding which they are not at present able to accept' the views of the Commission. 
The Governor in Council is, however, of opinion that the exact position occupied by 
the Bombay Government during the late inquiry should be placed formally on record, 
not from a desire to am hark on any controversy, but with the view of making it clear 
why this Government feel constrained now to make some remarks on certain 
paragraphs in the Commissioners' Report. 

" 3. When the Resolution appointing the Commission was communicated to this 
Government it was noticed that no representative of the Bombay Presidency had been 
appointed to serve with the Commission. The Governor in Council acquiesced in 
this omission, because he felt the force of the argument that an inquiry into the 
manner in which famine had been dealt with in Bombay should be carried on by an 
entirely independent body. But some portions of the report of the Commission cause 
this Government to regret that they did not at the time of its appointment suggest to 
the Government of India that the precedent of the Famine Commission of 1898 
should be followed, and a Commissioner appointed from Bombay, not to assist in the 
preparation of the ultimate report but to watch the evidence given before the 
Commission so far as it affected Bombay, and to call the attention of this Government 
to points . on which, in his judgment, it would have been well for them to have 
offered explanations to the Commissioners. 

"4. The Government of Bombay do not claim for a moment that, in their 
endeavours to deal with a famine of unprecedented severity, and one which devastated 
districts where famine had been unknown within the memory of man, they have 
made no mistakes. Neither do they complain of the manner in which the. Com- 
missioners have embodied their criticisms — on the contrary, they fully appreciate the 
well-deserved tribute the Commissioners pay to the local officers of this Government 
as a body for the zeal and ability with which they discharged their very arduous 
duties. The observations made further on in this letter on certain paragraphs (up to 
paragraph 236) in Part II. of the report are, therefore, merely dictated by the desire 
of this Government to lay before the Government of India certain considerations and 
facts which, in the opinion of the Governor in Council, may not have been fully 
brought to the notice of the Famine Commission. 

" 5. The general tepour of the Commissioners' remarks, in so far as they are 
unfavourable to Bombay, is to the effect that, whilst in the earlier stages of the famine 
relief was extravagantly given in the Central Provinces, it was not given with 
sufficient liberality in Bombay. The Governor in Council acknowledges that at the 
commencement of the famine the Government of Bombay under-estimated the 
resources and staying power of the inhabitants of Gujarat, which, as the Governor 
General in Council is aware, had long been regarded as one of the most fertile districts 
in India. Famine had been unknown there for 75 years, its population were well-to do ; 
and in Gujarat, if anywhere, it might reasonably have been supposed the cultivators 
would have saved money against a time of need. The Governor in Council therefore 
submits that the then Government of Bombay had good reason to believe at the 
outset that the distress in Gujarat might be dealt with on principles analogous to those 
which had proved amply sufficient in 1897 in the far poorer districts of the Deccan. 
I am to add that the Government of Bombay felt that the language of the Government 
of India's Circular No. 2-Fam. of 27th December, 1899, imposed upon them the 
absolute necessity for economy in the expenditure of monies contributed by the 
Government of India for famine expenditure ;' and that the knowledge that this 
Government had already been constrained to appeal to the Government of India for 
liberal assistance in connection with Plague expenditure rendered them especially 
anxious to incur no imputation of waste of public money. 

" 6. With regard to the specific criticisms of the action of the Bombay Govern- 
ment made by the Commissioners in Part II. of their report the Governor in Council 
is not of opinion that it is necessary to reply to each of them in detail since he 
apprehends that the main object of the appointment of the Famine Commission was 
to devise improved means for dealing with possible future conditions rather than to 
criticize in detail incidents of the late famine. It is also inferred from the terms of 
the Resolution of the Government of India that a separate communication will be 
received regarding, some of the important general questions reserved for further 
discussion, and at any rate it would not be appropriate to express a final opinion 
regarding them until the principal officers engaged in the administration of famine 
relief in the Presidency have been consulted and there has been an opportunity for 
mature consideration. The object of the present communication is to point out 
certain facts and considerations to which, although they have a material bearing on 
some of the views expressed in their report, the attention of the Commission has not 
been directed but which would have been brought to their notice if a representative 
of this Government acquainted with them had been present at the inquiry. As the 
remarks made below amount largely to corrections of statements of fact, it is hoped 
that the same publicity will be given to them as to the report of the Commission." 



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^, ( I.— -Paragraph 63 of the report speaks of ' Orders ' given hy' the Chief Secretary. 
, £he Government of India are aware that the Chief Secretary had no power to issue 
, orders, and the responsibility for their, issue must rest with the Bombay Government 

themselves by whom the orders were promulgated. 

II. — With reference to the statement in paragraph 31 of the report quoted in the 

margin it is to he observed that the correspondence with 
'In Bombay * * the apparent the Government. of India regarding the report of the 
absence of a. otear appreciation on the Famine Commission of 1898 was not completed when 

• part or its officers as to what the , . . , ... r , 

general admlnutratiTe polioy of the the la8t famine began. All the correspondence was 
Bombay Government was led to communicated to the local officers and their attention 
-hesitation and misunderstandings -was called to the more important points. The "prin- 
:%L"A S^Sk *SZ k£ ^ le « acce P ted by this Government and approved by 
.downandpnbiishedinadvanoe.' toe Government! of India, which were in the mam 

those followed with success in the famine of 1896 -'.)7. 
could not have been more clearly put before .these officers. Special instructions-were 
issued at a very early stage regarding the relief of hill tribes, the trial of systems of 
piece-work and supply of fodder, and not long afterwards, regarding the classes of 
works to be selected in various circumstances, the organization of village relief and 
the treatment of persons newly arriving on works. 

III. — In paragraph 26 of the report it is recommended that in Bombay the village 
accountant should be placed under the supervision of the Circle Inspector, who in his 
turn should be brought more' immediately under the control of the District authorities. 
This is the arrangement actually in force so far as the duties of the Circle Inspector 
other than technical work connected with survey are concerned. These officers are 
appointed by the Collectors and are subordinate to the Mamlatdars, and the rules 
provide that the village accountants shall as regards the duties referred to be under 
the control of the Circle Inspectors. It is intended by this Government to assign to 
the latter class of officers general land revenue duties as well as duties connected with 
land records, as desired by the Government of India, with as little delay as possible, 
and they will then be in all respects part of the general administrative staff. It is the 
case that the statistical information is compiled so far as it relates to agriculture in 
the office of the Director of Land Records and Agriculture and so far as it relates to 
mortality in the office of the Sanitary Commissioner, it being held, that this cou^e 
would avoid delay in obtaining the general ' results. As at present advised the 
Governor in Council anticipates no difficulty in giving effect to the view of the 
Commission and of the Government of India that the returns should go through the 
Collector's office and be collated under his supervision, but as a m itter of fact that 
officer is made aware of any failure of crops and of any increase of mortality long 
before the statistics are compiled. His relations with the subordinate officers are so 
close that nothing abnormal should long escape his notice, and there is no chance of 
any distress occurring without his having had an opportunity of preparing for it. 

IV. — It is recognized, however, that the interval between the time of ascertaining 
that there will be a failure of crops and the time when it is necessary to provide relief 
is so short that preparations should always be maintained to meet the contingency, 
and it is admitted that for the reasons mentioned by the Commission such arrange- 
ments were not sufficient to meet adequately the emergency which arose in this 
Presidency. The recurrence within two years of a more extensive famine than those 
of 1876-77 and 1896-97 was not considered to be a danger to be seriously anticipated. 
It is pointed out in paragraph 16 of the report that there were relieved in this 
Presidency in 1899-1900 385 millions of units as compared with 119 in 1896-97. If 
the number employed on works be taken separately, it is found that in 1876-77 the 
maximum reached was 361,172 and in 1896-97 321,203, while in 1899-1900 it was 
1,011,279. Possibly the number would not have been so large if tests could have 
been more carefully applied, but the system was the same in 1899-1900 as in 1896-97, 
and in the opinion of the Governor in Council this Government could not have 
obtained an establishment sufficiently strong to deal adequately with more than a 
million workers in the manner recommended by the Commission. The Governor in 
Council is in entire accord with the Commission as to the desirability of paying the 
able-bodied strictly according to results and of daily disbursements, but these objects 
cannot be fully attained unless there is an establishment competent to adjust the tasks 
to varying circumstances and especially to the powers of the workers for the time 
being and to make daily measurements. Sufficient establishment for these purposes, 
the first of which involves the constant exercise of very careful discretion, was not 
available in this Presidency, and though the object aimed at will be worked up to as 
far as possible, it is feared that if so wide-spread a calamity recurs the difficulty of 
obtaining an establishment which can effectually carry out the system proposed will . 
not be overcome unless very complete changes take place promptly in the social 
economy of the province. 

V. — The view that all sources of supply were not tapped is expressed in 
paragraph 28 of the report. So far as superior officers of the Public Works Depart- 
ment are concerned, as many as possible were placed at the disposal of this Government 
by the Government of India, but some of these as well as one of the officers belonging 
to this Presidency were employed in Native States. Lists of candidates were also 
obtained and offers were made to such of them as seemed likely to be of use and 
applications were invited by advertisement. The same course was followed with 



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regard to Public Works subordinates, and application was made for aid also to the- 
Governments of Bengal, Madras, and the Punjab, and to the Principal of Thomason 
College. It does not appear to the Governor in Council that it was possible' to 'do- 
more than was done in the Public Works Department to obtain persons fitted for the- 
teohnical part of the management of -works. 

VI. — It is suggested in paragraph 28 'that persons who had not received a 
professional training might have been employed. This course was adopted as far as- 
was considered to be practicable. In all offices, and especially in Collectors' offices,, 
there are maintained lists of all candidates qualified for Government employment. 
But they were all needed for other duties. The Commission has perhaps overlooked 
the extent of the demand for clerical work and duties of inspection which has. been 
created by plague as well as famine. The Governor in Council entirely concurs in 
the view expressed in paragraph 71 that the pay of a Special Civil Officer shoald in 
no case be less than Rs. 50 per month with a horse allowance of Rs. 10 to Rs. 15, and 
that on special important works men of a superior class with a higher salary may with 
advantage be employed and has always urged the importance of engaging men fit for 
so responsible a post. Men on smaller salaries were appointed for the simple reason 
that more competent men were not available in sufficient numbers. Unfortunately 
many have proved unworthy of the trust which it was inevitable to impose on them,, 
and prosecutions for fraud have been somewhat numerous. 

VII. — In paragraph 42 of the letter to the Government of India, No. 155-Fam.,. 
dated the 5th October, 1899, the need for European supervision was strongly urged by 
the Governor in Council, and repeated applications were made both to that Government 
and to the military authorities in this Presidency for Staff Corps Officers, but owing 
to military exigencies comparatively few could at any time be spared and some had 
to be withdrawn when they had become most useful. The Government of India- 
rendered valuable assistance by the deputation of officers of the Postal and Burma. 
Police Departments and during the monsoon of Covenanted Civilians and officers of 
the Northern India Salt Department, and such commissioned and non-commissioned 
Native officers as the Military authorities in this Presidency could spare were 
employed. The services of officers of the Customs, Salt and Forests Departments 
were also utilized for famine duty, and retired European officers and private 
gentlemen were engaged. No opportunity was lost of securing such aid, and it 
proved most valuable both in the management of works and in the supervision of 
other forms of relief, but it could not compensate for the deficiency of a trained 
subordinate staff. 

VIII. — A greater use of non-official agency is recommended in paragraph 34, and 
in paragraph 136 it is hinted that more reliance should have been placed on it in this 
Presidency, especially in the matter of village gratuitous relief. It does not appear 
to be contemplated that such agency should be employed in the supervision of publio 
works, but it is pointed out in paragraph 54 that it should be enlisted for the 
management of works under civil agency and that there may be similar works con- 
structed by private individuals or communities with or without aid from the State.. 
The Governor in Council fears that the Commission has not taken sufficiently into 
account the circumstances which differentiate this Presidency from other provinces. 
There are few large land-owners, and such as there are do not evince much willingness 
to aid in the administration of relief. What has been possible in this direction has 
been attempted by the grant of tagai for various land improvements, and much relief 
has been given in this very beneficial form. Village communities no longer exist as 
active organizations. In towns, as the Commission recognise, missionaries and native 
gentlemen of influence have co-operated, especially in the supervision of poor-houses. 
All such aid has been cordially welcomed and public testimony has been given of 
Government's high appreciation of it. But in the villages there has been little or no 
such aid procurable. According to the Code the dole should be distributed in the 
presence of village committees, but the Collectors continue to report that no reliance- 
can be placed on them, that they will not assert themselves, and that they exercise no 
check on dishonesty. When cholera broke out in April, 1900, Government were 
anxious that as many small works as could be supervised with reasonable efficiency 
should be carried on, and suggested that local men of influence might witness 
payments, and again in the rains of that year urged that as many small works as could 
be supervised with fair efficiency should be opened. The Commissioner, N.D., also 
instructed the Collectors that no effort should be spared to stimulate persons capable 
of helping to lend a hand. There is no reason to suppose that the local officers- 
omitted any means of enlisting the aid of non-official agency, but their efforts were 
practically fruitless. Where small works were opened, the supervision had generally 
to be exercised by a karkun of low grade with the assistance of the patel and village 
accountant. In the current year the number of people in need of relief in Gujarat 
has hitherto been comparatively small, and it has been possible to employ the 
majority of them on village works, but official supervision was found to be essential. 
The Collector of Ahmedabad reported that the village panches had proved a broken 
reed, patidars being found as useless as kolis, and all showing complete apathy as 
regards what did not affect their immediate personal interest. The fact is much to be 
regretted and it greatly enhances the difficulty of administering relief in this 
Presidency, but it must be recognized that outside the towns little reliance can be* 
placed on non-official agency to supplement the deficiency of official supervision. 




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24» 



IX. — In these circumstances it seems to the Governor in Council that it -would no 1 
have been possible to employ the majority of the people in need of relief in 1899-1900 
-on village works. If the., supervision inadaqaata "'h"n the- people were concen- 
trated on large works, it could not have been effectual at all if they had been 
scattered over numerous small -works. This Government have always recognized that 
there are advantages, especially in certain seasons, in the employment of distressed 
persons on village works and there have generally been some such works entered in 
their programmes, but such employment on a large scale has always been reported to 
be impracticable with anything like the establishments this Government have hitherto 
been able to secure. It is admitted that the programmes were defective, particularly 
those for Gujarat, which was supposed to be immune from famine. But it was not 
•only on that account that there was difficulty in employing the people on village 
works in that province. There is virtually in every village a tank which' can be 
deepened, and there is scarcely any other form of employment available. The 
difficulty was entirely one of supervision. The utmost efforts of the local officers 
succeeded in providing on village works for but a small proportion of those in need 
■of relief. The highest numbers were found in Kaira in July and August, when they 
were respeetively 15,697 and 10,499, but 'the numbers on works* managed by the 
Public Works Department inr that district in • the same months were respestively 
127,524 and 80,526. The Commissioner, N.D., expressed his- belief that the village 
works in 1900 were mere dole camps, fn the current year more people have been 
■employed on such works with •more satisfactory-results, but the reason is that the 
-total number to be provided for 'has Ween of manageable dimensions, and that although 
the work* are shown- as -beitig under-Civil Agency, the- Public Works Department aids 
in th<e supervision. Forth'ese reasons this Government cannot accept without reserva- 
tion the view expressed- iir paragraph 58- that much of 'the panic and some of the 
mortality- in Gujarat would have been avoided 1 if there had been a more complete 
scheme of - village works in reserve. 



X.— As regards Medical' and' Sanitary establishments the Governor in- Council 
-concurs in the remarks-made in Section XVIII. of the report, but it is not clear that 
in respect' of this* matter* also - the Commission' has taken sufficient account of the 
magnitude of< the-- famine* and of the- military exigencies which prevented such aid 
being obtained from the Military Department- as might otherwise have been possible. 
In February, 1900, it was reported that all local resources had failed to supply 
sufficient Hospital Assistants, and applications to- the Military authorities and to the 
Governments of Bengal and Madras were unsuccessfully made. The Sanitary-Com- 
missioner was then authorized to employ 115 compounders and also to offer a consoli- 
dated salary of Rs. 60 instead of the ordinary salary of Ra»40 for temporary Hospital 
Assistants, but only six were attracted by the increased rate of salary. On the 
•outbreak of cholera in April the Government of India were requested to send 40 
Hospital Assistants, but could supply only 21, and these had to be recalled in July 
for military duty, being replaced by Civil Hospital Assistants and Assistant Surgeons. 
Later in the year more were needed on account of the virulent epidemic of fever, and 
it was fortunately then possible to meet the demand almost fully. There was some 
delay in issuing salary slips and consequently in payment of salaries owing to a 
•defect in the system of communicating the appointments- to the Accountant General, 
but on the defect being reported it was at once-removech 

XL — As already indicated, the Governor in Council does not dissent from the 
view stated in paragraph 28 that, if there were sufficiently strong and competent 
establishments, a penal wage as well as an ordinary minimum wage would be 
unnecessary. But the implication in paragraph 102 'that the nine chataks wage was 
regarded by this Government as sufficient for subsistence when received in idleness 
is based on defective information. The intention of the penal wage was properly 
described in paragraph 3 of the letter from the Government of India, No. 287 — 28-2-F., 
dated 8th February, 1900, as follows :— 

'The wish of the Bombay Government is, it is understood, to fix a fair task, the 
performance of which will entitle the workers to the prescribed wage of 19 chataks 
for the digger and 15 chataks for the carrier respectively, and to reduce the wage 
proportionately as the work done Jails beiow the prescribed task down to a penal 
wage of 9 chataks. 

'This* proposal the Government of India consider reasonable, provided the 
tasks are fair, regard being had to the condition of the people ; and provided that it is 
recognised that nine chataks is a penal wage and is not a safe subsistence standard in 
ordinary circumstances for the masses.' 

The District Officers were informed accordingly, and it was impressed on them that 
the order for reduction of the minimum applied only to able-bodied adults. They 
were constantly reminded that it should not be enforced if there was reason to 
suppose that deficiency of outturn was due to causes other than wilful idleness, and 
members of the aboriginal tribes were exempted from it altogether. It is the case 
that large numbers of people in the Deocan who were apparently well able to do so 
would not earn more than the penal wage. The reason on some works was found to 
be that beef could be obtained at a very low price and elsewhere there must have been 
adjuncts to the wage. As observed in paragraph 77, the minimum wage was aban- 
doned in Satara on account of the abuses to which it gave rise, but in that district the 



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(following j>roportion of the workers earned no more than the penal. minimum in four 
, of thfl -weeks in which distress was most severely, felt : — ., .. 



Week ending 



Penal minimum, 
Per oent. 




Lees than penal 
' minimum. 
' Per cent. 



12th Hay, 1900 
19th „ 

1 

80th . „ 
6th Jane, 1900 



36-28 
49-83 
60-76 
42-55 



If it is legitimate to pay strictly according to results even -when the earnings continue 
small, it cannot be a hardship to restrict to a penal minimum such as are able but 
refuse to earn more. 

XII. — As regards gratuitous relief, the Commission has not in the opinion of this 
Government in paragraph 140 correctly understood the intention of this Government 
in directing that kitchens and poor-houseB should be utilized as far as they conve- 
niently could be. The object was not to make the condition of going a considerable 
distance a test of need, but to keep the relief under more effective control. This 
Government found that it was scarcely possible to get officers of lower grades to 
exercise a reasonable discretion in determining who should be allowed gratuitous relief, 
and the risks of abuse of the grant of such relief, in the villages are serious. It was 
considered that the difficulty would be to some extent removed if such as could go to 
kitchens and poor-houses were thus brought under the constant supervision of superior 
officers, whilst there would be left in villages near the poor-houses and kitchens for 
relief by the dole only the destitute unable to walk, whom even village officers could 
discriminate. As regards the view expressed in paragraph 142 that the people will 
cook their own food better than it will be cooked for them, it may be mentioned that 
one of the reasons assigned for great mortality in Gujarat was that those who got a 
grain dole often did not cook it properly and one of the advantages attributed to 
kitchens was that the infirm as well as children got food well cooked. 

XIII. — The statements quoted in the margin occur in paragraphs 187 and 188 of 

the report. According to the distribution 
of the districts for Administrative purposes 
Satara and Sholapur are in the Central 
Division. But the important point is that 
Sholapur was one of the most severely 
distressed districts. The failure of crops 
was not quite so complete as in Gujarat, 
but there was very little grain produced. 
The district also suffered as much as any 
other in 1896-97 and the intervening 
seasons were not good. The proportion 
of the population seeking employment on 
works was greater than in any other 
district except Ahmednagar. Attention is 

specially called to this misunderstanding, because it has a material bearing oh the 
discussion of the causes of high mortality in Gujarat. 

XIV. — In the extracts quoted in the margin from paragraphs 128, 135, and 195 of 
the report the Famine Commission comment on what they consider to be the 
inadequacy of village relief in Gujarat and of works near the people's homes in the 

Kaira and Panch Mahals districts at the 



"Excluding the isolated and desert district of 
Thar and Parkar, the figures for which appear to 
be altogether unreliable, the districts of the Presi- 
dency affected by famine fall naturally into three 
groups, viz :— 

the four districts of the Southern Division — 
Satara, Sholapur, Belgaum and Bijapur ; 

the four district of the Central Division — 
Khandesh, Naaik, Poona and Ahmednagar, with 
the addition of Thana, which geographically 
belongs to them ; and 

the five districts of Gujarat — the Panch 
Mahals, Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and Surat. 
In the Southern Division there was little distress 
and the death-rates were relatively not high." 



128. We think that in the Bombay Presidency, 
especially in Gujarat, the distribution of gratuitous 
relief in the homes of the people began too late, and 
ended in being profuse. 

135. Ullage gratuitou* relief. — In Gujarat the 
provisions of the Code' were not acted up to for 
many months ; and we agree with the Deputy 
Sanitary Commissioner in attributing to this 
cause muoh of the great mortality whioh occurred 
uhere, 

195. We have no doubt that the mortality in 
the period up to May would have been less had 
more works been opened near the people's homes 
in the Kaira and the Panch Mahals Districts, and 
had the provisions of the Famine Code in regard 
to the distribution of gratuitous relief in the 
villages been acted upon with due liberality. 



commencement of the famine. Now it 
need scarcely be said that the instructions 
which were issued in regard to this matter 
were as fully applicable to Gujarat as to 
the rest of the Presidency. The necessity 
for timely organization of village relief 
.was pointed out at a very early stage, but 
it was held both by the Government of 
India and by this Government that the 
traditional and family obligations of the 
social system of the country should be 
infringed as little as possible, and this 
principle was duly inculcated on district 
Officers. The wealthier classes of Gujarat 
have always had the -reputation of feeing 



exceptionally, charitable, and there is no 
doubt that private charity was extensive in that province in the early stages of 
the famine and was continued on a considerable scale for several months. As shown 



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in the statement appended, village relief was commenced in Gujarat as soon as 
elsewhere, and although there were considerable variations in districts from time to 
time it was on the whole granted even up till Jane with little less liberality than 
in the equally distressed districts of Sholapar and Ahmednagar, where the mortality 
notwithstanding much immigration is admitted by the Commission to have been not 
very high, and it is to be remembered that it was supplemented by the relief in 
kitchens and poor-houses of persons residing within easy reach of them. It was 
given much more extensively in Gujarat in the period referred to than in the Deccan 
in the corresponding months of 1896-97 and 1876-77. The Governor in Council is 
unable to see that there are sufficient grounds for the general charge against; the local 
officers in Gujarat that they did not observe the provisions of the Code relating to 
this matter or to admit that excess mortality was to any material extent due to 
restriction of gratuitous relief. 

XV. — It cannot be denied that some mortality might have been averted in the 
Panch Mahals as well as in Khandesh if effect had been given at an earlier date to the 
recommendations of the Famine Commission of 1898 regarding aboriginal tribes. But 
the difficulties of the situation are recognized by the Commission ; the local officers 
had reasons for believing that sufficient provision was made for the time for those 
belonging to British territory, and the anticipation of the Collector of the Panch 
Mahals that Bhils would do no work if thev could get a subsistence wage without 
working was realized. In Khandesh many of the Bhils were employed on grass 
operations and in both districts the emaciation first observed was amongst immigrants 
from Native States. It does not r however, appear to the Governor in Council that 
there are sufficient grounds for attributing excess mortality in Kaira to a paucity of 
works. There were eight relief works open in that district in October, before which 
month few crops are ever reaped, that is more than the rate of one for each sub-division 
recommended by the Famine Commission of 1880, while the district is compact 
without any forest. There were 12 works open in February and 14 in March, when 
there was employment available for everybody within a short distance of his home. 
It could scarcely have been desirable to multiply the works to a greater extent unless 
an attempt were made to employ all in their villages, and it would not have been 
practicable to do so consistently with efficient supervision. 

XVI. — In Kaira especially and also in other districts there were able-bodied people 
who presistently refused to leave their homes for work. When it was found that 
gratuitous relief was given to save their lives, they were thereby encouraged to 
continue this practice. The fact was patent to all officers engaged in the administration 
of relief. There were thousands who deliberately remained in their villages till they 
were emaciated while there were works open within two or three miles. The stage of 
emaciation at which gratuitous relief becomes legitimate is not easj to determine, and 
if it is not permitted until there is manifest physical deterioration, there must be an 
increase of mortality amongst people with the proclivities of some classes in Gujarat. 
Doubtless the village officers and Circle Inspectors in the earlier stages of the famine 
not infrequently failed to carry out the orders that immediate relief should be given 
to all persons in obvious danger of death from starvation, but in the opinion of the 
Governor in Council no such material diminution of mortality as the Commissioners 
appear to belive would have resulted from such extention of gratuitous relief as would 
have been admissible under the provisions of the Code. 

XVII. — The statement in the last sentence of paragraph 226 of the report quoted 

in the margin does not accurately express the opinion 

226. The Famine Commission of of this Government, which was explained in the letter 

1898 agreed with the Commission of to the Government of India, No. 8'.*9-Fam., dated 

2^i*££E!Zh3Z 22nd December 18:»9 The Governor in Council con- 

weavers are the most numerous, 8lder 8 it expedient to give relief by employment m 

through their own trades, one of their own craft to such weavers as are physically 

their reasons being that it is import- incapable of earning a sufficient livelihood on the 

^pka^Sr^u\™e f ptnd J enth?°oi ordinar y relief work8 » including such as are not 
agrionlture. T&ey were also, of susceptible to the ordinary labour test without risk of 
opinion that a carefully managed, imparing or injuriously affecting manual skill or deli- 
business-Uke scheme is not open to cacy of touch necessary for the successful production of 
Kst tols^lWof^rf^d^at fr 16010 *- Weavers of this class are for the most part 
itwould probably not result in a found in Municipal towns', and it is important that for 
greater loss to Government than that the efficient supervision of this form of relief the 
caused by employing the weavers on Municipal Councillors should be associated with the 
the .ordmary relief works. This officers of Government. The Municipalities are offer- 
opinion is more than oonflrmed by , , * . » A. j 
experience, and is now, we believe, 6(1 loans on favourable terms for the purpose and 
accepted in every province except Government undertake to bear half of any loss which 
Bombay. may be incurred. Relief has been given in this 
, manner on a considerable scale to weavers. Collectors 
are also authorised to give special relief in places other than Municipal towns to such 
as under a fair construction of Section 151 of the Bombay Famine Relief Code are 
entitled to it. . . . 

" 7. For the reason stated in paragraph 6 of this letter, the Government of Bombay 
feel it incumbent on them to submit. the above explanations to the Government of 
India, as they consider that the opinions expressed by the Commissioners are 
to some extent founded on incomplete knowledge of faots. They do not, however, 

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desire to enter upon any discussion in connection with any of these points unless 
farther explanations of any of them should be required by the Government of India. 

"8. By far the larger part of Part II. of the report consists of suggestions 
for dealing with future famines. It would not be possible to discuss aU these 
proposals in detail within the limits of this letter ; but I am to repeat that this 
Government realize that many of them are likely to prove of great valuo in future, 
and that the Governor in Council will be prepared to consider with care and endeavour 
to carry into effect such reforms as the circumstances of the Presidency may require. 

" 9. Paragraphs 236 to 287 of the report deal with the question of suspensions and 
remissions of land revenue. As the Government of India are awarw, this question has 
been debated over and over again by this Government and themselves ; and the 
Governor in Council considers it unnecessary to repeat arguments that have already 
been adduced and considered. I am, however, to communicate the following remarks 
on a few points which call for notice. 

I. — The Commission in paragraph 266, though without giving the data on which 
it is formed, express the view that the assessment in the Deccan Districts is a full 
assessment for tracts where the soil is sterile and the climate precarious, and in 
paragraphs 268 is recorded the conclusion of the majority of the Commissioners that 
it is full in the Presidency generally. As the Government of India apparently accept 
the estimate referred to in paragraph 265 that in the Deccan the revenue absorbs 
about 7 per cent, of the gross produce, they presumably do not endorse that conclusion, 
which is not reconcilable with the very high value which the Registration" records 
show that land ordinarily bears, with the fact that cultivation has extended in a 
materially greater proportion than the increase of population, and with the ease with 
which practically the whole demand is generally realized. As regards, however, the 
reference to the precarious climate, and the statement in paragraph 266 that whether 
the assessment be moderate or full it cannot be collected in short years without 
forcing the rayats into debt, it is to be observed that this Government's intention from 
the first has been that the rates should be such as could be paid in all but abnormal 
seasons. The Governor in Council is quite prepared to extend to the cultivators 
of this Presidency the benefit of any concessions which the Government of India 
may be willing to grant and will, if so desired, introduce such a system of 
varying the demand on account of crop failure as is recommended by the Commission, 
but he considers it necessary to put on record that the reason assigned for the applica- 
tion of the recommendation to this Presidency is inconsistent with d cardinal 
principle* which has hitherto always been kept in view in determining the assessment 
and that a sacrifice of revenue will be entailed beyond what has already been allowed 
to secure fixity of demand. This Government cannot avoid expressing their appre- 
hension that interference with the custom of punctual payment which has become 
established is likely to result in difficulty in realizing what is determined to be fairly 
due and consequently in their being frequently compelled to take steps to secure 
payment which may be unpalatable to the people. The following comparison of the 
proportions of distraints (including forfeitures) to holdings in three years in this 
Presidency with those in the Rayatvari tracts of Madras in which the demand is 
varied on account of crop failure is instructive : 



Provinces. 



Number of 
holdings. 



Number of 

oompulsory 
processes such 

as distraints 
and forfeitures 

and sales of 
moveable and 

immoveable 
property. 

3 



Percentage 

of 

oolumn 8 
to 

oolumn 2. 



Bombay Presidency proper : 

1897- 1898 

1898- 1899 

1899- 1900 

Madras:— 

189V-1S98 

1898-1899 

'699-1900 



1,220,878 
1,226,110 
1,229,861 

3,412,231 
3,434,826 
3,469,449 



9,407 
6,004 
4,400 

339,262 
465,703 
423,851 



19 

•41 

•35 

9-23 
18-87 
12-26 



* In a letter No. 3899, dated 5th Ootober, 1847, the Government stated :— " All the Superintendents agree 
in opinion that as a system remissions ought not to be granted in (surveyed) districts, and in this opinion the 
Honourable the Governor in Council most fully concurs. One of the principal objects Government had in 
view when sanctioning the revision of assessment was the doing away with the necessity of making r"" " — 



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253 



II. — The view expressed by the Commission in the last sentence of paragraph 275 
..„„ T _ . . t of their report quoted in the margin is not 

of.^o^SoSS^ 8 ^; There haa b^en no interference with 

but the terms of the Famine Code give Collectors tne power Ot the Collector to postpone the 
ample powers of suspensions in the ease of ' an collection of an instalment or instalments 
abnormal failure of the harrestoanaine; total or pending inquiry. The instructions relate to 
almost total destruction of the crops over a con- t u fi a „t; on *J, k« tab-An after innnii>v vahioh 
siderable area,' and direct that such suspension f 116 . ac * 10n *? De , "^f 611 a " e ^ ^^y, wt " c ^ 
should be eventually followed by an inquiry includes not only immediate remission but 
into each oase as to the desirability of oolleotion in accordance with the' recommendation of 
or remission. It appears, however, that the the Famine Commission of 1880 suspension 
^r^Zy 0 \^^l%Z^ in the expectation of an early return of 
Collectors by the terms of the Code." prosperity till the Government by a special 

order direct the collection of the arrears or 
if the circumstances are unfavourable their final remission. 

III. — This Government will, of course, loyally accept the view which may finally 
commend itself to the Government of India in the matter of general suspensions and 
remissions adapted to the harvest conditions of whole villages or tracts without 
regard to the position or means of individual cultivators or landholders. But they 
desire respectfully to point out the result of adopting the recommendation of the 
Commission in such cases as those of Bijapur in 1896-97, and of the portion of Gujarat 
north of the Nerbudda, of Khandesh and the greater part of the Deccan in 1899-1900. 
There was no crop whatever in these places in the years specified except under wells 
and in a few spots on the bunks of rivers, while in the latter year in order to 
encourago the cultivation of fodder crops it was announced that they would not be 
held liable to attachment for the revenue. If, therefore, the recommendation had 
been applied, it would have been necessary at least to suspend the collection of the 
whole of the revenue. Nothing short of this absolute measure would have sufficed to 
secure uniformity. The poorer cultivators could have no more paid a proportion- 
even a small proportion— of their dues than they could have paid the whole. Whether 
or not the whole is remitted in such circumstances, it will be necessary to sacrifice a 
large part of what could otherwise be recovered without hardship. If the well-to-do 
are not required to pay their assessment in the year in which it is due, it will not be 
readily recovered in a subsequent year, when it becomes an additional burden to 
them. 

IV. — With reference to the remark in paragraph 242 of the report quoted in the 

margin, the evidence on which the conclusion 
"We feel bound to record our opinion that has been anived at has not been stated, but 
much misunderstanding and much harassment the view is expressed in paragraph 241 that 
and loss to the people would have been avoided, the local officers felt themselves restrained 
had the Local Government fixed definitely at b th l| m it which in October, 1899, the 
an earlier date what the limit of suspension Ji J " . , ui-wud>, hwj, uuo 

was actually to be, and had fixed that limit Government assigned to the estimates of 
on a liberal consideration of the existing suspensions. But it was distinctly pointed 
pressure." oa t before the time for recovering any 

revenue had arrived that what was necessary 
was to apply the orders properly and the result would show which estimate was the 
more accurate. The orders referred to were briefly that even notices were not to be 
issued to any persons except those who were considered well-to-do unless they had 
reaped at least a 4-anna crop. It was also directed that no order of distraint (including 
forfeiture) should be issued by an officer of lower rank than an Assistant or Deputy 
Collector, and any person to whom a notice was issued was to be allowed to show cause 
why the revenue should not be recovered from him. There was thus no justification 
for local officers causing loss or harassment to the people. In 1896-97 it was 
estimated that there would be recovered in Bijapur 60 per cent, of the revenue ; there 
was actually paid with practically no pressure 80 per cent. The Government of the 
time estimated that the province of Gujarat, then reputed especially wealthy, would 
be able to pay as large a proportion of revenue as Bijapur did in 1896-97. The 
Governor in Council admits that events have not justified that estimate. But neither 
have they justified the estimate of the local officers. If either had been made the 
basis of a limit of suspension the result would have been much hardship. Under the 
system which was followed nobody was materially affected by the incorrect estimate, 
for it was made known throughout the Presidency that Government did not wish the 

■are in years of unusual scarcity. • • * Indeed the assessment should be so moderate as to enable the 
cultivators to accumulate funds sufficient to pay the assessment in years of more than average failure." 

Captain (afterwards Sir George) Wingate in a letter No. 176, dated 14th November, 1846, recorded the 
opinion that unless for some cogent reason every unrealized balance of the survey assessment due at the end of 
July in each year should be written off as a remission, and this view appears to have been aooepted by the 
Government. The levy in good years of revenue held over from short years was thus not contemplated. 

The manner iu which allowance is made for preoariousness of olimate is explained in paragraph 88 of the 
Resolution of Government, No. 2619, dated 26th March, 1884, containing an exposition of the policy of Govern- 
ment in regard to the assessment : — " No consideration is more potent in the adjustment of rates than the 
security or insecurity of the crops in the area under settlement. A. taluka is often divided into five or six 
groups for no other reason than the comparative oertaJnty of the rainfall. Thus allowance is made in the 
assessments for the fluctuations in agricultural returns caused by variations of season by what may be called a 
Standing remission co-extensive with the settlement in favour of the less fortunate tracts. The prinoiple 
certainly is that the assessments thus carefully adj usted to the average production should be punctually paid." 

This praotioe is in accordance with what is said in paragraph 167 of the report of the Famine Commission 
of 1880, to be the generally aooepted theory that " where settlements are made for a long, period of years an 
average moderate demand should be fixed whioh should not vary with the ordinary fluctuations of the seasons 
but can and should be paid in good and bad years alike." 

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assessment to be exacted from anybody who had not the means to pay it. As already 
pointed oat, if no account is to be taken of the circumstances of individuals, no limit 
of suspension at all should have been fixed for the greater part of Gujarat and other 
parts of the Presidency ; no revenue at all should have been collected, as none can be 
recovered from the poorer occupants when the failure of crops is complete. The 
Bombay Government are prepared with the concurrence of the Government of India 
to prescribe this course for the future, bat they could scarcely have been expected in 
the light of previous experience to have prescribed it of their own accord. 

V.— The remarks in paragraph 253 of the report which are quoted in the margin 

can apparently be applicable only to advances 
made for subsistence, which up to the end 
of August aggregated only Rs. 4,12,116. 
Advances for seed and cattle were withheld 
until the approach of the monsoon for the 
special purpose of avoiding misappropriation. 
Large amounts were needed for cattle in 
Gujarat and it was clearly not desirable to 
bring cattle into the province until there was 
a prospect of grass being available. A con- 
siderable number which were imported pre- 
maturely were lost as the rain held off until 
the end of July, and on that account and 
also because in some places seed was sown 
without result, advances had to be increased 
It is, of course, also possible that some of 
these advances were really devoted to sub- 
sistence, although they were made after 
careful -inquiry, but it is not clear how such misappropriation could have been 
prevented by any change in the system of relief. 

" 10. The Governor in Council does not think it necessary on the present occasion to 
offer any detailed remarks on the question of the establishment of Agricultural Banks in 
this Presidency as the general question of their establishment is now under the considera- 
tion of the Government of India ; he fully agrees, however, that if they can be successfully 
established and maintained they may be of great vaiue to the cultivator. I am to add that 
the Governor in Council has been much impressed by the very clear and concise suggestions 
as to the working of these Banks embodied in the Famine Commission Report and will 
be glad to take the matter up in due course. 

"11. The remarks about advances by Government in Section V. of Part III. of the 
report shall receive the careful consideration of this Government. 

" 12. The question of indebtedness in the Bombay Presidency dealt with in Section 
VI. of the report is one of such magnitude as to require separate communication with the 
Government of India. In the meantime, as was pointed out to the Commissioners at the 
conference with them last January in Bombay, steps are being taken by this Government 
to establish a record of proprietary rights in land in the Presidency — as indeed has been 
recognized by the Government of India in paragraph 5 of their latter No. 1518 of 
9th July, 1901." 



"The advance* made under the Land Im- 
provement Loans Acts, 24 lakhs from November 
to the end of Hay, appear to have been timely. 
But of 82} lakhs issued under the Agriculturists' 
Loans Act, 49} lakhs were distributed after the 
end of June, and 30 lakhs after July. We bare 
already noticed the character of *he rains polioy 
in Bombay, and we think that had relief opera- 
tions in this Presidency been oonducted from 
the outset on the lines we have indicated, it 
might not hare been either necessary or desir- 
able to make such very heavy advances after 
June. We do not say that in the actual cir- 
cumstances of these later months the advanoas 
ought not to have been made, but the impres- 
sion left upon our minds is that a large portion 
of them cannot be recovered, and that they 
were to a large extent gratuitous relief in 
another form." 



Statement referred to in paragraph 6, clause XIV. of the letter to the Government of India, 

No. 2159, dated 3rd October, 1901. 



Percentage ol person* relieved gratuitously in villages to the population of the affected area. 



District. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February- 


March. 


April. 




187d 


1886. 


IBM. 


1876. 


1886. 


1898. 


1876. 


1888. 


1888. 


1877. 


1887. 


1900. 


1877. 


1887. 


1900. 


1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


1877. 


1897. 


I960. 


Ahmedabad 






0*01 






0-03 






0*28 






O'SS 






053 






0'44 






0-32 


Kaira.. 






0*03 






0-83 






0*17 






0*16 






0-32 






0-73 






1*20 


Panoh Mahals 


















0*01 






0-02 






0*06 






0-13 






0*22 


Broach - 






0*13 






0-40 






0-67 






0-80 






0*87 






1-01 






1*49 


Surat.. 










































0*34 


Thana 




































o-os 






0-46 


Khaaflesb .. 
























0-23 






0-61 


0-02 




0-93 


003 




0*70 


Nasi*.. 












0*01 






0-02 


0*01 


0*00 


0*04 


0*01 


0*01 


0'08 


O'OO 


0*17 


0'16 


0*00 


0*02 


0*31 


Ahmednagar 












0*01 






0*06 


0*14 


8*00 


0*88 


0'1S 


o-u 


1-34 


0'16 


0*36 


2'35 


0*26 


0-49 


1*84 


Poona.. 
















o-io 


0*08 


0'ES 


0-23 


0*86 


0*06 


0*26 


0*71 


0-72 


0*46 


1*19 


l'se 


0-63 


1*31 


Sholapur . .. 






0*02 






o-u 




6' 16 


0-47 


0-14 


0-87 


1-07 


0*19 


080 


161 


o-u 


083 


1'49 


0-31 


0/99 


1*69 


Satara 
















o-oo 






O'OO 




O'OO 


o-oo 




0*04 


000 


0*03 


014 


6*00 

y 

1'16 


0*07 


BIJapur 
















003 




0*03 


0*46 




0'«2 


0*82 


0-09 


0*06 


1*08 


033 


0*13 


0*« 


Belgaum , 
















000 




0-07 


0*05 




0*08 


0'12 




0-19 


0*16 


001 


0*69 


9-16 


0*04 


Thar and Par- 
kar. 






0*32 






0'C2 






TOO 






1*28 






0-75 






008 




(.'— 


6*07 



Digitized by 



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"BOMBAY PBBSIDENCT. 



255 



Statement referred to in paragraph 6, clause XIV., of the letter to the Government of Inkia, 
No. 2159, dated 3rd October, 1901— continued. 



Percentage of person* relieved gratuitously In vfllages to the population ot the affected area. 



• 

District 


May. 


June; 


July. 


August. 


September. 


1 

October. 

i 


November. 




1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


1877.. 


1897. 


1900. 

r 


1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


1877. 


1807. 


1900. 


1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


1877. 


1897. 


1900. 


AhmtViftnim 






0*78 






3*80 






6*26 






8*88 






10*14 






3*08 






1*44 


Vat** 






1*70 






2'87 






7*66 






12*76 






9*81 






7*13 




1*02 




- 


- 


1*18 


- 


- 


7-18 


- 


- 


11-37 


- 


- 


2276 


- 


- 


23*98 


- 


- 


9*10 






4*42 


Broub 






1*81 






3'83 






14*87 






20*89 






17*44 






16*49 






9*74 


Snxat.. 






0*66 






298 






6*72 






6*61 






2*80 






1*47 






0*03 


Thaoft 






0*80 






1-16 






2-06 






2-26 






378 






1*49 






086 


ffhanrtmh .. 


o-oi 




088 


o-oo 




0-72 






1*14 


0'03 


0*00 


199 


0*08 


0*04 


376 


0*06 


001 


3*23 


... 


_ 


0*78 


Nad*.. 


0*01 


0*04 


0-22 


0'04 


o-io 


0-37 


0-02 


0'18 


0*84 


0*04 


0*16 


1*04 


0*07 


0*10 


1*19 


0*08 


0*04 


0*81 






0-27 


Ahmednagar 


0*68 


0*61 


2*57 


0-82 


0-78 


2-94 


0-47 


1-32 


3*08 


0-44 


1*83 


2*88 


0-61 


2*44 


2*81 


0*87 


1*68 


2-69 






1*93 


Foona 


3*36 


O'BO 


1*47 


4'00 


0-86 


1-75 


3*91 


1*06 


2-47 


6*81 


1*38 


3*04 


7*69 


2*26 


3*32 


2*58 


2*23 


2*56 




043 


1*31 


Sholapur .. 


0*90 


1*12 


1-79 


2-34 


1*09 


1*99 


1-46 


1*32 


2-36 


1*29 


1-83 


2*60 


2*46 


2*08 


2-38 


1*98 


1*66 


1-88 




0'44 


1-77 


Satan 


0*38 


o-oi 


0*22 


0-82 


0-03 


0-38 


0-66 


O'll 


041 


1*16 


0'26 


1*36 


2*24 


0*41 


1-48 


1*64 


0*27 


0*96 




001 


0*43 


BUapur 


0-36 


1*26 


0-98 


1-81 


1-42 


1-13 


1-67 


1*64 


1*35 


1-62 


1-69 


072 


2*30 


1*87 


0*48 


1*83 


1*44 


041 




000 


0*37 


Belgtuun 


1*61 


0'lt 


0*08 


1-69 


019 


o-n 


109 


0-22 


0*21 


177 


0*24 


0*23 


2*75 


0*30 


028 


1*89 


0*19 


0*31 




0*04 


0-08 


Thar »nd Par- 
ks*. 






0-08 






0'25 






0*48 






0*42 






0*31 






0*01 




0*01 





Nora.— The figure* of 1876-77 are inclusive of the numbers relieved gratuitously in poor-houses, as It is not possible to show the figures for 
vfllage gratuitous relief separately. 

Letter from the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of" Revenue 
and Agriculture (Famine) to the Chief Secretary to the Government of 
. Bombay, No. 3885-43-51, dated 31st October, 1901.:—,. 

" I am directed to acknowledge recept of your letter No'. 2l5'J of 3rd October, 1901, 
making certain representations in regard to the Report of the Famine Commission, 
and am to state that the Governor-General in Council, while sharing the desire of the 
Bombay liovernment not to enter into any discussion of the points raised in 
paragraph 6, sees no objection to the publication of the letter in the local gazette. 

" 2. A further communication will be addressed to you in regard to the question 
of suspension and remission of land revenue and other questions of future policy 
which have been discussed by the Famine Commission." 



AGRICULTURAL PROSPECTS AND FAMINE RELIEF. 

FORECASTS FOR 1902. 

No. 82. 

Letter from H. S. Lawrence, Esq., Acting Secretary to the Government of 
Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Revenue 
and Agriculture (Famine), No. 133, dated Bombay Castle, the 17th 
January 1902. 

I am directed to submit for the information of the Government of India the 
following report regarding the agricultural prospects and the extent of relief 
likely to be needed in the several districts in the current year. 

2. It is now quite certain that there will be more or less pronounced 
scarcity for another season over the greater part of Gujarat and in parts of the 
' Deccan and Karnatak, as well as in the desert portion of the Thar and Parkar 
District in Sind. The following statement shows the rainfall of the season of 



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256 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



1901 as compared with the normal at the head-quarters and other selected 
stations of each of the districts of Gujarat, Deccan and Earnatak : — 



DUtrlot 


Station. 


Tone. 


July. 


Aog-urt. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


§ 


190L 


1 

l | 


S 


Normal. 


-I 

S 

i— « 


Normal. 


1901. 


E 
1 


*I061 


3 

a 

*tu 

£ 


-J 
S 




C Ahmedabad 


524 


1-30 


12*67 


8-92 


8*44 


8*11 


4*61 


0-22 


0*80 


0*08 


063 





Ahmedabad . . 


< Dhandhuka 


4-77 


— 


10*42 


9-49 


6-62 


8*95 


4*45 


1*30 


1*06 


0*76 


0*43 


_ 






4-91 


o-n 


13*76 


S'69 


7*03 


6*26 


4*60 


0*12 


0*19 




0*82 


- 




rE&ira .. 


S'56 


009 


16-16 


8*23 


9*31 


9-13 


4-69 


0-02 


0*66 


0-26 


0*71 




Kaira .. .. 


< Matar 


5-23 


0-38 


14*28 


6-36 


10-12 


6-01 


• §-05 


0*10 


0*48 


— 


0*67 


— 






6-37 


3-37 


13*72 


7*17 


9*30 


10*18 


5*43 


0*39 


0*70 


— 


038 


- 




fQodhra .. 


6-82 


3*69 


14*79 


8'48 


1T86 


U'46 


6'54 


116 


081 


0*04 


088 





Pinch Mahals 


i Halol 


672 


2*38 


16*36 


11-26 


11*74 


11*72 


6*96 


0*96 


1*64 


0*63 


028 


0*06 




I Jhalod 


6-87 


1-96 


10*20 


1T41 


8*72 


6*19 


612 


0*38 


0*82 


0-27 


0-60 


- 




fBroach 


9-89 


- 


17*72 


16-88 


8*17 


4*67 


6-29 


0*24 


1*44 


0*87 


0*26 





Broach 


<Vagra 


7*38 


0-26 


13*81 


11-04 


6-21 


8'99 


4"71 


096 


1*32 


1*96 


0-24 


— 




V, J (km U Uocfci ■ ■ • ■ 


7*18 


0-17 


13*87 


17-74 


7*09 


3*43 


4*37 


0*13 


1*17 


3*14 


0*39 


- 




rSnrat 


9'68 


0-21 


21*04 


12-27 


7*17 


3-46 


6*78 


0*36 


1-99 


0*44 


0*30 





Swat .. 


^Olpad 


7-46 


0'98 


18*21 


U-76 


6*78 


2*30 


4-68 


0*47 


1-46 


1*86 


0*18 


— 




\auuiu(i • • • ■ 


9*n 


1'98 


2422 


17*33 


10*96 


8*19 


6-46 


2-00 


I'M 


1*74 


0*64 


- 




rDholia .. 


6-30 


6*22 


6-77 


4*32 


3'85 


8-14 


6-19 


1*02 


1*24 


8*69 


1*02 





KhUld6Bh 


< Taloda .. 


7 - 09 


8*68 


irso 


8-09 


6*79 


8-60 


4*66 


0*46 


1*19 


8*77 


0-33 


— 






8-09 


2-47 


8*46 


9*27 


6*79 


4-39 


478 


0'48 


1*16 


3*12 


0*31 


- 




rNarik .. .. 


6*15 


2'84 


8*74 


4-78 


418 


6*23 


6*04 


2*62 


817 


0*80 


0-68 





Naaflc .. .. 


J„ . 

< Malegaon .. 


4*36 


8*38 


4*49 


2'33 


3*22 


1*91 


686 


1-18 


1-68 


3'30 


0*61 


— 




iYeola 


4-29 


3*91 


6*19 


2*04 


2-85 


8*17 


7*60 


2-25 


2-17 


282 


1-23 


0-02 




(Nagar 


4-81 


7*84 


2*87 


122 


2*87 


1*46 


6-87 


2-32 


8*60 


vn 


1*23 





Ahmednaear 


< Shrlgonda.. 


s-io 


3'48 


2'09 


126 


1*63 


0*89 


7-a 


247 


3*01 


3*05 


1-24 


017 




V A o iMbry HUH 


4-07 


244 


3-66 


1*17 


2-39 


2*76 


6*99 


402 


1-82 


8*87 


1-28 


- 




(Poona 


8-23 


402 


8*98 


8'32 


8-96 


6*13 


6-88 


3-78 


6*06 


2*78 


1*47 





Poona.. 


< Ghodnadi (SJrar) 


4-24 


2-78 


2-48 


1*66 


1*61 


1*46 


8*10 


1*64 


3*66 


3*78 


1*30 


116 




[ TiVtnnrf 


6*38 


144 


3-16 


2*68 


1*78 


2-29 


882 


3*75 


3*46 


2*66 


0*94 


1*18 




C Sholapor .. 


8*77 


7 - 81 


3'88 


5*38 


4*68 


4-06 


8'28 


2*83 


4*03 


0*74 


1*66 


O'OS 


Sholapor 


<Earmala .. 


3-38 


2*50 


2*91 


2*39 


2*96 


2-28 


9-46 


6*17 


3*62 


1*70 


1*17 


0-69 




i Ann cm la. 


8*38 


1-28 


1*61 


1-88 


8*72 


0*87 


7*00 


610 


4*00 


1*92 


1*06 


0«8 




I' Batara 


7'69 


2-87 


14*88 


11*26 


7-83 


9'77 


4-15 


5-26 


5*60 


3*28 


0*94 


0*19 


Batara.. 


< Khandala . . 


4-04 


266 


4-07 


6*33 


2-37 


464 


4-34 


4'49 


4*87 


3'68 


0'94 


0*17 




[Dahlvadl (Man).. 


8-86 


2-41 


2*64 


2'48 


1-76 


182 


6-06 


637 


5*41 


2*61 


1*49 






rBijapur .. 


4*00 


7-07 


2*17 


0-92 


2-54 


0-67 


7-38 


516 


4*48 


2*84 


1*60 


0*98 


BUapnr 


I Indl 


3-72 


2-61 


8*72 


8-86 


4*06 


1*61 


7*76 


837 


6*27 


5'89 


1*16 


0*12 




Utadgt 


4*18 


1*68 


381 


6*38 


4*83 


0*46 


7*21 


8-12 


4*19 


1*60 


2-08 


0*92 




fBelgaum 


8-87 


9*60 


16*42 


11-81 


8*73 


9*40 


4*78 


9*88 


•'61 


6*83 


1*76. 


0*88 


Belganm 


< Athni 


2*87 


0*96 


2*81 


1-68 


2*87 


1*19 


6*84 


6*29 


4*70 


2*18 


1*26 


0*66 




lookak .. .. 


3-90 


1'60 


8*76 


0*96 


2 » 


1*07 


462 


4*»7 


6*84 


8*18 


1-26 


0*10 



The character of the season is briefly described below : 

Gujarat. 

Except in the southern coast talukas of Surat there was practically no 
rain till the 25th June. Between that date and the end of July rain fell in all 
districts, but it was irregularly distributed, being abundant in the south, 
moderate in the north-east and deficient in the north-west. Kharif sowings 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



25T 



were nearly completed by the end of the month. The young crops were then in 
a promising condition although slight damage had been caused in all districts by 
rats and caterpillars. The rainfall of August was short of the average in Surat, 
Broach, the western parts of Kaira and the Jhalod Petha of the Panch Mahals 
and was up to or above the average elsewhere. ' The rains so far were sufficient 
for all crops except rice, but rats and insects continued their depredations. In 
September the total fall was far short of the average, not reaching even an inch 
in many places, and it was received generally in very light and scattered showers 
mostly between the 1st and 13th. In October, November and December, there 
was no useful rain except in Surat and parts of Broach, where the situation was 
much improved by the good falls which were received after the middle of October. 
Elsewhere owing to the almost total failure of the late rains the rice crop over 
large areas has been entirely lost, the outturn of other kharif crops except such 
as were sown early in the season has been very poor, and there has been no rabi 
sowing except on irrigated lands. The damage caused by rats, locusts or other 
insects has also seriously affected the outturn in all the districts. Owing to 
deficient rainfall for the last three years in succession the water level in wells 
and tanks -has become very low, and serious difficulties regarding supply of 
water for man and beast are apprehended. 

Deccan and Kabnatak. 

The monsoon commenced in the second week of June. The rainfall in that 
month was generally sufficient for sowing in the western hilly tracts, but 
deficient in the eastern plain country. In J uly and August the rainfall was 
sufficient and seasonable throughout Khandesh and in the western hilly tracts 
of Nasik, Poona, Satara, Belgauui and Dharwar, while elsewhere it was not up 
to requirements except in a few places. In the former area kharif sowing was 
everywhere completed and the standing crops were in good condition. In the 
eastern tracts on the other hand part of the area usually devoted to kharif 
cultivation remained unsown, and standing crops began to wither in some places. 
In parts of Khandesh, Nasik and Ahmednagar some damage was also caused by 
rats and locusts or other insects. In September while Ahmednagar, Sholapur 
and the eastern talukas of Poona and Satara received some useful rain, which 
helped to revive the withering crops, the fall was generally insufficient in 
Khandesh, Nasik and the western hilly tracts of Poona and Satara, where standing 
crops began to suffer at the end of the month and rabi sowing was retarded. In 
the Karnatak the rainfall of September was sufficient and beneficial to standing 
crops and gave a good start to rabi sowing. In October there was most useful 
rain for late sown kharif crops and for rabi sowing throughout the Deccan and 
Karnatak and it more than made up for the deficiency of the preceding month 
in the Northern Deccan Districts. Locusts however appeared in parts of Poona, 
Satara, Bijapur and Belgaum and caused slight injury to crops. During the 
first week of November some useful showers fell in the whole of Karnatak and 
in the Southern Deccan, but there has been no rain since in any district. 
Standing rabi crops have consequently suffered seriously in all districts and their 
outturn generally is not expected to be satisfactory. 

3. In a report of 11th December, 1901, the Collector of Ahmedabad 
observed : — 

" The prospects of the crops now on the ground are very gloomy. 

« Cotton pods are torn to pieces by rats as soon as they ripen ; and the ' til ' crops 
in the Bhal, which might have produced some outturn even after the locust invasion, 
are being reaped wholesale by the rats, which gnaw the thick stalk through at the base 
and eat the green pods when the plant has fallen. They are also injuring the young 
wheat and will probably cause very heavy damage as soon as the ears begin to form and 
ripen. Nevertheless the people refuse to protect themselves by attempting to destroy 
the rats ; and it is only in Modasa that good progress has been made in this direction 
under the superintendence of Mr. Alcock. The Bhils and wild Kolis of that Mahal are 
not restrained by religious scruples from earning the Government reward." 

Details of the losses caused by locusts were thus described in a letter from 
the Collector of that district dated 6th December 1901 : — 

" In the Daskroi charge the main damage was done in the Daskroi Taluka where 
about 22 villages round about Ahmedabad and in the tract of country to the north were 
completely stripped of their standing crops, the damage varying from 12 to 16 annas in 



Digitized by 



258 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



the rupee. Many other villages were damaged, but their losses were not. bo heavy, 
varying from 3 to 8 annas. ° 

" The Assistant Collector Mr. Alcock reports as follows : — 

"'I find the serious damage to have been restricted to the villages of Daskroi 
beyond the river (i.e., north-west), and those few between the river and the Parantij 
Railway. Parantij Easba and Ambavada Mahadavpura of this taluka have been 
injured ; the injury is confined to less than 25 per cent, of the bajri and Eamalpuri 
jowari which form the chief crop sown in Parantij Modasa, and which were saved 
almost completely and in almost every case in other villages of this taluka and mahal. 

"'For Daskroi I found that the greatest damage had been done near the City 
(to the north), and in Hansol, Naroda and also on a line through Ranip and Vadaj to 
the north-west direction. Khoraj, Khodiar were very badly hit, Dan tali (slightly off 
the line) rather less so. Gota, Chenpur, Jagatpur, &c, being mostly rice and (later) 
jowari villages had suffered so much from drought that there was little harm left for 
locusts to do. Adalaj similarly is a badly off village ; Jamiatpur, Dwarsad, and 
Tarapur on either side of the line have rather escaped. 

" ' Chandkheda on the north and Lilapur, Labkaman, Usmanbad, &c, on the south 
of the direct line of destruction are less badly hit, but cannot have saved more than 
30 per cent, or 40 per cent, of their best earlier bajri. 

" ' It is to be noticed that castor oil does not seem to have been affected to the same 
extent as in Sanand, where it seems to have been young and tender. In Bhadaj, Sola, 
Thaltej the castor oil has been damaged in varying degrees, though I believe these 
villages to have saved 25 per cent, to 35 per cent, of their bajri and to have jowari still 
in the ear worth 10 per cent., and also to have got some good tobacco. For unparalleled 
destruction I think the Hansol-Naroda stretch of jowari fields to be the worst though 
the fields near the city and those just across the river are almost as bad. 

"'As to Parantij I have observed the taluka from the entire length of the railway 
and from the Harsol Road which take in the larger part of the important tracts, and 
the Aval Karkun, Mr. Hussein, has just returned from a tour in which he has seen 
half the affected villages of the taluka. The report is encouraging ; in three villages 
only is the damage considerable. Bajri and " Kamalpuri " jowari have been grown 
everywhere and were safely reaped almost in every village and secured in threshing 
floors or in stacks from damage.' 

" In the Sanand Taluka the principal damage was done on the east and the west ; 
the central portion is the rice-growing tract and as the rice was already a failure the 
locusts could not make matters much worse. 

" The bajri crop in this taluka fared better than in Daskroi and the damage to 
the standing crops nowhere exceeded 8 annas and averaged about 5. On the other 
hand, the jowari and banti crops were completely destroyed and castor oil suffered 
heavily, the damage being estimated at 10 annas. The pulses had already withered 
from want of rain. The damage done to cotton was estimated at 8 annas, but though 
fresh leaves sprouted after the departure of the locusts, it is feared that there will not 
be any appreciable outturn. 

" In the Dholka and Yiramgam Talukas the arrangements made for promptly 
ascertaining the damage were not so good as in the talukas which I have already 
described, and my information is less complete and reliable. 

" The principal kharif cereals grown in the Yiramgam Taluka are bajri and jowari ; 
they had suffered severely from drought and grasshoppers before the locusts came, and 
it may be estimated roughly that perhaps 20 per cent, of such of these crops as had come 
to maturity were saved. 

" Cotton was also attacked ; plants which were completely stripped of their leaves '. 
put out fresh leaves in a few weeks and bear no apparent marks of damage. Bat the . 
effect has been to stunt and retard the plants, and it is doubtful if they will come to 
maturity. The outturn in any case will be but small. 

" In Dholka the extensive Bhal tract has escaped with comparatively little loss, for , 
the main crop here is wheat, which was hardly above ground when the loousts passed 
through. 

" But even in the Bhal many fields of young wheat were devoured and very heavy 
damage was done to the standing kharif crops of bajri, tal, bavto, banti, and fodder 
jowari. The damage was probably greater owing to the concentration of the locust 
swarms on a comparatively small area of standing crops. In the village of Sinaj, where 
I am now camped, out of a total cropped area of 250 acres of bajri the unreaped stalks 
and ears are still standing in no less than 100 acres ; the locusts have removed all that 
wan worth removing. 

" The same is true of the Western Nalkantha tract ; the only matured crop of 
which the people have been able to save a little, perhaps 2 to 4 annas, has been bajri. 

" Dhandhuka, according to my present information, appears to have suffered but. 
slightly. Not more than 20 villages were attacked ; the cotton plants weienot seriously ' 
damaged and have since had the benefit of 75 cents, of rain. 

" Oogho was not attacked at all. 



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" From first to last the locusts did not stay in the district more than a week or ten 
days and a two days' camp in any one village sufficed to cause wholesale loss of crops. 
There was no time to infect them with the ' locust fungus,' though an attempt was 
made to do this, and no other measures of protection were found to be of any use." 

In Kaira the collector estimates the outturn of kharif bajri, the principal 
crop at 6 to 3 annas in Matar, 10 to 3 annas in Mehmadabad, 12 annas in 
Nadiad, 8 to 10 annas in Borsad and Thasra, and 4 to 8 annas in Kapadvanj. 
Jowari is estimated to yield 8 to 2 annas in Mehmadabad ; bavto only 2 annas in 
Mehmadabad and 4 annas in Nadiad, Anand and Borsad ; kodra 2 annas in 
Mehmadabad, 4 annas in Nadiad, 6 annas in Borsad and 8 annas in Anand. 
Til was a good crop in Borsad, but tur is estimated at 3 annas only. In 
Kapadvanj castor seed and til are expected to yield 2 to 4 annas. In the 
Panch Mahals early sown maize and bajri turned out well, averaging 10 to 
12 annas in the west of the district, but the late sown crops there were 
estimated to yield only 2 to 6 annas, the average being nearer the former. In 
Dohad the estimated average outturn was from 3 to a annas only, and in 
Jhalod 6 to 8 annas. The above estimate was submitted by the Collector on 
the 16th October, 1901, but in a later report of 29th November, 1901, he 
states that the outturn had been worse than expected owing to the damage 
done by rats In all the three districts, Ahmedabad, Kairu and the Panch 
Mahals, there will be no rabi crop except on irrigated areas, but the Collector 
of the Panch Mahals states that well cultivation is also greatly discouraged by 
the continued damage caused by rats. On the 4th November, 1901, the 
Collector of Broach reported that cotton appeared to be excellent, and that 
other standing crops generally were not altogether a failure. Later (on the 
21st idem) he reported that the rabi crops — cotton, jowari and tal, which are 
the main crops — were good, that those of Broach Taluka were about L4 annas, 
and that probably the average elsewhere was not below 12 annas. Rats t 
however, had eaten away 2 or 3 annas, and might do twice as much damage 
or more before the crops are reaped. He therefore estimates that the rabi crops- 
will not exceed 8 annas when harvested, and may be even less. In Surat the 
rice crop in Chorasi and Olpad has been almost a total failure. In Jalapor 
even irrigated rice is not expected to yield more than 8 annas. In Bardoli 
the early sown rice yielded something, but the rest completely withered. The 
outturn of rice is estimated to be 6 annas in Valod Mahal, 4 annas in Mandvi,. 
and 10 annas to 14 annas in the Bulsar Sub-Division. Kharif jowari is 
estimated to yield about 6 annas in Chorasi, Olpad, Chikhli, and Bardoli, 
and slightly more in Jalalpor. In Mandvi it was injured by rats. Of the 
minor crops, bajri is estimated at 12 annas in Chorasi, and 4 to 6 annas in 
Olpad ; sugar-cane at 8 annas in the Chorasi Sub- Division, and 10 annas in 
the Bulsar Sub-Division ; banti, kodra, &c, &c, at not more than 4 annas. 
There is no hope of a rabi crop except on irrigated lands in the Bulsar 
Sub- Division. 



4. In the Deccan and Karnatak the season was on the whole less 
unfavourable than in Gujarat. In East Khandesh the kharif crop was fairly 
satisfactory, and the rabi also is expected to be fair. In West Khandesh a 
long break towards the end of the monsoon, and locusts and rats did consider- 
able damage to what was a promising kharif crop. Cotton yielded about 8 to 
10 annas, but it is sown on a very small area, kharif bajri and jowari, which 
are the main crops, have yielded only about 3 annas. Rabi crops, for which 
there was excellent rainfall, may turn out well or not, according as the rat pest 
is active. The cropped area is, however, too small for a good rabi harvest to 
make up for a bad kharif harvest. In the Nasik District the estimated outturn 
of kharif crops is 9 to 12 annas in Igatpuri, Peint, Nasik and Dindori ; 6 to 
9 annas in North Malegaon, Nandgaon, West Sinnar and the hilly parts of 
Kalvan, Baglan and Chandor ; and 4s[ annas in the plain country of the last 
mentioned talukas, in South-west Malegaon, Niphad, Yeola and East Sinnar. 
According to an estimate framed by the Collector of Ahmednagar early in 
October, 1901, the kharif outturn was 3 annas in Parner, Shrigonda and 
Sangamner ; 4 annas in Nagar, Karjat and Kopargaon ; 6 annas in Rahuri, 
8 annas in Jamkhed, 10 annas in Shevgaon and Nevasa, and 12 annas in Akola. 
According to a later estimate, however, the average for the whole district is 

10SM 2 L 



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4 annas only. The rabi crops promised well in the beginning, and would have 
yielded a bumper harvest had rain fallen in November. As little rain did fall 
in that month, the outturn will be poor. In Poona the kharif outturn is 
8 annas in the western talukas, and about 3 annas in the eastern talukas. The 
rabi outturn is estimated at 4 to 6 annas all round. In Sholapur the kharif 
dutturn averaged 6 annas in Madha, Sangola. Malsiras and Karmala ; 8 annas in 
Pandharpur, and 12 to 14 annas in Sholapur and Barsi. The rabi harvest is 
not expected to exceed 4 annas in the four talukas first mentioned, and the 
average for the whole district is estimated at 8 annas. In Bijapur the estimated 
kharif outturn is 2§ annas in Muddebihal, 3 to 4 annas in Sindgi, 6 annas in 
Indi, Bijapur and Badami, 1\ annas Bagevadi, and 8 annas in Hungund. In 1 
Bagalkot the crops "were in good condition," but no estimate of outturn has' 
been reported. In a later report, dated 7th December, 1901, the collector 
expressed the apprehension that these estimates might prove too high. As 1 
regards rabi crops the Commissioner, 8. D., states in a report of 20th November, 
1901, that they are certainly not satisfactory in the north of the district, but 
that they have been somewhat benefited by later showers. In Belgaum the 
kharif outturn in Gokak, Parasgad and Athni amounted to about 4 to 8 annas, 
and in the remainder of the district 12 annas or a little more. The rabi harvest 
is" not expected to be good in Gokak and Athni, owing to the deficiency of late 
rains and to damage caused by grasshoppers. In other talukas rabi harvest 
will be fair to good. In Chandgad Mahal it will be excellent. 

5. In Gujarat relief is at present being given in Ahmedabad, Kaira, the , 
Panch Mahals and Broach. Later in the year it may have to be given in parts 
of Surat also. As regards the Deccan, the Commissioner, Central Division, 
reports that the general result so far as can be seen at present is that there will 
certainly be no need for relief in Satara, and probably none for it in Poona and 
Nasik, but that some relief will be required in Khandesh, Ahmednagar and 
Sholapur. In the Earnatak relief will be needed in the northern parts of 
Bijapur, and in Athni and the northern part of Gokak in Belgaum. Jn 
Dharwar the only relief at present given is gratuitous dole to a few shetsandis., 
in Navalgund and Nargund. but it is stated that such relief will be necessary 
only till the end of January, 1902. Some relief will also be required in the 
desert talukas of Thar and Parkar in Sind, where owing to insufficiency of 
rain, the outturn is estimated to be — nil in Chachro, 4 anna in Mithi, ^ anna in 
Nagar, 3 annas in Diplo. The areas affected or likely to be affected in. the, 
Presidency are thus,: — 

Ahmedabad .... Greater part of the district. 

. Do. do. 
Whole district. - , ; 

Parts of a few talukas. 
Parts of Olp id and Mandvi Talukas. 
Parts of Taloda, Dhulia, Pimpalner and Nan- 
durbar Talukas in West Khandesh. • 
Ahmednagar. ... Whole district except Jainkhed, Shevgaon, 

Nevasa, and parts of Sangamner and Akola. 
Sholapur ... .... Madha, Karmala, Sangola and Malsiras Talukas, i 

and probably Pandharpur Taluka also. 
Bijapur ... ,.. Indi, Sindgi and Badami Talukas. i 
Belgaum ... .... Athni Taluka and northern part. of Gokak. 

Thar and Parkar . . . Desert talukas.. 

6. In Gujarat the general condition of the people is naturally worse than 
in the preceding year, and although the extent of relief likely to be required 
in the course of the season cannot at present be accurately estimated, still it is 
apprehended that the numbers on relief will largely exceed those relieved in 
1900-1901. In support of this view the following extracts from the reports of - 
the Collectors of Ahmedabad, Kaira- and the Panch Mahals are quoted : — 1 1 

Ahmedabad.- 

Letter No. F. — 3754, dated 23rd November, 1901 :— 

" The condition of the cultivators who have through this series of bad years been; 
incurring all the expenses of cultivation with little or no return is more serious; 



Kaira 
Panch Mahals 
Broach 
Surat 

Khandesh... 



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.BOM BAT TBESIDENCY. 



261 



and even the most prominent members of this class are very badly hit 

Immigration from Kathiawar and Mar-war will probably be greater in this season 
than in the last, and the supply of edible grass seeds is this year mnch smaller." 

Kaira. 

Letter No. Fam.—312, dated 9th December, 1901 :— 

" Even if the damage done to the crops by locusts and rats this year is left out of 
account, it must be borne in mind that there has not been anything like the same 
supply of -wild seeds, such as samo, manki, and khasli that there was last year." 

Panch Mahals. 

Letter No. 6954, dated 16th October, 1901 :— 

" In the Eastern Mahals rice has been everywhere a failure, while rabi crops are 
impossible. The latter makes the condition of the Eastern Mahals, where the Bhils 
depend much on their late sown crops, more unfavourable." 

Letter No. 7886. dated 29th November,. 1901 :— . 

" The damage done by rats, and the absence of samo, will, I consider, cause more 
people to come to the relief works than came last year." 

In the Deccan and Karnatak .also the areas affected in the current year 
have not had good harvests in any of the last five or six years excepting 
1898-99. 

7. The supply of fodder is generally sufficient, and no difficulty is anti- 
cipated in this respect. But the supply of water has already run short in parts 
of Gujarat, and there as well in the Deccan and Karnatak great scarcity of 
drinking water for man and beast over a wide area is apprehended. So early as 
12th October, 1901, the Collector of Ahmedabad reported that " water was 
everywhere low in tanks and wells." About the same time the Collector of 
Kaira reported as follows : — 

" Water-supply. — This is everywhere Bcanty. The tanks and rivers are everywhere 
dry or abnormally low except in Borsad, Mahudha, and parts of Anand. Irrigation 
by wells is also considerably restricted owing to the same cause. The supply of 
drinking water for cattle will be a difficulty in almost all the talukas except Borsad 
and Anand, but the supply for men will generally suffice except in parts of 
Kapadvanj. Steps are being taken to improve the supply wherever possible." 

8. The following report by the Superintendent Engineer, N. D., will 'show 
the extent to which the water level in Gujarat has been affected by the defeotive 
rainfall in the past three years : — 

Memorandum from the Superintending Engineer, N. D., No. 5432, dated 
30th September, 1901 :— 



"Undersigned has the honour to draw attention to the following figures regarding 
the water supply of 1901-1902 in Gujarat. Rainfall averages for Gujarat and a 
portion of Kathiawar taken out for the last 2G years show the following results : — 





1876 to 1866. 


1887 to 1888. 


1899 to 1901 
(up to date). 




Inches. 


Inohea. 


Inohea. 


Snrat 


44 06 


44-87 


23-44 


Brooch 


a 44-21 


43-16 


21-30 


Kaira 


87-13 


37-20 


16-17 •; 


Panoh Malialft ... ... ... ... 


43-24 


4096 


21-69 


Ahmedabad 


29-92 


32-58 


13-45 


Baroda 


40-58 


41-42 


20-23 


Sadra 


82-06 


8265 


18-28 


Palanpur 


34'68 


'28-99 


15-09 


Bajkot ... ... ... ... a ... 


29-68 


28-85 


19-68 


Wadhwan 


19-69 


20.76 


808 



10666 J L 2 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



and show that till 1899 the average rainfall was very even, indeed a comparison of 
the first two periods giving approximately the same figures, while the last period of 
three years shows an alarming decrease, the average being over 51*2 per cent, in 
defect, the figures for each year being — 





Year. 


Per oent. 






1889 


79-05 defeat. 






1900 


21-80 „ 






1901 


52-8 „ 






Average 


61-2 defect. 




cr a total loss compared with 23 previous years for the three years' period of — 






Inches of rain. 






8urat 


63-10 






Broaoh 


67-07 






Kaira 


65-97 






Panch Mahals 


61-08 






Ahmedabad 


58-57 






Baroda 


62-87 






Sadra 


65-94 






Palanpur 


49-70 






Rajkot 


27-68 






Wadhwan 


36-47 





" Such a large defect for so long a period must cause a reduction in both the 
surface and subsoil water of the country, and it is but to be expected that rivers will 
run low, tanks dry up, and depth of water in the wells decrease very largely, probably 
to an extent that may cause almost total failure of existing supplies in certain districts. 
The situation appears graver than in 1899 as regards water, and unless some abnormal 
rainfall alters conditions, there may be a very serious situation to face. Admitting 
the above facta, the first step necessary appears to conserve all surface water-supply 
still existing by holding it up in rivers and nalas where practicable ; the second, to 
deepen v eils when necessary and advisable ; and, third, to sink new wells in districts 
where they may be necessary to prevent migration of cattle and people. 

" A great deal has been written about water-supply and subsoil water in Gujarat, 
as also on the possibility of tapping artisan wells, but so far as my knowledge goes 
there is little or no reliable data to go upon, and I doubt if the country has (within 
existing records, at any rate) ever been in its present condition, and looking at the 
light nature of the soil of the larger portion of Gujarat it appears more than probable 
that some districts must run short of water for drinking purposes for man and beast, 
to say nothing of irrigation requirements. 

• • • • • • • 

" P.S. — The above report was written on 30th September, but not despatched,, as 
undersigned met the Commissioner, N.D., and: decided after consultation with him to 
keep it pending further developments, in the meantime steps being taken for 
observations in all Collectorates and also arrangements being commenced for deepening 
wells by boring, Ac, where deemed advisable. 

" In October a little rain has fallen in Surat and Broach, and though tanks are 
more or less low or empty in some cases, and wells lower than in normal years, it is 
not at present anticipated that there y/i\l be any failure of water. In the Panch 
Mahals also, the situation is not yet bad, except in Dohad and Jhalod Talukas. In 
Kaira there is a diversity of opinion, as no one seems to know what the deep wells of 
the district will do, an l though some are lower than in normal years, the village 
people do not seem to think they can ever fail entirely.. 

" In Ahmedabad water has already failed in some places, and villagers have to go 
two and three miles from their homes to find water. This is specially the case in the 
Viramgam Taluka, and it is impossible to yet say with any certainty to what extent 



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BOMBAY PBESIDENCT. 26$ 

tbe water failure may develop. One thing, however, is certain, that the whole area of 
Gujarat is in large defect of rainfall as the result of the last three years' monsoon 
failure, and the situation is one which no one now living can give an opinion on from 
actual experience, and therefore I feel it only my duty to put the tacts as they are 
before Government" (4th November, 1901). 

9. The Deccan is not much better in this respect. In his report of the 
17th December, 1901, the Commissioner, C. D., states that there will be 
considerable scarcity of water in the Desh Talukas of the Deccan. In his 
monthly famine progress report for October last the Collector of Sholapur 
observed : — 

" The scarcity of water, however, must cause increasing distress to both man and 
beast as the season advances. The wells and springs have not been properly 
replenished, and even now (20th November, 1901) there are complaints that will 
multiply and grow louder during the hot weather. Government have kindly given 
another grant of Rs. 8.000 for the improvement of the water-supply, and all that is 
possible will be done. The serious thing, however, is that in many places, do what 
one may, no water is to be got. The continued short rainfall of the last five or six 
years has resulted in so extensive a shrinkage of the sub-soil water over the whole 
district that the old sources one used to be able to tap in time of need have nearly run 
dry. A good idea of the loss this part of the country has sustained in this particular 
may be pained from the statement kept up and now being revised to date by the 
G. I. P. Railway Company of the wells along their line whence they get water for 
their engines. The figures of the present supply, its quantity and the depths at which 
it is found, as compared with those of ten years ago, evoke a most alarming vision of 
the total disappearance of a huge volume of subterranean water all over the Deccanj 
on which it was formerly possible to draw in a year of drought, but which now we 
seek in vain. Every year now the wells all over the district yield too little water for 
the bagayat crops, hardly enough for drinking ; hundreds of them run dry altogether." 

The affected parts of the Karnatak also are not free from anxiety on this 
account In his monthly famine progress report for November last the Collector 
of Bijapur reported that " failure of the water-supply is threatened in many 
villages, especially in the Bagalkot Taluka." And in his famine progress report 
for the same month, the Collector of Belgaum observed that " water-supply is 
still deficient in Athni Taluka." 

10. No definite estimates of the probable numbers likely to require relief 
have been furnished except for Ahmedabad, Kaira, Surat and Belgaum. The 
Collector of Ahmedabad estimated a daily average of about 8,000 on works and 
4,000 on gratuitous relief for the eight months, December, 1901, to July, 1902, 
but the daily average number relieved has already #one up to more than 
21,000 according to the latest report. The estimate of the Collector of Kaira 
for the same period is about 1,200 on all kinds of relief, but according to the 
latest return nearly 8,000 people are already being relieved daily. The Collector 
of the Panch Mahals expected the numbers on works to rise to 7,000 by the 
end of December, 1901, to 15,000 to 20,000 in the hot weather, and to decline 
to 5,000 as the rains approached. He thought that the dole figures would not 
exceed 3,000 in the hot weather. On relief works in the Panch Mahals, 
however, the numbers have already gone above 27,000, or nearly double the 
number relieved in December, 1899. From a communication, dated 3rd January, 
1902, received from the Commissioner, N. D., it appears that the demand for 
relief in the three Northern Gujarat Districts is already assuming large 
dimensions, It is therefore certain that relief on a much larger scale than was 
previously estimated by the collectors will be needed in those districts. The 
Collector of Surat does not think that any relief work will be needed. He 
estimates that a daily average number of 1,000, 1,700, 4,500 and 8,000 will 
require gratuitous relief in April, May, June and July, 1902, respectively. The 
estimate for Belgaum is a daily average of about 9,000 for seven months, April 
to October, 1902. 

11. In the last season the numbers on relief did not on the whole show 
a marked upward tendency till February or March. But in the current season 
they began to rise in November last and have since continued to increase 
in Ahmedabad, Kaira and the Panch Mahals. As regards the Deccan and 
Karnatak the numbers are still going down in Sholapur and Ahmednajfar, but 
in Bijapur they showed an increase of more than 1,000 iu the last week of 
December as compared with the preceding week. 



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The following; statement shows the daily average numbers relieved in the 
districts which are now affected from December, 1899, to October, 1900, and 
from December, 1900, to October, 1901 : — 



Month* 

i 

**H n , 1 i, I. : . 1 


Ahmedabad. 


Kaira. 


Fanoh Mahals. 


Broach. 


Sural. 


December 1899 


tlR QAG 


10, f W 


1 A Q4© 


A3 71 £ 

do, /lo 


i 

A 7QA 


January 1900 




1 C ££A 
10,004 


1 7 4tf 1 
1 1 ,401 


0.4. 344 
5>4,o44 


fi CSS 
0,000 


February 


» ■ ••• 


1 OA A 7fi ' 


ill 077 


1 fi AA1 


1 1 A 041 
. Illv441 


1A 03 J 


March 


»» 


1 37 937 

lot, lot 


QA OA* 


OA fifi3 


1A4 187 
1U4,10 / 


lO^eiy 


April 


»» ••• 


160,140 


106,945 


48,786 


85,346 


16,435 


May 


M 


126,980 


86,518 


37,387 


78,981 


9,584 


June 


»> 


131,150 


125,067 


72,989 


75,288 


23,214 


July 


„ 


188,582 


223,872 


111,487 


123,247 


35,951 


August 


,, 


192,909 


212,120 


124,173 


112,192 


32,887 . 


September „ 


140,514 


109,609 


93,461 


76,739 


14,051 


October 


»» 


38,479 


69,265 


32,369 


63,868 


7,396 


December 


„ 


7 490 


OA K 


a 7Q7 


fx 71 £ 

0,4 Lb 


1 1 
11 


January 1901 


7 A4Q 




>\ 9AQ 


4,<! ID 




February 


•» ••• 


o,OfO 


ISA 


»i Q44 
0,744 


1 SM 
1,001 




March 


» ••• 


Q C77 

y,o< / 


£ 43C 

o,4ob 




1 97C 
1,6 iD 


17C 
I/O 


April 


,, 


17,895 


33,868 


16,554 


1,619 


947 


May 


»» ••• 


27,602 


48,730 


16,993 


1,706 


1,538 


June 


„ ... 


34,749 


47,612 


15,991 


2,154 


2,082 


July 


„ 


36,011 


36,076 


13,049 


1,7*5 


1,829 


August 




26,221 


2,279 


11,612 


418 




September,, 


10,085 


328 


8,482 


121 




October 


»» ••• 


3,218 


254 


2,119 


10 





Month, 


Khandeeh. 


Ahmednagar. 


Sholapnr. 


Bijapur. 


Belgaum. 


Thar and 
Parkar. 


December 1899 ... 


187.355 


41,390 


68,042 


1,745 


1,538 


2,970 


January 1900 


234,780 


99,925 


136,549 


6,389 


1,342 


3,256 


February ,, ... 


252,678 


180,576 


152,834 


.8,240 


1,790 


3,892 


March „ 


270,523 


240,206 


169,376 


13,443 


2,195 


3,825 


April „ 


215,863 


249,4X6 


170,291 


24,598 


2,694 


8,621 


May „ 


219,232 


244-373 


162,343 


23,757 


2,156 


10,794 


June „ 


204,054, 


269,415 


, 171,335 


21,916 


3,167 


5,928 


July „ 


206,806 


252,526 


J57i683 


19,190 


4,677 


3,607 ' 



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Itfonth. 


Khandeeh. 


Ahmednagar. 


Sholapur. 


Bijapnr. 


Belgaum. 


Thar and ■ 
Parkar. 


/ 1 
^ugust 1900 


179,086 


219,206 


132,167 


11,907 


2,149 


2,199 \ 


September „ 


137,152 


175,470 


96,144 


' 8,137 


934' 


592 * 


October „ 


71,470 


90,721 


67,881 


6,724 


1,079 


35 . ' 


tJVytJlXl UtJl ft ■ ■ • 


3 fi*>7 


37 322 


94,067 


6,946 




* 


Tq nna w 1 Qfl I 

tiauuary l«tvx • ••• 




4ft ft&Q 


S3 3S2 


9 854 






r©oru.ary 






fifi 225 


10 359 








880 

UUv 


59 275 


56 315 


13,807 


390 




April • 


3 024 


74,726 


60,917 


18,912 


1,896 






5,990 


100 102 


67,251 


22.983 


2 486 




Jane „ 


16,115 


118,915 


82,907 


29,673 


7,968 


— 


July „ 






yo,o i o 


qq ton 


1 Q Af\£t 

iy,4Uo 




August „ 


32,727 


125,145 


87,367 


36,474 


26,922 




September,, 


1,859 


118,039 


64,554 


46,659 


22.939 




October „ 




63,840 


41,197 


33,651 


18,927 





During the four weeks of December, 1901, the numbers on relief fluctuated 
as follows : — 



District. 



1901. 



Week ending. 





December 7th. 


Deoember 14th. 


Deoember 21st. 


Deoember 28th. 


Ahmedabad 


8,073 


11,108 


16,026 


21,769 


Kaira 


1,292 


2,724 


4,729 


7,683 


Panch Mahals 


7,960 


14,340 


18,085 


27,165 


Broach... . 




251 


583 


1,224 


Ahmednagaf 


12,394 


11,794 


11,028 


10,361 


Sholapur 


3,727 


3,391 


3,234 


2,481 


Bijapur 


10,373 


9,798 


8,930 


' 9,933 


Dharwar • 


11 


20 


11 


5 


Thar and Parkar 


99 


146 


162 


168 


Total 


43,859 


53,572 


62,788 


80,789 



As shown below, prices of food-grains are likely to be easier this year than 
last year. But the grass seed (Samo) which was so abundant in Gujarat last 
year, and on which large numbers of people subsisted for several months, has 
not been produced this year in any appreciable quantity.' Immigration from 
N a t ive Sla tes ia also - -a factor- to -be -taken into consideration this year. In 



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Ahmedabad, Kaira and the Panch Mahals relief will therefore be required on 
a much larger scale than last year, but considering the description of crops as 
given by the collectors, the Governor in Council thinks that the numbers in 
Ahmedabad and Kaira will not probably rise to more than half of what they 
were in 1900. In the Panch Mahals present conditions indicate that the 
numbers may approach the figures of 1900. In Broach and Thar and Parkar 
relief on a small scale will, it seems, be necessary. In Surat and Ehandesh a 
very small measure of relief if any may be required later in the season. In 
Ahmednagar and Sholapur the outturn o£ crops is much better, and prices are 
easier than last year, and if relief has to be continued throughout the season it 
will probably be on a much smaller scale. In Bijapur the number on relief in 
the last week of December was equal to the average of January, 1901, and the 
numbers show a tendency to rise. In consideration of these circumstances and 
on the assumption that next monsoon will be favourable, it is estimated that 
the daily average numbers to be relieved in the current season will be as shown 
in the following table : — 



Month. 


Ahmedabad. 


Kaira. 


Panch 
Mahals. 


Broach. 


Surat 


Khandeeh 


Actuals (in round figures). 














November, 1901 


4,000 


400 


3,000 








December „ 


14,3' )0 


4,000 


n,m 


500 






Estimates. 














January, 1902 


35,000 


15,000 


40,000 


2,500 






February „ ... 


55,000 


25,000 


45,000 


4,500 




2,000 


March „ 


75,000 


40,000 


50,000 


6,000 




3,000 


April „ 


95,000 


50,000 


60,000 


7,500 


1,000 


6,000 


May „ 


105,000 


60,000 


70,000 


9,000 


2,000 


10,000 


Jane „ ••• ... 


1ir»,000 


75,000 


75,000 


10,000 


4,000 


15,000 


July , 


100,000 


70,000 


70,000 


8,500 


8,000 


12,000 


August „ 


40,000 


30,000 


30,000 


3,000 


2,000 


5,000 


September ... 


15,000 


10,000 


10,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


October „ 


2,000 


1,000 


2,000 


500 







Month. 


Ahmednagar. 


Sholapur. 


Bijapur. 


Belgaum. 


Thar 
and 
Parkar. 


Nnaik, Poona 
Satara and 
Dbanrar. 


Actuals (tn round figures). 














November, 1901 


16,500 


14,300 


19,300 


6,000 


25 


1,500 


December ,, 


11,400 


3,200 


9,800 




200 




Estimates. 














January, 1902 


10,000 


3,000 


12,000 




500 




February „ 


10.000 


3,000 


15,000 




1,000 




March „ 


20,000 


8,000 


18,000 




2,000 




April „ 


35,000 


15,000 


25,000 


4,000 


3,000 




May ••• •»• 


50,000 


20,000 


30,000 


5,000 


5,000 





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Month. 


Ahmednagar. 


Sholapor. 


Bijapnr. 


Belganm. 


Thar 
and 
Parkar. 


Nasik, Poona 
Satara and 
Dharwar. 


Estimates — cont. 














June 1902 


60,000 


30,000 


35,000 


7,000 


3,000 


— 


July , 


80,000 


40,000 


40,000 


9,000 


1,500 


— 


August „ 


70,000 


30,000 


30,000 


12,000 


1,000 




September „ 


40,000 


15,000 


15,000 


12,000 


500 




Jc'-ober „ 


10.000 


5,000 


5,000 


6,000 







12. According to these estimates the numbers of units likely to require 
relief from January to October, 1902, will be as shown below (the actuals front 
April to December, 1901, are also shown) : — 





Number. 






April to October 1901 


74,498,000 


November 1901 ... ... ... ... *... . . 


2,276,000 


^3 ece mber ^ ... ... ... ... .*• ■ • . 


1,692,000 


Estimates — 




January 1902 ... ... ... ... ... ... 


3,304,000 


February ,, ... ... ... ... ... ... 


4,494,000 


Anarch ,, ... ... ... ... ... ... 


7,770,000 


Total from April 1901 to March 1902 ... 


94,034,000 


April 1902 ... • ... ... ... ... 


8,442,000 


May ,, ... ... ... ... ... 


12,810,000 


June ,, ... ... ... ... ... ... 


12,012,000 


July ,, ... ... ... ... ... 


12,292,000 


August ,, ... ... ... ... ... ... 


8,855,000 


September ,, 


3,374,000 


October . „ 


882,000 


Total from April 1902 to October 1902 


58,667,000 


MWM 


t M 



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•13. The following table shows the prices of jowari and bajri as they 
stood at district headquarters in the middle of December in the years 1900 and 
1901 :— 



District. 




Jowari. 




1 


Bajri. 




1901. 


1900. 


1901. 


1900. 




Seen 


. ohataks. 


Soon 


. ohataks. 


Seers 


chataks. 


Seers. 


ohataka. 


Ahmedabad . 


15 


0 


15 


6 


14 


0 


14 


11 




17 


8 


14 


0 


14 


8 


15 


8 


Panch Mahals 


(Not sold) 


15 


13J 


14 


8 


13 


12 


Broach ••• ••• ••• 


15 


0 


13 


0 


13 


8 


13 


2 


Snrnt ... 

aVS VI 1 111 • 1 • • • • • ■ ■ a a a 


15 


4 


11 


8 


14 


13 


12 


8 


Ktiandosli ... •*• ••• ••• 


16 


10 


13 


5* 


15 


6 


12 


8 


Nasik ... ... ... ... 


15 


5 


9 


10* 


15 


6 


12 


10* 


Ahmednagar 


u 


8 


9 


8$ 


16 


1 


12 


0 


Poorm... ••• •■• ■■• 


11 


8 


11 




14 


15 


11 


12* 


Sholspar 


17 


14 


9 


m 


19 


3 


11 


10? 


Satara... 


18 


6 


9 


13* 


20 


13 


10 


IH 


Bijapur 


17 


4 


10 


i 


19 


13 


12 


5 


Belganm 


16 


10 


11 


7 


17 


9 


10 


12 


Dharwar 


22 


1 


11 


5 


22 


1 


12 


2 



•Be. 


Thousands of 

Units. 


59,28,000 


74,498 



14. It will be seen that in December last the prices were generally easier 
than at the same time in 1900, and prices in 1902 are not likely to rise higher 

than in 1901. In framing the estimates of expen- 
diture in the current season the same rate per 1,000 
units as that resulting from the actual expenditure 
during April to October, 1901 (of which audited 
account figures are available) ha? therefore been 
adopted. The rate works out to Rs. 80.* 

15. The budget provision for famine expenditure in the current year 
amounts to Rs. 33,28,000 in the Civil and Rs. 66,56,000 in the Public Works 
Departments. The actual expenditure in the Civil Department up to end of 
November last amounted to a little over Rs. 24,44,000. The balance still 
available out of the Civil budget provision will more than suffice for expenditure 
in the remaining months of the current year. The actual expenditure in the 
Public Works Department up to end of October last amounted to Rs. 35,91,684, 
and the Public Works Department is considering what amount out of the 
budget grant should be surrendered to the Government of India after retaining 
sufficient amount for the requirements of the remaining months of the current 
year. 

16. The estimated total number of units to be relieved from April to 
October, 1902, is 58,667,000 or 59 millions in round figures. At the rate of 
Rs. 80 per 1,000 units the total estimated cost of relief in next year will there- 
fore amount to Rs. 47,20,000. During the period from April to October, 1901, 
the proportion of Civil to Public Works expenditure was about 2 : 3. During 
that period relief was given in Gujarat on a comparatively large scale on 
small works under Civil Agency. From a communication of the 3rd January, 
1902, received from the Commissioner, N. D., however, it appears- that owing 



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26$ 



to the rapid increase in the demand for relief, relief on large works will have 
to be more freely resorted to in the three Northern Gujarat Districts in the 
current season than was previously contemplated. In the circumstances the 
proportion between the Civil and rublic Works expenditure may be fixed at 
1 : 2 as in the current year's estimates. Then the budget estimate for 
1902-1903 will be— 





Bs. 


Civil 

Public Works 


15,73,334 
31,46,666 



or in round figures Rs. 16 lakhs and Rs. 32 lakhs, respectively. 

1 7. The total assignment sanctioned by the Government of India in the 
current year for takavi advances was 64 lakhs of rupees. Almost the whole 
of this amount has been allotted to the Commissioners and no more is likely 
to be required in the current financial year. For next year it has been proposed 
in the budget estimates for provincial loans and advances to apply for the 
present for a grant of Rs. 4. t > lakhs under Class I — Loans to Agriculturists under 
Acts XIX of 1883 and XII of 1884. If it is found later in the year that 
further funds are necessary, application will be made to the Government of 
India at the proper time. 

18. The following rough estimates have been furnished by the collectors 
of the collections, suspensions and remissions of land revenue of the current 
revenue year : — 



District*. 


Estimated land 
revenue demand 
of the revenue 
year i wi - 1 wm. 


Estimated 

collections. 


Estimated 
suspensions. 


Estimated 
remissions. 


Ahmedabad 




Rs. 


Ra. 

Not 


Rs. 
reported. 


Rs. 


Kaira... ... ... 






Not 


reported. 




Panch Mahals 




3,20,760 


93,964 


2,26,596 


200 


Broach 




21,50,000 


14,35,000 


4,65,000 


2,50,000 


Surat 




22,76,559 


18,54,312 


4,22,247 




Thana 




13,18,500 


13,03,500 


5,000 


10,000 


Khandesh 




41,15,000 


39,15,000 


1,20,000 


80,000 


NaBik* 




20,30,000 


16,00,000 


4,00,000 


30,000 


Ahmednagar 




16,36,000 


6,06,000 


10,30,000 




Poona 




13,18,800 


9,46,300 


3,03,800 


68,700 


Sholapur 




11,16,535 


8,19,097 


2,10,938 


86,500 


Satara 


• •• 


19,46,000 


16,56,500 


2,71,000 


18,500 


Bijapw 




14,05,700 


5,72,000 


7,80,200 


53,500 


Belgaum ... ... 




15,72,356 


14,47,856 


1,09,000 


15,500 


Dharwar ... 




24,87,300 


24,57,300 


30,000 




Kolaba 




12,67,600 


12,67,600 






Ratnagiri 




9,00,30!) 


8,94,927 


5,200 


182 


Kanara 




9,90,950 


9,87,700 


2,550 


700 


Total ... 




2,68,52,369 


2,18,57,056 


43,81,531 


6,13,782 



10566 



* The figures for Nasik include arrears on account of former years. 



2 M 2 



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BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



As another unfavourable season has occurred, both suspensions and remissions 
will have to be made on a large scale. In view of the instructions contained 
in the letter from the Government of India in the Legislative Department, 
No. 1,184, dated 2nd August, 1901, there will be collected little or none of 
the arrears of previous years. The collection of about 64 lakhs of rupees out 
of the revenue for 1899-1900 and 1900-1901 has been suspended during those 
two years, and it is probable that after so long a series of bad years it will be 
necessary or at least desirable to convert the whole or a large part of the 
suspensions into remissions. Some arrears also will be wiped off if advantage 
is taken of the Land Revenue Code Amendment Act. As regards the revenue 
of the current year it has been directed that in Gujarat suspensions should be 
granted in accordance with the scale suggested in paragraph 271 of the recent 
report of the Famine Commission, and that elsewhere in view of the losses 
which have been incurred in past years, collections from bona fide agriculturists 
should be liberally suspended in cases in which not more than an eight-anna 
crop has been reaped. The collectors have, of course, power to postpone all 
collections until any inquiries which may be necessary are made. According 
to the rough estimates of the collectors in the Presidency proper (including 
Ahmedabad and Eaira, for which figures have not been reported) given in the 
above table the collections out of the land revenue of the current revenue year 
are not likely to exceed 236 lakhs of rupees, and with the estimated collections 
in Sind, Bombay, Baroda and Kathiawar (amounting in all to 94 lakhs) will 
amount to 330 lakhs of rupees. Taking these circumstances into consideration 
the Governor in Council has fixed next year's Budget Estimate under " I — Land 
Revenue — Ordinary Revenue " at 340 lakhs of rupees. 



No. 83. 

Letter from J. B. Ftdler, Esq., CLE., Secretary to the Government of India, 
to the Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Famine Department, 
Mo. 290—18-2, dated Calcutta, the 7th February, 1902. 

I am directed to communicate the following observations on your letter 
No. 133, dated 17th January, 1902, in which you report upon the present 
agricultural situation in the Bombay Presidency, and upon the extent to which 
measures of famine relief appear likely to be required during the coming year. 

2. The Government of India were aware that the autumn harvest was 
exceedingly poor in Gujarat, that the area sown with spring crops was very much 
short of the normal, and that, having regard to these circumstances and to the 
impoverished condition of the people, it was probable that a very considerable 
expenditure on famine relief would be needed in this tract of country. But 
they did not realize that the situation was so grave as it is now reported to be, 
nor did they expect to learn that relief measures on a considerable scale would 
be required in the districts of the Deccan, which were favoured above most other 
parts of India by receiving timely rain in October. The Governor-General in 
Council recognizes, however, that the information which is now available is more 
definite and complete than that which it has been possible to furnish earlier in 
the season, and that the effect of the October rainfall was prejudiced by 
irregularity in its distribution. But he finds it difficult, on the basis of past 
•experience, to reconcile the present apprehensions with the moderate pitch of 
the rates at which grain is now procurable. Prices are, it is to be observed, 
generally much lower than those which have been ruling in adjoining provinces 
during the past twelve months. So far as the Government of India are aware, 
the existence of famine has never previously been recognized with prices at the 
level they now hold in Bombay. Nor would it appear that the grain market 
can be materially influenced by the prospect of importation from neighbouring 
provinces, in which the outturn of the autumn harvest has generally been 
unsatisfactory. The Government of India fully admits that prices, taken alone, 
may not give a satisfactory clue to the position of the poorer classes. Low 



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271 



prices may be of little benefit to those who have no means of earning wages, 
but prices have hitherto been taken as one of the principal indications of the 
pressure which results from failure of crops, and past experiences have generally 
shown that they actively respond to unusual deficiences m the local food supply, 
and, moreover, that the acuteness of distress depends very materially upon their 
pitch. In these circumstances the Government of India cannot feel altogether 
certain that the view which is taken of the present situation by the Bombay 
Government may not be over gloomy. Nor is the information which is given as 
to the actual state of affairs sufficiently definite to altogether counteract the 
impression which a consideration of existing prices is calculated to convey. It 
is difficult to combine the facts which are stated in the local officers' reports 
so as to obtain a general idea of the situation, and I am to ask that the 
Government of India may be furnished as soon as convenient with an estimate, 
for each district as a whole, of the percentage by which the autumn produce 
fell short of the normal, calculated by comparing the area atd average outturn, 
multiplied together, with similar figures for a normal year, and with a similar 
estimate for the spring crop now on the ground. 

3. It may be urged that the best possible proof of the existence of distress 
is the eagerness which the people are displaying to obtain relief. But experience 
has shown that willingness to accept State charity is not a trustworthy sign of 
destitution in the case of a population which has become accustomed to rely upon 
Government for its support, unless it is proof against tests of a more searching 
character than are always applied. The work test is often uncertain, and it is 
not quite clear that under the system of management which is adopted in 
Bombay it has always succeeded in excluding from the receipt of relief those 
who do not deserve it. The Government of India are aware of the risk of draw- 
ing deductions from circumstances with which they are imperfectly acquainted. 
But they have observed that the cost of famine work has in some cases been so 
high as to lead to a presumption . that the workers were not under the control 
which is desirable, and they do not feel persuaded that in the districts of the 
Deccan the relief workers did not remain in famine employ longer than was 
really necessary. It is, moreover, impossible not to contrast the rapidity with 
which numbers are rising in Gujarat with their slow advance in Rajputana, 
notwithstanding a much higher range of prices in the latter tract of country, 
and, so far as appears, at least an equal deficiency in the past season's outturn. 
Recent correspondence connected with the recommendations of the Famine 
Commission has illustrated very strongly the divergences which exist between 
the famine relief procedure of different provinces, — an expedient which has 
practically succeeded under one Government being not unfrequently condemned 
by another as impracticable, although local conditions do not apparently afford 
any reason for such discrepant conclusions. An instance to which reference 
may be made is the reluctance displayed by Bombay officers to adopt the system 
of daily payment which in the provinces of Northern India has been established 
by the experience of the two last famines as a cardinal principle of relief works 
administration. The Government of India believe that Local Governments 
might advantageously gain a more practical acquaintance with the results of one 
another's experience of famine relief than they possess at present, and that an 
interchange of ideas might lead to useful reforms. In the present circumstances 
they would be glad to be in a position to institute a comparison between the 
systems on which relief works are managed in Bombay and in Northern India, 
and they have come to the conclusion that it is desirable to depute an officer 
whose experience would be representative of that gained in Northern India 
during the two last famines, to visit the relief works of the Bombay Presidency 
and examine such features in their organization as are peculiar to Bombay. 
They earnestly hope that the Government of Bombay will agree with them in 
the view that the exceptional features of the present situation and the financial 
responsibility of the Government of India for the large expenditure now anti- 
cipated furnish an adequate ground for undertaking these enquiries. The 
officer to whom the Governor-General in Council proposes to entrust them is 
Mr. B. Robertson, CLE., Deputy Commissioner of Jabalpur, who has served 
through two famines with distinction. In view of the rapidity with which relief 
measures are expanding, it is desirable that he should visit the works as soon as 



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possible, and I am to express a hope that the Government of India may receive? 
by telegram the assent of the Governor in Council to this proposal. 

4. In their letter No. 84, dated 13th January, 1902, the Government of 
Bombay have expressed an opinion in favour of the abolition of the minimum 
wage save where severe famine is widespread. I am to intimate the desire of 
the Governor-General in Council that, pending the result of the enquiries which, 
it is proposed to institute, its abolition should be enforced so far as able-bodied' 
workers are concerned, that the importance of exacting a fair task from relief- 
workers, be borne in view, and that wages be strictly calculated according to the; 
price of the cheapest food-grain procurable. 

5. I am to add that budget provision will be made for meeting expenditure 
on the scale anticipated in your letter. ' 



No. 84. 

Telegram from Secretary, Famine Department, Bombay, to Government of India, 
Calcutta, No. 364, dated lltk February, 1902. 

Your letter 290 of seventh. This Government accept proposal of India to, 
depute Mr. Robertson to visit relief works in Bombay Presidency. 



No. 85. 

Letter from If. S. lMivrence, Esq., Acting Secretary to the Government of 
Bombay, to the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of 
Revenue and Agriculture {Famine), No. 387, dated Bombay Castle, 14$ 
February, 1902. 

With reference to paragraph 3 of your letter No. 290 — 18-2 of the 7th 
instant, I am directed to confirm the intimation conveyed in my telegram 
No. 364, dated the llth instant, that the Governor in Council assents to the 
proposed deputation of Mr. B. Robertson, C.I.E., to visit the relief works in 
this Presidency and examine such features in their organisation as are peculiar 
to Bombay. 

2. I am- to state that orders have been issued for the preparation of the 
estimate called for in paragraph 2 of your letter, and that the information will 
be furnished as soon as it is ready. In anticipation of the detailed report, 
however, T am to invite the attention of the Government of India to the 
enormous loss of crops in Gujarat from the plague of rats, of which no mention 
is made in your letter under reply. I am to subjoin for your information the 
following extracts from reports by the Collectors of the Panch Mahals and 
Kaira Districts on the progress of relief measures : — 

Extract from a report by the Collector of the Panch Mahals. 

The damage done by the short rainfall was enormously increased by the plague of 
rats. Great efforts were made to get rid of these and many thousands were killed. For a 
time it seemed as if these efforts were being successful, but the apparent decrease was 
probably due to the rats leaving the crops temporarily for the wild rice. With the 
destruction of the latter, of which there was little this year, they returned to the crops, 
and in many cases ensued scarcity where want would not have otherwise been felt. Every 
crop, including cotton and oilseed, seems to come alike to them, and it was not possible for the 
cultivators to cope with their constantly increasing numbers. It is to be hoped that these 
numbers will lead to their dying from starvation in the hot weather. Locusts scarcely 
visited the district, but a species of grasshopper did considerable damage. 



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Extract from a report by the Collector of Kaira. 

The locusts first appeared in the Mehmadabad Taluk from the Ahmedebad side/ 
staying in the villages where they had settled for the whole night and devouring the 
promising bajri and bavto crops which had not been reaped. The estimated yield of 
several of the crops was, therefore, lowered, and towards this result rats contributed in a 
much greater degree than locusts. In fact, but for rats Thasra would have had .fair crops, 
and there would have been no talk even of relief measures in Boread, Anand, and 
Nadiad. 

In Gujarat* as a whole, the damage caused by rate has converted what 
would have beenr moderate scarcity into intense distress. 

3. I am to add with reference to paragraph 4 of your letter that the 
abolition of the minimum wage so far as able-bodied workers are concerned, has 
been enforced in every district since September last, and that the importance of 
exacting a fair task from relief workers has never ceased to be inculcated. 
Moreover, the rest-day wage and allowances to dependants have been withheld 
in any cases in which there seemed to be ground for suspicion that the works 
were resorted to by persons not in absolute need of relief. The rule of the Code 
is that wages shall be calculated on the cheapest staplefood grain of the quality 
in general use, and every effort has been made to secure the observance of it. 
It will now be directed, as desired in your letter, that wages should be calculated 
strictly according to the price of the cheapest food grain procurable, but it is 
improbable that the effect will be materially different from that of observin